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Epigenetic Gene Expression And Regulation

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Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation Book
Author : Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-19
ISBN : 0128004711
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Gene Regulation

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Gene Regulation Book
Author : Vincenzo E. A. Russo,Robert A. Martienssen,Arthur D. Riggs
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many inheritable changes in gene function are not explained by changes in the DNA sequence. Such epigenetic mechanisms are known to influence gene function in most complex organisms and include effects such as transposon function, chromosome imprinting, yeast mating type switching and telomeric silencing. In recent years, epigenetic effects have become a major focus of research activity. This monograph, edited by three well-known biologists from different specialties, is the first to review and synthesize what is known about these effects across all species, particularly from a molecular perspective, and will be of interest to everyone in the fields of molecular biology and genetics.

A Systems Biology Approach to Epigenetic Gene Regulation

A Systems Biology Approach to Epigenetic Gene Regulation Book
Author : Stephen Patrick Wilson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to control when, and how much of the genetic code is being expressed is the underlying principle behind gene regulation. Control of gene production is able to influence a cell's phenotype by determining which structural components of the cell's observable traits (shape, growth, and behavior) are made. In multicellular organism's different cell types are able to arise from the same genetic code due to a difference in the patterns of genes being expressed. Essentially anywhere in the process of gene expression from transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of the protein is subject to regulation. As transcription is the first step in the process of gene expression, it is the first level of regulation for influencing the cell phenotype. The actions of transcription factors, histone modifiers, and other proteins work together to influence RNA polymerase's ability to complete the process of transcription. The actions of transcription factors are able to influence transcription by controlling the ability of RNA polymerase to be recruited to the start of a protein coding region and histone modifiers can rearrange the histones of the chromatin causing entire regions of a chromosome to become exposed or sequestered. These transcriptional regulators are able to work in a combinatorial fashion with one another to either activate and/or repress wide repertoires of transcriptional targets. Mapping out a network of interactions between these transcriptional regulators in gene expression programs allows researchers to understand how each protein is able to influence the phenotype of the cell, and how mutations to any of these transcriptional regulators are able to drive the cell into a diseased state. In the case of cancer, changes in the mechanisms of gene regulation brought on by mutations to these transcriptional regulators may drive the cell's hyper proliferative state. With the creation of next generation sequencing researchers are now better able to define where regulation is taking place in the genome, and how much it is able to influence gene expression. This gives researchers the ability to build these gene regulatory networks and evaluate their impact on gene expression. The subsequent chapters of this dissertation are a reflection of my published work investigating the contribution of oncogenic processes to gene regulatory networks in cancer through the study of hyperactivating somatic mutation of a histone modifier, changes in transcription factor response element specificity, epigenetic regulation of transcription factor signaling, and a transcription factor coactivation network.

Chromatin and Gene Regulation

Chromatin and Gene Regulation Book
Author : Bryan M. Turner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
ISBN : 0470751673
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written in an informal and accessible style, Chromatin and Gene Regulation enables the reader to understand the science of this rapidly moving field. Chromatin is a fundamental component in the network of controls that regulates gene expression. Many human diseases have been linked to disruption of these control processes by genetic or environmental factors, and unravelling the mechanisms by which they operate is one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of modern biology. Chromatin is central both to the rapid changes in gene transcription by which cells respond to changes in their environment and also to the maintenance of gene expression patterns from one cell generation to the next. This book will be an invaluable guide to undergraduate and postgraduate students in the biological sciences and all those with an interest in the medical implications of aberrant gene expression.

Non coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Non coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression Book
Author : Kevin V. Morris
Publisher : Horizon Scientific Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781904455943
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-coding RNAs potentially play an active role in modulating gene transcription and epigenetic states. Several genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA-based transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory control. This form of regulation may be controlled by selective pressures and influence the adaptability of the cell. The concept that RNA can control epigenetic states impacts our understanding of the basic fabric of the cell and may have therapeutic potential. Many studies have been carried out on the modulation of gene transcription by non-coding RNAs. This book, written by a group of distinguished scientists, represents an important overview and summary of the field to date. The 13 chapters are organized into three sections: a) Non-coding RNAs: Form, Function and Diversity; b) Non-coding RNAs: Gene Regulation and Epigenetics; and c) Non-coding RNAs: Disease and Therapeutics. This up-to-date volume is an essential book for those working in the area and represents a major information resource on current research in the fast-moving fields of epigenetics, the regulation of gene expression, and RNA research.

Long Range Control of Gene Expression

Long Range Control of Gene Expression Book
Author : Veronica van Heyningen,Robert E Hill
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-09-02
ISBN : 9780080877815
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Long-Range Control of Gene Expression covers the current progress in understanding the mechanisms for genomic control of gene expression, which has grown considerably in the last few years as insight into genome organization and chromatin regulation has advanced. Discusses the evolution of cis-regulatory sequences in drosophila Includes information on genomic imprinting and imprinting defects in humans Includes a chapter on epigenetic gene regulation in cancer

Epigenetic Regulation and Epigenomics

Epigenetic Regulation and Epigenomics Book
Author : Robert A. Meyers
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-10-02
ISBN : 3527668624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The "epigenome" is a parallel to the word "genome," and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming

Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming Book
Author : Kevin Huang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The regulatory capacities of epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, have seen a rising interest in recent years. These epigenetic marks are pervasive and non-randomly distributed across the genome, raising intriguing questions on how epigenetics contributes to genomic features that define cellular identity and function. Unlike fixed genetic information that is shared between all cell types, epigenetics involve multiple layers of regulation and can vary dramatically across different cell types and genomic contexts. Thus, much more effort is required to procure a complete perspective of the manifold epigenetic landscape. The body of work in this dissertation focuses on epigenetic studies in the mammalian pluripotent stem cell model system. We utilize high-throughput technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) as well as leverage existing epigenetic maps to address a wide range of molecular questions on a comprehensive global scale. This dissertation is organized into three overarching themes: First, we employed genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling tools to determine whether different cell types display unique biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them from other cell types (Chapters 2-5). We found that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carry distinct features in both gene expression and DNA methylation patterns, arguing in favor of the idea that these two pluripotent cell types are different. Furthermore, we compared pluripotent stem cell derived retinal pigmented epithelium (hESC-RPE and hiPSC-RPE) with fetal and adult RPE and found that all RPE cells share a core set of signature genes that distinguishes them from all other cell types. We propose these signature genes will be useful for evaluating the quality of stem-cell derived RPE. Finally, novel corneal endothelial cells (CECs) biomarkers were identified through comparing 12 other tissue types, paving the way for future studies to evaluate properties of stem-cell derived CECs. We next examined how molecular features of pluripotent stem cells are altered during the differentiation process of stem cells (Chapters 6-8). Using the RPE differentiation paradigm, we profiled both microRNA and DNA methylation patterns in intermediate stages between pluripotent stem cells and mature RPE. These two separate studies identified subsets of dynamically regulated epigenetic marks, some of which are associated with RPE signature gene expression. Furthermore, we used a highly innovative and powerful single-cell RNA-sequencing approach to profile transcriptional changes in the early embryo beginning from mature oocyte to morula stages. This study identified a conserved genetic program describing a highly dynamic transcriptional architecture during early embryogenesis. Finally, we took a focused analysis on how DNA methyltransferases contribute to shaping the pluripotent stem cell epigenome (Chapters 9-10). Using mouse ESCs null of DNA methylation, we determined DNA methylation regulates a large set of genes through action with H3K27me3. Furthermore, we determined shared and unique genomic targets of each DNA methyltransferase, including novel de novo methylation activity for Dnmt1 in vivo. In the human model system, we generated iPSCs from ICF Syndrome patient fibroblasts which carry double heterozygous mutations in DNMT3B. We found DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during the reprogramming process and has unique genomic targets.

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections Book
Author : Silvia Carolina Galvan,Alejandro García Carrancá,Félix Recillas-Targa,Jiuzhou Song
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-09
ISBN : 2889195872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is defined as the study of modifications of the genome, heritable during cell division that does not involve changes in DNA sequences. Up to date, epigenetic modifications involve at least three general mechanisms regulating gene expression: histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For the past two decades, an explosion in our interest and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been seen. This mainly based on the influence that epigenetic alterations have on an amazing number of biological processes, such as gene expression, imprinting, programmed DNA rearrangements, germ line silencing, developmentally cued stem cell division, and overall chromosomal stability and identity. It has become also evident that the constant exposure of living organisms to environment factors affects their genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. Viruses infecting animal cells are thought to play central roles in shaping the epigenetic scenario of infected cells. In this context it has become obvious that knowing the impact that viral infections have on the epigenetic control of their host cells will certainly lead to a better understanding of the interplay viruses have with animal cells. In fact, DNA viruses use host transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators in such a way that they affect epigenetic control of gene expression that extends to host gene expression. At the same time, animal cells employ mechanisms controlling transcription factors and epigenetic processes, in order to eliminate viral infections. In summary, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in most virus-cell interactions. We now know that some viruses exhibit epigenetic immune evasion mechanisms to survive and propagate in their host; however, there is still much ambiguity over these epigenetic mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and most of the discovered mechanisms are still incomplete. Other animal viruses associated to cancer often deregulate cellular epigenetic mechanisms, silencing cellular tumor-suppressor genes and/or activating either viral or host cell oncogenes. In addition, in several cancers the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein-coding genes and ncRNAs with growth inhibitory functions, such as miRNAs, have been closely linked to the presence of cell CpG island promoter hypermethylation. The goal of the aforementioned Research Topic is to bring together the key experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in animal virus-cell interactions.

Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-11-07
ISBN : 8131241831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Regulation of gene expression Regulation of gene expression

Epigenetics

Epigenetics Book
Author : Reinhard Heil,Stefanie B. Seitz,Harald König,Jürgen Robienski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-31
ISBN : 3658144602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern epigenetics unites scientists from life sciences, organic chemistry as well as computer and engineering sciences to find an answer to the question of how environmental influences can have a lasting effect on gene expression, maybe even into the next generations. This volume examines from an interdisciplinary perspective the ethical, legal and social aspects of epigenetics.

Epigenetics and Disease

Epigenetics and Disease Book
Author : Susan M. Gasser,En Li
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-10-17
ISBN : 9783764389895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics has emerged recently as an important area of molecular biological studies. Epigenetic modifications lead to potentially heritable but reversible alterations in the expression of genes that determine cell fate. Epigenetic misregulation is thus often linked to degenerative diseases, cancer and neuronal disorders. Recent biomedical interest in this regulatory system stems from the fact that epigenetic, in contrast to genetic, alterations are in principle amenable to pharmacological intervention. A few epigenetically active drugs, for example histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, have been approved by FDA for treatment of cancers such as CTCL, MDS, and AML. This volume explores the scientific background for clinical applications of epigenetically active drugs. Included are descriptions of epigenetic controls over gene expression, the post-transcriptional silencing of genes by RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNAs, as well as new findings from stem cell research which are relevant to pharmacological applications.

Global Epigenetic Profiling in Malignant and Normal Urothelial Cell Lines

Global Epigenetic Profiling in Malignant and Normal Urothelial Cell Lines Book
Author : Ewa Dudziec
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression IS commonly altered in human cancer. Numerous alterations of DNA methylation and microRNA expression have been described in bladder cancer and these reflect the biology and phenotype of the disease. This common disease arises by distinct pathways with low and high grade differentiation. Epigenetic gene regulation is stabilized within a chromatin state by maintainers such as histone modification or DNA methylation. I hypothesized that epigenetic gene regulation reflects an interaction between histone and DNA modifications, and differences between normal and malignant urothelial cells represent carcinogenic events within bladder cancer. To test this hypothesis I profiled two histone modifications thought to be repressive (H3K9-3M and H3K27-3M) using ChIP-Seq, cytosine methylation using MeDIP and epG Isl and microarrays and mRNA expression in normal urothelial cells and cell lines that represent non invasive and invasive tumours. In genes with low expression I identified associated H3K27-3M and DNA methylation each in 20-30% of genes and both marks in 5% of genes. H3K9-3M was detected in 5-10% of genes but was not associated with overall expression. DNA methylation was more closely related to gene expression in malignant than normal cells. H3K27-3M was the epigenetic mark most specifically con-elated to gene silencing. I identified a panel of genes with cancer speci fie-epigenetic mediated aberrant expression including those with reported carcinogenic functions and members potentially mediating a positive epigenetic feedback loop. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed genes marked by H3K9-3M were involved with cell homeostasis, those marked by H3K27-3M mediated pro-carcinogenic processes and those marked with cytosine methylation were mixed in function. Hierarchical clustering revealed that gene panel stratified samples according to the presence and phenotype of bladder cancer. finally, the last part of my thesis concentrates on identifying epigenetic events associated with chemoresistance in bladder cancer. Currently, acquired resistance to drugs is the major obstacle in the successful treatment of advanced UCC. In addition, many tumours initially respond to chemotherapy, but subsequently develop secondary resistance. In order to identify epigenetic mechanisms associated with chemoresistance, I developed eisplatin resistant cell lines with 2 different approaches and investigated genome wide dysregulation of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in these. Resistant cells generated with different methodology and consequently with different stress applied, had very few common characteristics. They were found to have distinct profiles of microRNAs expression with more differentially expressed microRNAs (11=39) in the resistant cells derived from heterogeneous cell populations when compared to those from single cell clones (n=16). Only 8 microRNAs were shared between the resistant cells (including 5 with increased and 3 with decreased expression). Established resistant cells were also characterised by very distinct methylation profiles. The heterogeneous population of resistant cells were found to have the highest number of enriched and decreased in 5MC probes when compared to the cell lines generated from the single clones. Only 0.1 % of 5MC enriched and 0.02% 5MC decreased probes were shared between the established resistant cells. In summary, this Thesis illustrates that DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression are important regulatory mechanisms altered within UCc. These represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets that could be used to overcome treatment resistance owing to the reversible nature of their modifications.

Epigenetic Regulation of Mucin Gene Expression

Epigenetic Regulation of Mucin Gene Expression Book
Author : Artem N. Loukoianov
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Regulation of Mucin Gene Expression book written by Artem N. Loukoianov, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology

Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology Book
Author : Clelia De-la-Peña,Raúl Alvarez-Venegas,Christopher Cullis
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-05-31
ISBN : 2889198545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is a new field that explains gene expression at the chromatin structure and organization level. Three principal epigenetic mechanisms are known and hundreds of combinations among them can develop different phenotypic characteristics. DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and regulation among the different biological processes in plants. Although, fundamental epigenetic mechanisms in crop plants are beginning to be elucidated, the comprehension of the different epigenetic mechanisms, by which plant gene regulation and phenotype are modified, is a major topic to develop in the near future in order to increase crop productivity. Thus, the importance of epigenetics in improving crop productivity is undoubtedly growing. Current research on epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs are involved in almost every aspect of plant life including agronomically important traits such as flowering time, fruit development, responses to environmental factors, defense response and plant growth. The aim of this Research Topic is to explore the recent advances concerning the role of epigenetics in crop biotechnology, as well as to enhance and promote interactions among high quality researchers from different disciplines such as genetics, cell biology, pathology, microbiology, and evolutionary biology in order to join forces and decipher the epigenetic mechanisms in crop productivity.

Patho Epigenetics of Disease

Patho Epigenetics of Disease Book
Author : Janos Minarovits,Hans Helmut Niller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-06-14
ISBN : 1461433452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Epigenetics in Cardiac Disease

Epigenetics in Cardiac Disease Book
Author : Johannes Backs,Timothy A. McKinsey
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-21
ISBN : 3319414577
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes important advances in our understanding of how environmental conditions affect cardiac gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Further, it discusses the roles of chromatin modifications (in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications) and of chromatin regulators in the context of cardiac diseases. The book provides readers with an overview of our current understanding of epigenetic regulation in the heart, and will stimulate further research in this exciting field. Edited and written by internationally respected experts, it addresses the needs of professors, students and researchers working in the fields of cardiac biology and epigenetics.