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Essential Pharmacokinetics

Essential Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Thorsteinn Loftsson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-03-25
ISBN : 0128014911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Essential Pharmacokinetics: A Primer for Pharmaceutical Scientists is an introduction to the concepts of pharmacokinetics intended for graduate students and new researchers working in the pharmaceutical sciences. This book describes the mathematics used in the mammillary model as well as the application of pharmacokinetics to pharmaceutical product development, and is useful as both a self-study and classroom resource. Content coverage includes detailed discussions of common models and important pharmacokinetic concepts such as biological half-life, clearance, excretion, multiple dosage regimens and more. Numerous equations, practical examples and figures are incorporated to clearly illustrate the theoretical background of pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs and excipients. Shows how to apply basic pharmacokinetic methods to evaluate drugs, excipients and drug products Uses guided practice questions, mathematical concepts and real-world examples for self-assessment and retention purposes Illustrates how to write and evaluate drug registration files

Handbook of Essential Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism for Industrial Scientists

Handbook of Essential Pharmacokinetics  Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism for Industrial Scientists Book
Author : Younggil Kwon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-04-26
ISBN : 9781475786934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the pharmaceutical industry, the incorporation of the disciplines of pharma- kinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug metabolism (PK/PD/DM) into various drug development processes has been recognized to be extremely important for approp- ate compound selection and optimization. During discovery phases, the identifi- tion of the critical PK/PD/DM issues of new compounds plays an essential role in understanding their pharmacological profiles and structure-activity relationships. Owing to recent progress in analytical chemistry, a large number of compounds can be screened for their PK/PD/DM properties within a relatively short period of time. During development phases as well, the toxicology and clinical study designs and trials of a compound should be based on a thorough understanding of its PK/PD/DM properties. During my time as an industrial scientist, I realized that a reference work designed for practical industrial applications of PK/PD/DM could be a very valuable tool for researchers not only in the pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism departments, but also for other discovery and development groups in pharmaceutical companies. This book is designed specifically for industrial scientists, laboratory assistants, and managers who are involved in PK/PD/DM-related areas. It consists of thirteen chapters, each of which deals with a particular PK/PD/DM issue and its industrial applications. Chapters 3 and 12 in particular address recent topics on higher throughput in vivo exposure screening and the prediction of pharmacokinetics in humans, respectively. Chapter 8 covers essential information on drug metabolism for industrial scientists.

Handbook of Essential Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism for Industrial Scientists

Handbook of Essential Pharmacokinetics  Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism for Industrial Scientists Book
Author : Younggil Kwon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-05-08
ISBN : 0306468204
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the pharmaceutical industry, the incorporation of the disciplines of pharma- kinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug metabolism (PK/PD/DM) into various drug development processes has been recognized to be extremely important for approp- ate compound selection and optimization. During discovery phases, the identifi- tion of the critical PK/PD/DM issues of new compounds plays an essential role in understanding their pharmacological profiles and structure-activity relationships. Owing to recent progress in analytical chemistry, a large number of compounds can be screened for their PK/PD/DM properties within a relatively short period of time. During development phases as well, the toxicology and clinical study designs and trials of a compound should be based on a thorough understanding of its PK/PD/DM properties. During my time as an industrial scientist, I realized that a reference work designed for practical industrial applications of PK/PD/DM could be a very valuable tool for researchers not only in the pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism departments, but also for other discovery and development groups in pharmaceutical companies. This book is designed specifically for industrial scientists, laboratory assistants, and managers who are involved in PK/PD/DM-related areas. It consists of thirteen chapters, each of which deals with a particular PK/PD/DM issue and its industrial applications. Chapters 3 and 12 in particular address recent topics on higher throughput in vivo exposure screening and the prediction of pharmacokinetics in humans, respectively. Chapter 8 covers essential information on drug metabolism for industrial scientists.

Essential Pharmacokinetics

Essential Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-10-22
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Essential Pharmacokinetics book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Basic Pharmacokinetics

Basic Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Mohsen A. Hedaya
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-04-23
ISBN : 1420046721
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is a self-instructional computer-assisted medium for active learning. Indeed, the tutorial materials included in the accompanying compact disk have received an award from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy for innovation in teaching. This volume and its companion CD are intended for students and practitioners in the health professions who need to comprehend the concepts and principles related to how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes drugs. "...The author's reliance on active learning, his use of examples illustrating important pharmacokinetic principles, and particularly the thoughtful simulation tools he has developed make this text and its companion CD an extremely effective and enjoyable introduction to the field of pharmacokinetics." From the Foreword, Ronald J. Sawchuk Minneapolis, Minnesota Pharmacokinetics has become an essential component of all the processes involved in drug development, discovery, and preclinical evaluation, as well as with the clinical use of drugs. While this has led to the development of many highly complex techniques, basic pharmacokinetic concepts remain the backbone of all these new developments. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the basic concepts is essential before one can tackle the more involved and applied areas of pharmacokinetics. Basic Pharmacokinetics consists of two parts: textual printed materials and highly interactive computer-based presentations. Together, these provide a useful combination that makes it easy to grasp basic principles. The computer-based information is presented in a self-instructional format, which introduces concepts, utilizing highly interactive graphical presentations and simulations. It visualizes the interplay between the different pharmacokinetic parameters, observing how the change in one or more of these parameters impacts the drug concentration-time profile in the body. Uniquely and carefully designed, the learning modules in the CD closely support and complement the text, providing the learner with an opportunity to reinforce his or her understanding of the principles presented.

Basic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Basic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Book
Author : Sara E. Rosenbaum
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-11-28
ISBN : 1119143187
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Updated with new chapters and topics, this book provides a comprehensive description of all essential topics in contemporary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It also features interactive computer simulations for students to experiment and observe PK/PD models in action. • Presents the essentials of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a clear and progressive manner • Helps students better appreciate important concepts and gain a greater understanding of the mechanism of action of drugs by reinforcing practical applications in both the book and the computer modules • Features interactive computer simulations, available online through a companion website at: https://web.uri.edu/pharmacy/research/rosenbaum/sims/ • Adds new chapters on physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, predicting drug-drug interactions, and pharmacogenetics while also strengthening original chapters to better prepare students for more advanced applications • Reviews of the 1st edition: “This is an ideal textbook for those starting out ... and also for use as a reference book ...." (International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics) and “I could recommend Rosenbaum’s book for pharmacology students because it is written from a perspective of drug action . . . Overall, this is a well-written introduction to PK/PD .... “ (British Toxicology Society Newsletter)

Basic Pharmacokinetics Second Edition

Basic Pharmacokinetics  Second Edition Book
Author : Mohsen A. Hedaya
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-02-09
ISBN : 1439850739
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Knowledge of pharmacokinetics is critical to understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. It is therefore vital to those engaged in the discovery, development, and preclinical and clinical evaluation of drugs, as well as practitioners involved in the clinical use of drugs. Using different approaches accessible to a wide variety of readers, Basic Pharmacokinetics: Second Edition demonstrates the quantitative pharmacokinetic relations and the interplay between pharmacokinetic parameters. After a basic introduction to pharmacokinetics and its related fields, the book examines: Mathematical operations commonly used in pharmacokinetics Drug distribution and clearance and how they affect the rate of drug elimination after a single dose Factors affecting drug absorption following extravascular drug administration, the rate and extent of drug absorption, and drug bioequivalence The steady-state concept during constant rate intravenous infusion and during multiple drug administration Renal drug elimination, drug metabolism, multicompartment models, nonlinear pharmacokinetics, and drug administration by intermittent intravenous infusion Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling, noncompartmental pharmacokinetic data analysis, clearance concept from the physiological point of view, and physiological modeling Clinical applications of pharmacokinetics, including therapeutic drug monitoring, drug pharmacokinetics in special populations, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenomics, and applications of computers in pharmacokinetics Accompanying the book is a CD-ROM with self-instructional tutorials and pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulations, allowing visualization of concepts for enhanced comprehension. This learning tool received an award from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy for innovation in teaching, making it a valuable supplement to this essential text.

Essentials of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Essentials of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Book
Author : Thomas N. Tozer,Malcolm Rowland
Publisher : LWW
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 9781451194425
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique text helps students and healthcare professionals master the fundamentals of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Written by distinguished international experts, it provides readers with an introduction to the basic principles underlying the establishment and individualization of dosage regimens and their optimal use in drug therapy. Up-to-date examples featuring currently prescribed drugs illustrate how pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relate to contemporary drug therapy. Study problems at the end of each chapter help students and professionals gain a firm grasp of the material covered within the text.

Essentials of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics E Book

Essentials of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics   E Book Book
Author : Ashutosh Kar
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2010-09-15
ISBN : 813123262X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Essentials of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Kar’s Essentials of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics deals with how a drug exerts its action in the human body through the fundamentals of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The book adopts a growth-oriented format and design that is developed systematically and methodically. The book interrelates five different sections: Section 1 Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics: What Do They Mean? Section 2 Biopharmaceutics Section 3 Pharmacokinetics Section 4 Clinical Pharmacokinetics Section 5 Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Each section starts with a basic theory and fields of application, focuses on model-independent pharmacokinetic analyses, expatiates various biopharmaceutical aspects of dosage form and evaluation, provides an altogether new approach in understanding both dosage regimen design and individualization, and explains modification in drug molecules related to the pharmacokinetics. Undoubtedly, the unique blend of fundamental principles and latest breakthroughs in the field will certainly provide sufficient subject matter to the students of pharmacy, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry scientists, who need a simple as well as detailed introduction in theory and application.

Comparative Pharmacokinetics

Comparative Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Jim E. Riviere
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-01-14
ISBN : 9780470959886
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Now in a revised edition, Comparative Pharmacokinetics: Principles, Techniques, and Applications presents the principles and techniques of comparative and veterinary pharmacokinetics in a detailed yet practical manner. Developed as a tool for ensuring that pharmacokinetics studies are properly designed and correctly interpreted, the book provides complete coverage of the conceptual basis of pharmacokinetics as used for quantifying biological processes from the perspectives of physiology and medicine. New chapters have been added on quantitative structure permeability relationships and bioequivalence, and a number of existing chapters have been significantly revised and expanded to provide a current resource for veterinary and comparative pharmacokinetics.

Modeling in Biopharmaceutics Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Modeling in Biopharmaceutics  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Book
Author : Panos Macheras,Athanassios Iliadis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-03-30
ISBN : 3319275984
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The state of the art in Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics Modeling is presented in this new second edition book. It shows how advanced physical and mathematical methods can expand classical models in order to cover heterogeneous drug-biological processes and therapeutic effects in the body. The book is divided into four parts; the first deals with the fundamental principles of fractals, diffusion and nonlinear dynamics; the second with drug dissolution, release, and absorption; the third with epirical, compartmental, and stochastic pharmacokinetic models, with two new chapters, one on fractional pharmacokinetics and one on bioequivalence; and the fourth mainly with classical and nonclassical aspects of pharmacodynamics. The classical models that have relevance and application to these sciences are also considered throughout. This second edition has new information on reaction limited models of dissolution, non binary biopharmaceutic classification system, time varying models, and interface models. Many examples are used to illustrate the intrinsic complexity of drug administration related phenomena in the human, justifying the use of advanced modeling methods. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in pharmacology, pharmaceutical sciences, bioengineering, and physiology. Reviews of the first edition: "This book presents a novel modelling approach to biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic phenomena. This state-of-the-art volume will be helpful to students and researchers in pharmacology, bioengineering, and physiology. This book is a must for pharmaceutical researchers to keep up with recent developments in this field." (P. R. Parthasarathy, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1103 (5), 2007) "These authors are the unique (or sole) contributors in this area that are working on these questions and bring a special expertise to the field that is now being recognized as essential to understanding biological system and kinetic/dynamic characteristics in drug development...This text is an essential primer for those who would envision the incorporation of heterogeneous approaches to systems where homogeneous approaches are not sufficient to describe the system." (Robert R. Bies, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol. 46, 2006)

Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Larry A. Bauer
Publisher : McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

* Chock full of problems and examples, bridges the gap between a basic pharmacokinetics text and a clinical therapeutics text* Focuses on patient-specific drug dosing, with most of each chapter devoted to problem-solving

Pharmacokinetics in Everyday Clinical Practice

Pharmacokinetics in Everyday Clinical Practice Book
Author : Federico Pea
Publisher : SEEd
Release : 2012-03-12
ISBN : 9788897419181
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a practical introduction to the main concepts of pharmacokinetics and how they can be applied in clinical settings, without using complicated mathematical equations. Essential information on approaches to drug-dosing and monitoring in special populations, including patients with renal and hepatic diseases and elderly patients, are given. Charts, illustrations and examples of calculations are added to clarify concepts and terminology of pharmacokinetics. It's a guide for students and clinicians who want clear, useful guidance to the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and th.

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Considerations

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Considerations Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-07-15
ISBN : 0128144262
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Considerations examines the history of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics. The book provides a biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics approach to addressing issues in formulation development and ethical considerations in handling animals. Written by experts in the field, this volume within the Advances in Pharmaceutical Product Development and Research series deepens understanding of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics within drug discovery and drug development. Each chapter delves into a particular aspect of this fundamental field to cover the principles, methodologies and technologies employed by pharmaceutical scientists, researchers and pharmaceutical industries to study the chemical and physical properties of drugs and the biological effects they produce. Examines the most recent developments in biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics for pharmaceutical sciences Covers the principles, methodologies and technologies of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics Focuses on the pharmaceutical sciences, but also encompasses aspects of toxicology, neuroscience, environmental sciences and nanotechnology

Essential Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Essential Clinical Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Younggil Kwon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-10-22
ISBN : 9780387280349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A clear understanding of clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK) of drug is very important in reducing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and achieving its adequate efficacy and maximum therapeutic benefits. CPK can be a complex subject, and there are numerous courses, lectures, and books available to assist clinicians and pharmacists on the subject. Most of those books on the market, however, are burdened with too many unnecessary equations and theories almost to the point where they are no longer relevant in day-to-day clinical practice. Although not openly discussed, many physicians have only a limited understanding of the CPK of the drugs they are prescribing to patients, and therefore many physicians would like to be more knowledgeable in this area. Unfortunately, there is no single text on the market that provides succinct, essential guidance to them for improving the quality of patient care from a CPK perspective. Of the books that are available, some are quite exhaustive and extremely detailed, reflected by the number of pages and multiple subjects that are not directly relevant to clinical applications. Others are relatively short and deal more with key issues, but overlook important clinical implications of CPK in many areas. This book is comprehensive and the contents are succinct and clear. The book has a main focus on core concepts of essential CPK disciplines and clinical implications most relevant to the needs of the target audience, physicians and pharmacists. The book is very useful to personnel in clinical and regulatory departments of pharmaceutical companies for proper clinical study design, data interpretation and regulatory filing ofnew drugs. It can also be used as an ancillary textbook for medical or pharmacy school students on the topics.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Philip Rowe
Publisher : Bookboon
Release : 2012
ISBN : 8740300900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"All the basic concepts of pharmacokinetics (PKs) are described, with an emphasis on understanding what parameters such as bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance tell us about the behaviour of a particular drug. The use of PKs in both a drug development and a clinical setting are covered. The essential mathematical basis of PKs is explained, but excessive mathematical complexity is avoided. For all key equations, practical examples of their use are provided. There are plenty of practice questions (along with model answers). Additional spreadsheets are provided on the net"-- provided by publisher.

Flavonoid Pharmacokinetics

Flavonoid Pharmacokinetics Book
Author : Neal M. Davies,Jaime A. Yáñez
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-11-05
ISBN : 1118354400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

SETS FORTH A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS AND STUDY OF FLAVONOIDS More and more dietary supplements contain flavonoids. These products are typically viewed as food rather than drug products by regulatory agencies and therefore not subjected to rigorous clinical trials before they are marketed to the general public. As a result, the use of flavonoid-containing supplements presents a potential public health risk. From discovery to therapeutic application, this book is a comprehensive guide to both achiral and chiral flavonoids, enabling researchers to perform essential preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics studies in order to ensure the efficacy of flavonoids marketed for therapeutic use. Moreover, the book examines the safety and toxicology of flavonoids as well as flavonoid-drug interactions. With contributions from a multidisciplinary team of leading researchers, Flavonoids Pharmacokinetics reviews and synthesizes the most recent research findings and results from preclinical and clinical studies. The book begins with a comprehensive overview of polyphenols and flavonoids. Next, the book covers: Methods of analysis of achiral flavonoids Preclinical pharmacokinetic of flavonoids Toxicology and safety of flavonoids Methods of analysis for chiral flavonoids Clinical pharmacokinetics of flavonoids Flavonoids and drug interactions Throughout the book, the authors provide examples that demonstrate the use of pharmacokinetics concepts during the preclinical and clinical drug development process. Flavonoid Pharmacokinetics is written for pharmaceutical, food, and nutritional scientists and students, offering the tools they need to thoroughly analyze and test flavonoids and flavonoid-containing supplements to ensure their safety and efficacy.

Basic Applied Pharmacokinetics Self Assessment

Basic   Applied Pharmacokinetics Self Assessment Book
Author : John E. Murphy
Publisher : ASHP
Release : 2014-08-30
ISBN : 1585284394
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mastery of pharmacokinetics is more important than ever. To exercise the best possible judgment in patient care, medication plans should be selected for the maximum efficacy and safety for each individual patient. Be confident in your approach with ASHP’s Basic & Applied Pharmacokinetics Self Assessment, a new resource from John E. Murphy, author of ASHP’s Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Fifth Edition, which offers questions and exercises with answers and detailed solutions to help gauge your understanding. Whether you are a student, a new pharmacist, or a long-time practitioner, it is essential that you not only acquire and maintain your therapeutic knowledge, but also stay on top of new developments in pharmacokinetics. This is a valuable review book designed to test skills for using equations and the application of pharmacokinetic parameters. It is the perfect book to review content you have learned and practiced, in addition to learning new areas not previously covered in your training. As an added feature, the YouTube channel, Basic & Applied Pharmacokinetics Self Assessment Videos, is available as a complementary companion to the book, which includes a library of videos created by John Murphy to help you through the major pain points and help further support your self assessment.

Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines Book
Author : H. Schütz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642684262
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To comment at length on the importance of the benzodiazepines seems superfluous within the scope of this preface. No other class of active substances has experienced an even approximately compa rable advance in the past two decades. It is therefore not surprising that the formerly dominant barbiturates and bromocarbamides have had to give way in many fields to the benzodiazepines, which now rank first (Proudfoot and Park [1828]). Closely linked with the great therapeutic importance of the benzodia zepines are analytical problems. Detection and the determination of blood levels can be necessary under therapeutic aspects, for instance in working out optimally effective levels in the treatment of epileptic conditions ("drug monitoring"), but also in connection with questions at issue in toxicology and traffic medicine. A toxicological analysis can be subdivided into the following steps: Detection (identification including screening) Determination (e. g. blood, plasma or serum levels) Interpretation of the analytical results. This book is intended as a contribution to each of these chapters: The part "Analytical Data" (pp.I-122) gives a comprehensive collec tion of data, e.g. general and chromatographic data (TLC, GLC) as well as spectra (UV, IR, MS) of 19 commercial preparations, 23 important metabolites and 18 hydrolysis derivatives. Information about biotransformation and the possible formation of aminobenzo phenone derivatives is also given. The most important analytical methods are presented in an extensive review on pp.123-204 in order to make it possible to select the optimum method on the basis of the essential data.

Instant Pharmacology

Instant Pharmacology Book
Author : Kourosh Saeb-Parsy,Ravi G. Assomull,Fakhar Z. Khan,Kasra Saeb-Parsy,Eamonn Kelly
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1999-06-18
ISBN : 9780471976394
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by students, for students, Instant Pharmacology represents a novel approach to the study of pharmacology and provides an accessible and exhaustive, yet concise account of pharmacology. The book first introduces readers to the basic principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, which are obviously essential for understanding the action of all drugs, and it is subsequently divided into four parts. * Part One covers the main chemical transmitters which mediate all bodily processes and are the site of much pharmacological intervention. * A systematic account of the pharmacological treatment of major clinical conditions is presented in Part Two, where emphasis is placed primarily on the principles upon which therapy is based, rather than overshadowing these principles with detailed features of individual drugs. * Part Three comprises a Dictionary of Drugs, alphabetically listing all the drugs encountered in Parts One and Two. Entries in the dictionary describe in detail the clinical uses, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and the main adverse effects of a specific agent. * Finally, to allow readers to evaluate their own progress in the subject, Part Four is a self assessment section, including multiple choice questions (with answers) covering all the topics in Instant Pharmacology. Instant Pharmacology will make the study of pharmacology a more rewarding and enjoyable process, and is essential reading for all undergraduate students of pharmacology, pharmacy and related courses, as well as preclinical medical and dental students.