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Environmental Kuznets Curve EKC

Environmental Kuznets Curve  EKC  Book
Author : Burcu Özcan,Ilhan Öztürk
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-13
ISBN : 0128167963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Manual provides a comprehensive summary of the EKC, summarizing work on this economic tool that can analyze environmental pollution problems. By enabling users to reconcile environmental and economic development policies, Environmental Kuznets Curve studies lend themselves to the investigation of the energy-growth and finance-energy nexus. The book obviates a dependence on outmoded tools, such as carrying capacity, externalities, ecosystem valuation and cost benefit analysis, while also encouraging flexible approaches to a variety of challenges. Provides a comprehensive summary of EKC studies, including advances in econometrics, literature reviews and historical perspectives Outlines solutions to common problems in applying EKC techniques by reviewing major case studies Explores frequently-utilized proxies for environmental quality

The Environmental Kuznets Curve EKC

The Environmental Kuznets Curve  EKC  Book
Author : Genan Sana Itani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Environmental Kuznets Curve EKC book written by Genan Sana Itani, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Book
Author : Katsuhisa Uchiyama
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-05-13
ISBN : 4431559213
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book investigates the relationship between environmental degradation and income, focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from around the world, to explore the possibility of sustainable development under global warming. Although many researchers have tackled this problem by estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), unlike the approach to sulfur dioxide emissions, there seems to be little consensus about whether EKC is formed with regard to CO2 emissions. Thus, EKC is one of the most controversial issues in the field of environmental economics. This book contributes three points with academic rigor. First, an unbalanced panel dataset containing over 150 countries with the latest CO2 emission data between 1960 and 2010 is constructed. Second, based on this dataset, the CO2 emission–income relationship is analyzed using strict econometric methods such as the dynamic panel model. Third, as it is often pointed out that some factors other than income affect CO2 emission, several variables were added to the estimation model to examine the effects of changes of industrial structure, energy composition, and overseas trade on CO2 emission.

The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability A Panel Data Analysis

The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability  A Panel Data Analysis Book
Author : Anissa Chaibi,Sana Mrizak,Christophe Rault
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability A Panel Data Analysis book written by Anissa Chaibi,Sana Mrizak,Christophe Rault, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Revisiting the Environmental Kuznet s Curve in the Presence of Trade

Revisiting the Environmental Kuznet s Curve in the Presence of Trade Book
Author : Biva Arani Mallik
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In my research I have investigated the impact of trade on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). I investigate the impact on the level and curvature of the EKC by varying the degree of export and import. In my first paper, I have revisited the Andreoni and Levinson (2001) model in the presence of trade. In their original work, they conclude that the desired relationship between pollution and income can be traced only when there exists increasing returns to abatement technology. I have built upon the model by introducing trade and heterogeneity in abatement technology. I conclude when pollution sources from production and countries engage in trade, increasing returns to abatement technology no longer remains a necessary condition for a country to experience the EKC. When countries experience CRS or DRS, engaging in trade with countries with IRS enables them to attain the EKC. This however is possible only in the case of transboundary pollutants. For my second paper, I look at the impact of trade on the multi-country framework of EKC developed by Diamantoudi and Filippiadis (2010). Introducing trade shows that pollution dependence among countries can exist even when the nature of pollutants is local in addition to the case of global pollutants. Results show that the impact of trade is more favorable for local pollutants both for the shape of the EKC and the scope for pollution substitution. My third paper is an extension of my second paper where I investigate the impact of trade on the multi-country framework when technology is heterogeneous. When countries of different levels of technology engage in trade with each other, it is found that the relative level of technology has an impact on the scope of pollution substitution as well as the EKC. Results of this paper reveal that when the level of technology of the foreign country is better, engaging in imports, and when the level of technology of the home country is better, engaging in exports helps the scope of pollution substitution as well as the shape of EKC.

Assessing the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Assessing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Book
Author : Marisa London
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Assessing the Environmental Kuznets Curve book written by Marisa London, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited

Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited Book
Author : Lan Xu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Revisited book written by Lan Xu, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lessons from Quantile Panel Regression Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Lessons from Quantile Panel Regression Estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Book
Author : Dimitrios Kapetanakis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ABSTRACT: The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) estimates the income-environmental degradation relationship, typically employing measures of per-capita income and the concentration of pollutants in the air, such as NO[subscript]x (nitrogen oxide) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide). The literature has concentrated on estimation of the EKC at the mean employing longitudinal data on countries or U.S. states. The typical finding is an inverted U-shaped relationship, implying that pollution is increasing in income up to a turning point beyond which pollution decreases. Estimation at the mean, however, likely masks heterogeneities that can be present at higher and/or lower quantiles of the emissions' distribution. This study applies methods for quantile regression estimation of panel fixed effects models to the estimation of the EKC on U.S. state-level data on NO[subscript]x and SO2 pollutants over the period 1929-1994. Our results indicate that methods that focus on the mean provide too optimistic estimates about emissions reduction of NO[subscript]x, as quantile methods reveal that the rate of reduction is usually smaller; while the opposite holds for SO2 The differences arise due to the robustness of quantile regression to outlying observations. These results have implications for policies advocating economic development as a means for improving the environment.

Probing the Mechanics of Environmental Kuznets Curve Theory

Probing the Mechanics of Environmental Kuznets Curve Theory Book
Author : Jeremy Lynn Kidd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The theory of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) proposes to answer important questions regarding the connections between economic growth (development) and the environment. The theory postulates the environment need not always suffer as the economy develops, and it has generated strong support and opposition. Rather than attempting to defend or debunk EKC theory, this research challenges a practice engaged in by proponents and opponents alike. Simplifying assumptions are a necessary part of economic analysis, but this research shows that any assumptions may not be universally applicable. Utilizing, in turn, a simple one-good model and then a more complicated two-good model, it is discovered that the competing assumptions utilized by proponents and opponents of the EKC theory may both be valid, depending upon the conditions present in the system being analyzed.

Demystifying the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Demystifying the Environmental Kuznets Curve Book
Author : Theodore Panayotou
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Demystifying the Environmental Kuznets Curve book written by Theodore Panayotou, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Canada

Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Canada Book
Author : Da-Hae Chong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between measures of environmental degradation and per capita income. This paper empirically tests the validity of the EKC hypothesis in Canada for per capita emissions of green house gases (GHG), CO2, NOX, SOX, CO, and total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. The regression equations estimated are quadratic and cubic functions of per capita GDP. The type of data used are provincial and territorial level cross-sectional panel data and country level time-series data. The study finds that per capita emissions of GHG and CO exhibit inverted-U relationships with per capita GDP. In contrast, per capita SOX and TPM emissions follow a U-shape curve, In addition, per capita CO2 emissions may follow either an inverted U or an N shape curve. Furthermore, this study finds insufficient empirical evidence of an EKC for per capita NOX emissions.

Environmental Sustainability

Environmental Sustainability Book
Author : Raghbendra Jha,K.V. Bhanu Murthy
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2006-09-27
ISBN : 1134227337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With globalization fast becoming an irreversible process, it is necessary to pay increased attention to the implications for environmental sustainability. However, the so-called environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) argument implies that rapid economic growth in many developing countries should be environmentally unsustainable. Environmental Sustainability addresses this dichotomy and articulates a notion of consumption sustainability that is both universal and pertains to the indefinite future. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of addressing a broad spectrum of sources of environmental degradation and relates this measure to an index of economic achievement more complete than per capita income. As well as the EKC, authors Jha and Murthy also critique the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and empirically substantiate the proposition that a certain type of development in the presently high-income countries is primarily responsible for global environmental degradation. Several policy conclusions for global environmental management are also advanced. Throughout, Jha and Murthy comprehensively evaluate existing approaches to environmental sustainability and critically review empirical studies of environmental degradation, and economic development, making this an invaluable source of information for those concerned with environmental economics and political economy.

Irrigation Kuznets Curve governance and dynamics of irrigation development A global cross country analysis from 1972 to 1991

Irrigation Kuznets Curve  governance and dynamics of irrigation development  A global cross country analysis from 1972 to 1991 Book
Author : Madhusudan Bhattarai
Publisher : IWMI
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9290905239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using a global analysis across 66 countries, this study empirically validates the presence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship for irrigation development. The resulting inverted U-shaped relationship between the level of irrigation and income implies that, water uses in irrigation and agriculture are considered more important in the early stage of development of a society. Once the economy grows, however, the relative importance of irrigation and water uses in agriculture declines, compared to water uses in other sectors.

Non homothetic Growth Models for the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Non homothetic Growth Models for the Environmental Kuznets Curve Book
Author : Katsuyuki Schibayama,Iain M. Fraser
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this paper, we study the impact of the economic growth on the environment. First, we show that, at each income level, n determines the direction of environmental degradation, where n is the elasticity of substitution between consumption and the environment. That is, for n large enough, as income increases people accept environmental degradation by enjoying more consumption as compensation, and vice versa. Intuitively, there are two effects operating; the income effect encourages the demand for better environmental quality simply because the environment is a normal good, whereas the substitution effect discourages it because maintaining the environment becomes more expensive as technology improvement increases the production of the general consumption good per unit of emission. The strength of the substitution effect is governed by n. Hence, the impact of economic growth on the environment crucially depends on n. Second, we demonstrate that exponential utility generates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) under a wide class of models without adding any other peculiar assumptions. Under exponential utility, n is decreasing in income; intuitively, when a country is poor (large n), people seek more consumption at the cost of environmental degradation, but, once it becomes rich enough (small n), they seek increased environmental quality. -- Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Economic Growth ; Non-Homothetic Preferences ; Generalized Isoelastic Preferences.

Analyzing Land Cover in the Context of Kuznets Curves

Analyzing Land Cover in the Context of Kuznets Curves Book
Author : George C. Bentley
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is a derivation of the curve developed by Simon Kuznets in the 1950s. The original Kuznets curve describes the relationship between inequality and per capita income in countries while the environmental Kuznets curve is used to describe the relationship between environmental characteristics and per capita income. Since the early 1990s the EKC has become a widely used empirical model for exploring the relationship between economic growth and environmental characteristics, including land use/cover. This dissertation extends EKC-related research theoretically in the form of a conceptual model linking the non-regenerative land cover types of agriculture and open space to per capita income when considered in an urban, exurban, and rural framework. The non-regenerative land cover model concerns a class of land covers best analyzed in a spatial cross-section. A study region within the northeastern United States using the county as the spatial unit of analysis, a finer spatial scale than used in most EKC studies, is used in the empirical investigation. The relationships between per capita income and a variety of regenerative and non-regenerative land cover types, including forest cover, wetland cover, agricultural cover, and open space, are examined within the study region Empirical tests are conducted using a variety of regression analyses to determine if the tested relationship conforms to the appropriate EKC income polynomial. Global regressions in the form of ordinary least squares and spatial error models are used to provide baselines for local test comparisons using geographically weighted regression and quantile regression. Global and local regression analyses are used in determining the functional form, linear or polynomial, of the relationship between land cover and per capita income. In general the results of this research support an EKC across the variety of land covers examined.Archival abstract submitted.

Three Essays on the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution

Three Essays on the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution Book
Author : Alexi Thompson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation is composed of three chapters each investigating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for water pollution. The first chapter looks at downstream dependence, the second chapter looks at the effect water abundance has on an EKC for water pollution, and the third chapter looks at different ways to control for population across countries in an EKC empirical model. Of particular note a theoretical model is developed in the first chapter that links directly with the empirical EKC model and marginal effects of consumption and effort on pollution are derived. This model specification may be particularly useful in future EKC studies. In general, there is some evidence of an EKC although it appears to depend on the country.

Market Development Research

Market Development Research Book
Author : Johnny Ch Lok
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-12
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Future transport non-pollution natural fuel product marketEnvironment pollution and natural fuel causes relationshipThe key indicators are used to capture the changes in environmental conditions have been developed and used in many countries. A high rate of economic growth has been a primary and permanent goal of government and society, particularly in developing countries. The increase in economic growth is related to an increase in the production and consumption of products and services. Consequently, it may lead to an increase in the multiplied products of the people and income per capita consumption. However, economic growth may produce negative impacts on the environment pollution, overexploitation of natural resources, degradation and loss of wildlife habitat and climate change. Hence, many countries have been facing the decline in environmental quality issue when which neglect to reduce environmental pollution challenge in long term. I believe that the impact of economic growth on environment quality is categorized through three different channels: The first is the scale effect, the second is the composition and the end is the technique effect. The scale effect means to happen as pollution increases with the size of the economy, the explanation being that even of the structure of the economy and the technology doesn't change, it is assumed that an increase in the scale of economic activity leads to an increase in pollution and environmental degradation, when the composition effect refers to the change in production structure of an economy from agriculture-based to industry and service. The last effect is the technique effect, which captures improvement in the technique of production and adaption of cleaner technologies and hence a reduction in pollution The hypothesis is called the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis because of its similarity with the relationship between the level of inequality and per capita income is posited by Kuznet. According to the EKC hypothesis, it indicated that "at the first stage of economic development environmental pressures increase as per capita income increases, but after a critical turning point these pressures diminish along with higher income levels( Beckerman,1992)". In its most optimistic view, the hypothesis suggests that economic growth is itself the solution to environmental problems, because environmental improvement will be an almost unavoidable. So, many countries plan how to solve environment pollution, such as why many researches are carrying on investigating how to produce the alternative natural fuel to solve environmental pollution challenges.In fact, energy consumption, environmental protection and economic growth belong to an organic whole. The development of industry plays an important part in the development of the national economy. Meanwhile the development of industry spends lots of energy and makes serious pollution. Energy is a important material basis of human survival, economic development and social progress. Instance, China is promoting energy production and sustainable economic growth. We know that the environmental pollution should be the cost of economic development. We emphasizes quality of life, but the bio centric view, gives greater recognition to the planet, regarding the pursuit of wealth through industrial expansion and economic growth as incompatible with the earth's resource base. This view also takes the position that economic growth at the expense of natural represents consumption of what belongs rightly to future generations. However, becomes human kind is seen to be living within ecological constraints, economies will have zero growth in quantitative terms. Instead growth should be measured in qualitative terms, such as clean and healthy natural environment level, in other words, on the basis of quality of living rather than standard of living.

Economic Growth and Clean Environment

Economic Growth and Clean Environment Book
Author : Yi-Chia Wang
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2010-04
ISBN : 9783838360485
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book develops a macroeconomic theory that explains the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) phenomenon. With a detailed review of the EKC literature according to different sources of pollutant, this book not only discusses the historical advances in testing the EKC hypothesis but also suggests some econometric methods that can modify the traditional ways of EKC tests. The empirical analysis in this book focuses on some high-income OECD economies in the issue of the emissions of two typical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide.

Economic Growth Safe Drinking Water and Ground

Economic Growth  Safe Drinking Water and Ground Book
Author : Michael von Hauff,Avijit Mistri
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Economic Growth Safe Drinking Water and Ground book written by Michael von Hauff,Avijit Mistri, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.