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Epigenetic Mechanisms In The Brain

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Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain Book
Author : Andrew J. Kennedy,Gabriella N. L. Chua
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06
ISBN : 9780128164976
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic mechanisms are the biological processes that determine how our genome is used and the same principle can be applied to our neuron genes. In recent findings in the field of neuroepigenetics, it has been determined that our genes encode our memories, transmit information about stressful events, and play apart in our addictions. This book helps to unlock these abstract processes, leading to improved individualized treatments.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity Book
Author : Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún,Reinhard Schliebs,Merce Pallàs
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-09-20
ISBN : 2889630005
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural plasticity is a unique and adaptive feature of nervous system, which allows neurons to reorganize their interactions in response to a stimulation (intrinsic or extrinsic) to maintain their function. For these reasons, epigenetics emerges as a potential field for developing strategies to modulate changes in pathological situation because extrinsic factors and pharmacological tools can modify neural functioning in organisms during their life. Diet, exercise, environmental aspects, stressors or drugs are available to alter those mechanisms. Epigenetic involves certain molecular signaling pathways, as DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, and the emerging non-coding small RNA, mainly microRNA, as a commanders of a number of translation processes. As most of molecular nervous cell alterations, epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in neural plasticity. This eBook collects the burgeoning advances in epigenetic mechanisms, focusing on new insights into cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms that underlie brain functioning in health and pathological conditions. Contributions go from basic cellular mechanism to therapeutic opportunities to tackle the challenges on nervous central system development and neurodegeneration.

Brain Behavior and Epigenetics

Brain  Behavior and Epigenetics Book
Author : Arturas Petronis,Jonathan Mill
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-05-19
ISBN : 9783642174261
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion Book
Author : Nelson R. Cabej
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-10-12
ISBN : 0128143126
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion provides readers with a basic biological knowledge and epigenetic explanation of the biological puzzle of the Cambrian explosion, the unprecedented rapid diversification of animals that began 542 million years ago. During an evolutionarily instant of ~10 million years, which represents only 0.3% of the time of existence of life on Earth, or less than 2% of the time of existence of metazoans, all of the 30 extant body plans, major animal groups (phyla) and several extinct groups appeared. The work helps address this phenomena and tries to answer remaining questions for evolutionary biology, epigenetics, and scientific researchers. The book recognizes and presents objective representations of alternative theories for epigenetic evolution in this period, with the author drawing on his epigenetic theory of evolution to explain the causal basis of the Cambrian explosion. Both empirical evidence and theoretical arguments are presented in support of this thought-provoking epigenetic theory. Explains the Cambrian explosion from an entirely epigenetic view Takes a causal rather than descriptive approach to the phenomenon Allows for a broad readership, including those with only a basic biological knowledge, while maintaining scientific rigor

Nutrition Epigenetic Mechanisms and Human Disease

Nutrition  Epigenetic Mechanisms  and Human Disease Book
Author : Nilanjana Maulik,Gautam Maulik
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-12-03
ISBN : 1439804826
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As nutrition research is shifting its focus from epidemiology and physiology to effects of nutrients at the molecular level, a uniquely tailored diet that corresponds to the demands of our genetic signature is emerging as an indispensable need. Using high-throughput genomic tools, nutrigenomics unravels the influence of micro- and macronutrients as

DNA Modifications in the Brain

DNA Modifications in the Brain Book
Author : Timothy W Bredy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-12-23
ISBN : 0128017813
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA Modifications in the Brain: Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression begins with an historical overview of the early discoveries surrounding DNA methylation in the mammalian brain and then explores the evidence supporting a role for this epigenetic mechanism in controlling gene expression programs across the lifespan in both normal and diseased states. Chapters describe new directions and technological advances, and provide an overview of what the future holds for this exciting new field. This book is ideal for medical, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, but is also a great resource for researchers who need a broad introduction to the dynamic nature of DNA that sheds light on evolving concepts of gene-environment interaction and their effects on adaptation and neuropsychiatric disease. Provides a comprehensive overview of the many facets of DNA modifications Discusses the impact of this dynamic epigenetic mechanism across brain development and lifespan at behavioral, cognitive, molecular and genetic levels Contains contributions by influential leaders in the field Edited by a Neuroscientist to further promote synthesis between epigenetics, neuroscience, and clinical relevance

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain Book
Author : Rebecca Kaye Simmons
Publisher :
Release : 2013
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic mechanisms provide a critical and plausible mechanism by which genes and the environment can interact and have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders. In order to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms go awry in a diseased brain we must first understand how epigenetic mechanisms unfold during normal development. The present body of work begins to examine the role of DNA methylation in normal development and how it may contribute to a rodent model of emotion dysfunction. Using a variety of techniques, we evaluated the transcript, protein and functional output levels of DNA methyltransferase1, -3a, and -3b during several developmental timepoints in the hippocampus, amygdala and several other brain areas of normal rats as well as bred high novelty responding rats and bred low novelty responding rats. Our results lay an important foundation, paving the way for a series of new experiments that can investigate what happens when epigenetic processes go awry during critical neurodevelopmental periods.

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System Book
Author : J. David Sweatt,Michael J. Meaney,Eric J. Nestler,Schahram Akbarian
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 0123944058
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System addresses current understanding of the roles of epigenetic processes at the molecular/cellular level, their impact on neural development and behavior, and the potential roles of these mechanisms in neurological and psychiatric disorders. This award-winning volume spans molecular epigenetics, development, cellular physiology and biochemistry, synaptic and neural plasticity, and behavioral models, and is unique in covering epigenetically based disorders of the central nervous system. Behavioral epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors alter behavior, addressing the fundamental mechanisms that shape development and individual vulnerability/resilience to adverse behavioral outcomes. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic modulation, researchers may be able to develop targeted therapies for those individuals in whom it malfunctions. Edited by the most highly regarded leaders in the field, this book offers a comprehensive review of behavioral epigenetics and a balanced treatment of the strengths and weaknesses in experimentation in this area. Covering background material as well as topics of current interest, it serves both as a cutting-edge resource and a foundational reference. The book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the links between gene regulation and behavior, as will clinicians dealing with disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended, Neurology, British Medical Association BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - First Prize, Neurology, British Medical Association 2013 PROSE Award winner for Best in Reference Works and Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers Presents a unified view of epigenetic mechanisms from behavior to genes and everything in between Discusses clinically relevant disorders in the context of epigenetics research, making the volume appealing to clinicians as well as basic scientists Provides numerous practical examples for the new investigator to facilitate implementation of research in neuroepigenetics

Epigenetics Brain and Behavior

Epigenetics  Brain and Behavior Book
Author : Paolo Sassone Corsi,Yves Christen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-28
ISBN : 3642279120
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What lies at the heart of neuronal plasticity? Accumulating evidence points to epigenetics. This word originally indicated potentially heritable modifications in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Today this definition is much less strict, and epigenetic control is thought to include DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, microRNA metabolic pathways and non-histone proteins modifications. Thus, while neuronal plasticity is rightly thought to be intimately associated to genomic control, it is critical to appreciate that there is much more to the genome than DNA sequence. Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the field of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigenetic regulation to brain functions has been accumulating. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molecular mechanisms implicated in epigenetic control and how these may operate in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specificity is achieved. Importantly, specific modifications seem to mediate both developmental processes and adult brain functions, such as synaptic plasticity and memory. Many aspects of the research in neurosciences and endocrinology during the upcoming decade will be dominated by the deciphering of epigenetic control. This book constitutes a compendium of the most updated views in the field.

Molecular Basis of Memory

Molecular Basis of Memory Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-01-30
ISBN : 0124202004
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science provides a current overview of how memory is processed in the brain. A broad range of topics are presented by leaders in the field, ranging from brain circuitry to synaptic plasticity to the molecular machinery that contributes to the brain's ability to maintain information across time. Memory systems in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala are considered as well. In addition, the volume covers recent contributions to our understanding of memory from in vivo imaging, optogenetic, electrophysiological, biochemical and molecular biological studies. Articles from world renowned experts in memory Covering topics from signaling, epigenetic, RNA translation to plasticity Methodological approaches include molecular and cellular, behavioral, electrophysiological, optogenetic and functional imaging

The Future of the Brain

The Future of the Brain Book
Author : Gary Marcus,Jeremy Freeman
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2016-11-08
ISBN : 0691173311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Including a chapter by 2014 Nobel laureates May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser An unprecedented look at the quest to unravel the mysteries of the human brain, The Future of the Brain takes readers to the absolute frontiers of science. Original essays by leading researchers such as Christof Koch, George Church, Olaf Sporns, and May-Britt and Edvard Moser describe the spectacular technological advances that will enable us to map the more than eighty-five billion neurons in the brain, as well as the challenges that lie ahead in understanding the anticipated deluge of data and the prospects for building working simulations of the human brain. A must-read for anyone trying to understand ambitious new research programs such as the Obama administration's BRAIN Initiative and the European Union's Human Brain Project, The Future of the Brain sheds light on the breathtaking implications of brain science for medicine, psychiatry, and even human consciousness itself. Contributors include: Misha Ahrens, Ned Block, Matteo Carandini, George Church, John Donoghue, Chris Eliasmith, Simon Fisher, Mike Hawrylycz, Sean Hill, Christof Koch, Leah Krubitzer, Michel Maharbiz, Kevin Mitchell, Edvard Moser, May-Britt Moser, David Poeppel, Krishna Shenoy, Olaf Sporns, Anthony Zador.

Endocrine Disruptors and the Developing Brain

Endocrine Disruptors and the Developing Brain Book
Author : Andrea C. Gore,Sarah M. Dickerson
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2012-05
ISBN : 1615040870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of endocrine disruption has been the focus of increasing attention from scientists and the general public in the past 30 years, amidst concerns that exposure to environmental chemicals with the potential to alter endocrine system function, known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may be contributing to an overall decline in wildlife populations and the reproductive health of humans. These concerns are based on observations of adverse effects of EDCs on marine and land animals, an increased incidence of reproductive and endocrine disease in humans, epidemiological evidence for links between body burden and disease, and endocrine disruption in laboratory animals following exposure to EDCs. Owing to its role in regulation of endocrine function as well as its responsiveness to hormones, the developing brain is an especially vulnerable target for many classes of EDCs. This book will address the evidence for EDC action on the developing brain, organized into 7 chapters. Topics covered include background about EDCs, evidence for exposures, concerns about EDC effects in the developing organism, and particularly on the developing nervous system, how EDCs perturb the brain's neuroendocrine systems, transgenerational epigenetic effects of EDCs, EDC effects on non-reproductive behaviors, and future perspectives. This is the first book completely dedicated to understanding links between EDCs and the developing brain, an area of emerging importance for human health. Table of Contents: What Are Environmental Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)? / EDC Exposures / EDCs and Development / EDCs and the Developing Brain / EDCs and Neuroendocrine Systems / Epigenetic Effects of EDCs / EDCs, the Brain, and the Future / Acknowledgments / References / Author Biographies

Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases

Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui,Tahira Farooqui
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-06
ISBN : 1118840569
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world’s population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role of nutrition and exercise in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean, ketogenic and vegan diets, as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity Evidence and Debate

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity   Evidence and Debate Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-05
ISBN : 0128010851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ‘epi-(Greek for ‘over’, ‘above’)genome’, with its rich cache of highly regulated, structural modifications—including DNA methylation, histone modifications and histone variants—defines the moldings and three-dimensional structures of the genomic material inside the cell nucleus and serves, literally, as a molecular bridge linking the environment to the genetic materials in our brain cells. Due to technological and scientific advances in the field, the field of neuroepigenetics is currently one of the hottest topics in the basic and clinical neurosciences. The volume captures some of this vibrant and exciting new research, and conveys to the reader an up-to-date discussion on the role of epigenetics across the lifespan of the human brain in health and disease. Topics cover the entire lifespan of the brain, from transgenerational epigenetics to neurodevelopmental disease to disorders of the aging brain. All chapters are written with dual intent, to provide the reader with a timely update on the field, and a discussion of provocative or controversial findings in the field with the potential of great impact for future developments in the field.

Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Lifespan and Age related Effects of Dietary Restriction and the Ketogenic Diet

Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Lifespan and Age related Effects of Dietary Restriction and the Ketogenic Diet Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Aging constitutes the central risk factor for major diseases including many forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. The aging process is characterized by both global and tissue-specific changes in gene expression across taxonomically diverse species. While aging has historically been thought to entail cell-autonomous, even stochastic changes, recent evidence suggests that modulation of this process can be hierarchal, wherein manipulations of nutrient-sensing neurons (e.g., in the hypothalamus) produce peripheral effects that may modulate the aging process itself. The most robust intervention extending lifespan, plausibly impinging on the aging process, involves different modalities of dietary restriction (DR). Lifespan extension by DR is associated with broad protection against diseases (natural and engineered). Here we review potential epigenetic processes that may link lifespan to age-related diseases, particularly in the context of DR and (other) ketogenic diets, focusing on brain and hypothalamic mechanisms. Highlights: Epigenetic changes occur with age and can be targeted for protection. Dietary restriction (DR) delays aging associated with epigenetic effects. Histone modifications may mediate aspects of aging and protective effects of DR. Ketogenic diets, including DR may entail similarly protective epigenetic mechanisms.

Stress in Health and Disease An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America

Stress in Health and Disease  An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America  Book
Author : Daniel L. Kirsch
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-12-27
ISBN : 0323326773
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stress in the DSM is referred to only in the sense of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, some research studies estimate up to two thirds of illnesses seen by general practitioners are ‘stress related’–GI problems, sleep disturbance, mental concentration, headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, dermatitis, illnesses from lowered immune system, and vague aches and pains – all can be symptoms and outcomes of the elusive stress factor. This issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America discusses the scientific medical facets of stress, written by mental health and medical practitioners. It looks at the brain-body connection of stress – what the body does to result in stress and varying results stress has on the body. This fascinating cross-discipline look at stress is intended for psychiatrists, general practitioners, cardiologists, GI specialists, neurologists, sleep medicine specialists, respiratory specialists, and others who diagnose and treat patients with stress suspected as part of the illness equation or with self-reported stress. Topics include: Measurement of stress; Anxiety and stress-how they work together; Relationship between genetics and stress; Role of glia in stress; Sleep and stress; Diet and stress; Supplements and stress; Effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions; Role of stress and fear on the development of psychopathology; Expressions of stress in psychiatric illness; Dermatologic manifestations of stress in normal and psychiatric populations; Humor and the psychological buffers of stress; Stress expression in children and adolescents; Stress in service members; Stress in the geriatric population.

Nutrition in Epigenetics

Nutrition in Epigenetics Book
Author : Mihai D. Niculescu,Paul Haggarty
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-25
ISBN : 9780470959800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of epigenetics, or how heritable changes in gene expression are regulated without modifying the coding DNA sequence, has become an increasingly important field of study in recent years. Rapid developments in our understanding of the way in which gene function is modulated by the environment has revolutionized the way we think about human development and health. Nutrition in Epigenetics reviews the latest research looking at the interaction between genes and nutrients and the role they play together in maintaining human health. Nutrition in Epigenetics is divided into two primary parts. The first part provides key principles such as epigenetic mechanisms, developmental epigenetics, and the role of epigenetics in disease. The second part looks specifically at the application of epigenetics to the field of human nutrition. Chapters review the role of specific nutrients in modulating epigenetic status and the effect on health and disease. Nutrition in Epigenetics is an indispensable resource for researchers, professionals and advanced students with an interest in human nutrition, epigenetics, and biomedical research.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-08-12
ISBN : 0128014725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This well-established international series examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging and promising subfields. This volume concentrates on Epigenetics This book looks at Epigeneticsin the light of the newest scholarly discoveries and insights

Epigenetic Changes Following Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Implications for Outcome Recovery and Therapy

Epigenetic Changes Following Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Implications for Outcome  Recovery and Therapy Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2016
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to nearly a third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. For survivors of TBI, depending on severity, patients can be left with devastating neurological disabilities that include impaired cognition or memory, movement, sensation, or emotional function. Despite the efforts to identify novel therapeutics, the only strategy to combat TBI is risk reduction (helmets, seatbelts, removal of fall hazards, etc.). Enormous heterogeneity exists within TBI, and it depends on the severity, the location, and whether the injury was focal or diffuse. Evidence from recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, chromatin post-translational modification, and miRNA regulation of gene expression in the post-injured brain. In this review, we discuss studies that have assessed epigenetic changes and mechanisms following TBI, how epigenetic changes might not only be limited to the nucleus but also impact the mitochondria, and the implications of these changes with regard to TBI recovery.