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Engineered Nanostructures For Therapeutics And Biomedical Applications

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Engineered Nanostructures for Therapeutics and Biomedical Applications

Engineered Nanostructures for Therapeutics and Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Ajeet Kumar Kaushik,Sandeep Kumar,Ganga Ram Chaudhary
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-06-15
ISBN : 9780128212400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineered Nanostructures for Therapeutics and Biomedical Applications offers a single reference for a diverse biomedical readership to learn about the application of nanotechnology in biomedicine and biomedical engineering, from past developments, to current research and future prospects. This book sets out a broad selection of biomedical and therapeutic applications for nanostructures, including bioimaging, nanorobotics, orthopedics and tissue engineering, offering a useful, multidisciplinary approach. Each chapter discusses challenges faced in each discipline, including limiting factors, biocompatibility and toxicity, thus enabling the reader to make informed decisions in their research. Users will find this book to be a comprehensive, broad overview on the role and significance of nanomaterials and their composites that also includes discussions of key aspects in the field of biomedicine. Provides a broad overview of the many applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in biomedicine and engineering Offers a multidisciplinary approach that will appeal to a diverse readership, including those in biomedical engineering, materials science, biomedicine and pharmaceutics Includes challenges faced and limiting factors for each application, allowing readers to make an informed decision when using nanomaterials in their research

Materials for Biomedical Engineering Organic Micro and Nanostructures

Materials for Biomedical Engineering  Organic Micro and Nanostructures Book
Author : Alexandru Grumezescu,Alina-Maria Holban
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-18
ISBN : 0128184345
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials for Biomedical Engineering: Organic Micro- and Nanostructures provides an updated perspective on recent research regarding the use of organic particles in biomedical applications. The different types of organic micro- and nanostructures are discussed, as are innovative applications and new synthesis methods. As biomedical applications of organic micro- and nanostructures are very diverse and their impact on modern and future therapy, diagnosis and prophylaxis of diseases is huge, this book presents a timely resource on the topic. Users will find the latest information on cancer and gene therapy, diagnosis, drug delivery, green synthesis of nano- and microparticles, and much more. Provides knowledge of the range of organic micro- and nanostructures available, enabling the reader to make optimal materials selection decisions Presents detailed information on current and proposed applications of the latest biomedical materials Places a strong emphasis on the characterization, production and use of organic nanoparticles in biomedicine, such as gene therapy, DNA interaction and cancer management

Nanoparticles and Their Conjugates for Biomedical Applications

Nanoparticles and Their Conjugates for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Aneeya Kumar Samantara
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019-12-16
ISBN : 9781536165968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rapid developments in nanostructured materials and nanotechnology will have a profound impact in many areas of biomedical applications including delivery of drugs and biomolecules, tissue engineering, detection of biomarkers, cancer diagnosis, cancer therapy, and imaging. This field is expanding fast, and a lot of work is in progress in terms of design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, for controlling shape and size at nanometer scale to develop highly advanced materials for biomedical application and even to design better pharmaceutical products. In recent years, specific attempts have been made to acquire multi-functional nanostructures that could possibly solve the plethora of issues and voids often encountered in both medicinal and biological researches. This book, comprising six chapters, emphasizes the practical implementation of few well-known as well as advanced nanostructured materials for the betterment of human health and diagnostic tools. Each chapter emphasizes a single aspect of the nanostructures in broader context, providing a brief history, current status, and emerging trends in the same field. In Chapter 1, authors have provided a detailed account of the implementation of nanostructures in the sensing of several key biomolecules, which can detect the well-being of both internal and external structures of the human body. Chapter 2 presents a brief analysis of the current therapeutics focusing on their viability and shortcomings, and addressing the same through the implementation of nanotechnology. Chapter 3 encompasses the challenges in the field of cell-imaging and detection of biomarkers. Authors have provided a vivid explanation regarding the solution of such challenges through designing and functionalization of several metallic nanoparticles including quantum dots. In Chapter 4, a brief account of the application of nanostructures in the area of tissue engineering and magnetic resonance imaging has been discussed. In Chapter 5, nanomedicines have been introduced by the authors as an advanced diagnostic and therapeutic option as compared to the traditionally available solutions for oral cancer treatment. Finally, Chapter 6 discusses the application of nanotechnology (both organic and inorganic nanoparticles) in restorative dentistry. Also, possible biocompatibility and toxicity of the nanostructures have been discussed so as to streamline the process of selection of suitable tooth implants and oral cleansing techniques.

Hybrid Nanomaterials

Hybrid Nanomaterials Book
Author : Weibo Cai,Feng Chen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-05-25
ISBN : 1315353784
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last decade, an unprecedented expansion in the field of nanomedicine has resulted in the development of new nanomaterials for diagnosis and therapy of various diseases such as cancer. This book covers the design, synthesis and applications of various functionally-hybridized nanomaterials for biomedical applications. It includes strategies for design and synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials, surface engineering of various nanoparticle-based hybrid nanosystems for cancer imaging and therapy, toxicity aspects of nanomaterials and the challenges in translation research of hybrid nanomaterials.

Nanotechnology Characterization Tools for Tissue Engineering and Medical Therapy

Nanotechnology Characterization Tools for Tissue Engineering and Medical Therapy Book
Author : Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-22
ISBN : 3662595966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ninth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Nanotechnology Characterization Tools for Tissue Engineering and Medical Therapy. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Biomedical Engineering and its Applications in Healthcare

Biomedical Engineering and its Applications in Healthcare Book
Author : Sudip Paul
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-08
ISBN : 9811337055
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book illustrates the significance of biomedical engineering in modern healthcare systems. Biomedical engineering plays an important role in a range of areas, from diagnosis and analysis to treatment and recovery and has entered the public consciousness through the proliferation of implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and artificial hips, as well as the more futuristic technologies such as stem cell engineering and 3-D printing of biological organs. Starting with an introduction to biomedical engineering, the book then discusses various tools and techniques for medical diagnostics and treatment and recent advances. It also provides comprehensive and integrated information on rehabilitation engineering, including the design of artificial body parts, and the underlying principles, and standards. It also presents a conceptual framework to clarify the relationship between ethical policies in medical practice and philosophical moral reasoning. Lastly, the book highlights a number of challenges associated with modern healthcare technologies.

Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells Tissues and Organs

Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells  Tissues and Organs Book
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2018-02-14
ISBN : 0128136669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructures for the Engineering of Cells: Tissues and Organs showcases recent advances in pharmaceutical nanotechnology, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering, organ and cell applications. The book provides an up-to-date overview of organ targeting and cell targeting using nanotechnology. In addition, tissue engineering applications, such as skin regeneration are also discussed. Written by a diverse range of international academics, this book is a valuable research resource for researchers working in the biomaterials, medical and pharmaceutical industries. Explains how nanomaterials regulate different cell behavior and function as a carrier for different biomolecules Shows how nanobiomaterials and nanobiodevices are used in a range of treatment areas, such as skin tissue, wound healing and bone regeneration Discusses nanomaterial preparation strategies for pharmaceutical application and regenerative medicine

Biomedical Nanostructures

Biomedical Nanostructures Book
Author : Kenneth Gonsalves,Craig Halberstadt,Cato T. Laurencin,Lakshmi Nair
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-11-09
ISBN : 0470185821
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learn to Use Nanoscale Materials to Design Novel Biomedical Devices and Applications Discover how to take full advantage of nanoscale materials in the design and fabrication of leading-edge biomedical devices. The authors introduce you to a variety of possible clinical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and cancer therapy. In addition, the authors explore the interface between micron and nanoscale materials for the development of applications such as tissue engineering. Finally, they examine the mechanisms of cell interactions with material surfaces through the use of nanotechnology-based material processing and characterization methods. The text's three sections highlight its interdisciplinary approach: * Part One: Nanostructure Fabrication * Part Two: Bio-Nano Interfaces * Part Three: Clinical Applications of Nanostructures Among the key topics covered are nanotechnology in tissue regeneration; biomolecular engineering; receptor-ligand interactions; cell-biomaterial interactions; nanomaterials in diagnostics, drug delivery, and cancer therapy; and nano- and micron-level engineering and fabrication. Throughout the text, clear examples guide you through the chemistry and the processing involved in designing and developing nanoscale materials for biomedical devices. Each chapter begins with an introduction and ends with a conclusion highlighting the key points. In addition, references at the end of the chapter help you expand your research on any individual topic. In summary, this book helps biomedical researchers and engineers understand the physical phenomena that occur at the nanoscale in order to design novel cell-based constructs for a wide range of applications.

Biomedical Engineering Concepts Methodologies Tools and Applications

Biomedical Engineering  Concepts  Methodologies  Tools  and Applications Book
Author : Management Association, Information Resources
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2017-07-13
ISBN : 1522531599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Technological tools and computational techniques have enhanced the healthcare industry. These advancements have led to significant progress and novel opportunities for biomedical engineering. Biomedical Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is an authoritative reference source for emerging scholarly research on trends, techniques, and future directions in the field of biomedical engineering technologies. Highlighting a comprehensive range of topics such as nanotechnology, biomaterials, and robotics, this multi-volume book is ideally designed for medical practitioners, professionals, students, engineers, and researchers interested in the latest developments in biomedical technology.

Protein based Engineered Nanostructures

Protein based Engineered Nanostructures Book
Author : Aitziber L. Cortajarena,Tijana Z. Grove
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-27
ISBN : 3319391968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is devoted to the engineering of protein-based nanostructures and nanomaterials. One key challenge in nanobiotechnology is to be able to exploit the natural repertoire of protein structures and functions to build materials with defined properties at the nanoscale using “bottom-up” strategies. This book addresses in an integrated manner all the critical aspects that need to be understood and considered to design the next generation of nano-bio assemblies. The book covers first the fundamentals of the design and features of the protein building blocks and their self-assembly illustrating some of the most relevant examples of nanostructural design. Finally, the book contains a section dedicated to demonstrated applications of these novel bioinspired nanostructures in different fields from hybrid nanomaterials to regenerative medicine. This book provides a comprehensive updated review of this rapidly evolving field.

Nanoengineering Materials for Biomedical Uses

Nanoengineering Materials for Biomedical Uses Book
Author : Emilio I. Alarcon,Manuel Ahumada
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-02
ISBN : 3030312615
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book fills the gap between fundamental and applied research in the use of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, covering the most relevant areas, such as the fundamental concepts of the preparation of nanostructures and regulatory requirements for their safe use in biomedical devices. It also critically discusses what has been achieved in the field, and what needs to be urgently addressed and reviews the state-of-the-art medical uses of nanomaterials for treating damaged organs and tissues. Combining the expertise of clinical researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and novel materials, the book explores the main topics regarding the characterization of materials, specific organ-oriented biomaterials and their applications, as well as regulations and safety. Further, it also examines recent advances, difficulties, and clinical requirements in terms of human bone, cornea, heart, skin and the nervous system, allowing readers to gain a clear and comprehensive understanding of current nanomaterial use in biomedical applications and devices, together with the challenges and future trends. This book is a valuable tool for multidisciplinary scientists and experts interested in fundamental concepts and synthetic routes for preparing nanomaterials. It is also of interest to students and researchers involved in cross-disciplinary research in nanomaterials for clinical applications and offers practical insights for clinicians as well as engineers and materials scientists working in nanoengineering.

Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery Imaging and Tissue Engineering

Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery  Imaging  and Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Ashutosh Tiwari,Atul Tiwari
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-02-19
ISBN : 1118644743
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This groundbreaking, multidisciplinary work is one of the first books to cover Nanotheragnostics, the new developmental edge of nanomedicine. Through a collection of authoritative chapters, the book reports on nanoscopic therapeutic systems that incorporate therapeutic agents, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities. An invaluable reference for researchers in materials science, bioengineering, pharmacy, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, this volume features four main parts on biomedical nanomaterials, advanced nanomedicine, nanotheragnostics, and nanoscaffolds technology.

Nanotechnology Applications for Tissue Engineering

Nanotechnology Applications for Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,Neethu Ninan
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2015-01-03
ISBN : 0323353037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tissue engineering involves seeding of cells on bio-mimicked scaffolds providing adhesive surfaces. Researchers though face a range of problems in generating tissue which can be circumvented by employing nanotechnology. It provides substrates for cell adhesion and proliferation and agents for cell growth and can be used to create nanostructures and nanoparticles to aid the engineering of different types of tissue. Written by renowned scientists from academia and industry, this book covers the recent developments, trends and innovations in the application of nanotechnologies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It provides information on methodologies for designing and using biomaterials to regenerate tissue, on novel nano-textured surface features of materials (nano-structured polymers and metals e.g.) as well as on theranostics, immunology and nano-toxicology aspects. In the book also explained are fabrication techniques for production of scaffolds to a series of tissue-specific applications of scaffolds in tissue engineering for specific biomaterials and several types of tissue (such as skin bone, cartilage, vascular, cardiac, bladder and brain tissue). Furthermore, developments in nano drug delivery, gene therapy and cancer nanotechonology are described. The book helps readers to gain a working knowledge about the nanotechnology aspects of tissue engineering and will be of great use to those involved in building specific tissue substitutes in reaching their objective in a more efficient way. It is aimed for R&D and academic scientists, lab engineers, lecturers and PhD students engaged in the fields of tissue engineering or more generally regenerative medicine, nanomedicine, medical devices, nanofabrication, biofabrication, nano- and biomaterials and biomedical engineering. Provides state-of-the-art knowledge on how nanotechnology can help tackling known problems in tissue engineering Covers materials design, fabrication techniques for tissue-specific applications as well as immunology and toxicology aspects Helps scientists and lab engineers building tissue substitutes in a more efficient way

Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications

Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Rüdiger Klingeler,Robert B. Sim
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-02-09
ISBN : 3642148026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explores the potential of multi-functional carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications. It combines contributions from chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and medicine. The complete overview of the state-of-the-art addresses different synthesis and biofunctionalisation routes and shows the structural and magnetic properties of nanotubes relevant to biomedical applications. Particular emphasis is put on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with biological environments, i.e. toxicity, biocompatibility, cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, interaction with the immune system and environmental impact. The insertion of NMR-active substances allows diagnostic usage as markers and sensors, e.g. for imaging and contactless local temperature sensing. The potential of nanotubes for therapeutic applications is highlighted by studies on chemotherapeutic drug filling and release, targeting and magnetic hyperthermia studies for anti-cancer treatment at the cellular level.

Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications

Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Raji Vijayamma,Nandakumar Kalarikkal,Sabu Thomas
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-06-15
ISBN : 9780323908382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches of nanostructured materials useful in various biomedical applications. This book provides a comprehensive review of the state of the art in bio-nanotechnology with an emphasis on the diverse biomedical applications, such as in drug delivery, bioimaging, hyperthermia and targeted cancer therapy. Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications offers a broad introductory reference for those who are new to the field or who wish to gain a thorough overview of nanostructured materials in the context of biomedical applications. The breadth of this book will appeal to an interdisciplinary audience, including materials scientists, pharmaceutical scientists and biomedical engineers. Covers a range of nanomaterial types, including metal nanoparticles, luminescent nanoparticles, cubosomes, smart nanostructures and much more Reviews the diverse applications of nanomaterials in biomedicine, such as in theranostics, biosensing, cancer therapy, drug delivery and tissue engineering Provides a concise, introductory reference for those new to the fields of bionanomaterials and bio-nanotechnology

Materials for Biomedical Engineering Bioactive Materials for Antimicrobial Anticancer and Gene Therapy

Materials for Biomedical Engineering  Bioactive Materials for Antimicrobial  Anticancer  and Gene Therapy Book
Author : Alexandru Grumezescu,Alina-Maria Holban
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-28
ISBN : 0128184361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials for Biomedical Engineering: Bioactive Materials for Antimicrobial, Anticancer, and Gene Therapy offers an up-to-date perspective on recent research findings regarding the application and use of these materials for disease treatment and prevention. Various types of currently investigated bioactive materials, including therapeutic nanostructures and antimicrobial hydrogels are discussed, as are their properties, impact and future role in therapeutic applications. The book will be extremely useful for new researchers who want to explore more information on the use of bioactive materials or for more experienced researchers who are interested in new trends and specific applications. Provides knowledge on the range of bioactive materials available, enabling the reader to make optimal materials selection decisions Contains detailed information on current and proposed applications of the latest bioactive materials to empower readers to design innovative products and processes Presents a strong emphasis on chemistry and the physico-chemical characterization of these materials and their application in antimicrobial, anticancer and gene therapy

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy Book
Author : Anton Ficai,Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-05-29
ISBN : 0323461514
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy discusses the pros and cons of the use of nanostructured materials in the prevention and eradication of infections, highlighting the efficient microbicidal effect of nanoparticles against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and biofilms. Conventional antibiotics are becoming ineffective towards microorganisms due to their widespread and often inappropriate use. As a result, the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms is increasingly being reported. New approaches are needed to confront the rising issues related to infectious diseases. The merging of biomaterials, such as chitosan, carrageenan, gelatin, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) with nanotechnology provides a promising platform for antimicrobial therapy as it provides a controlled way to target cells and induce the desired response without the adverse effects common to many traditional treatments. Nanoparticles represent one of the most promising therapeutic treatments to the problem caused by infectious micro-organisms resistant to traditional therapies. This volume discusses this promise in detail, and also discusses what challenges the greater use of nanoparticles might pose to medical professionals. The unique physiochemical properties of nanoparticles, combined with their growth inhibitory capacity against microbes has led to the upsurge in the research on nanoparticles as antimicrobials. The importance of bactericidal nanobiomaterials study will likely increase as development of resistant strains of bacteria against most potent antibiotics continues. Shows how nanoantibiotics can be used to more effectively treat disease Discusses the advantages and issues of a variety of different nanoantibiotics, enabling medics to select which best meets their needs Provides a cogent summary of recent developments in this field, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this topic area

Nanostructures for Novel Therapy

Nanostructures for Novel Therapy Book
Author : Denisa Ficai,Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-02-25
ISBN : 0323461484
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructures for Novel Therapy: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications focuses on the fabrication and characterization of therapeutic nanostructures, in particular, synthesis, design, and in vitro and in vivo therapeutic evaluation. The chapters provide a cogent overview of recent therapeutic applications of nanostructured materials that includes applications of nanostructured materials for wound healing in plastic surgery and stem cell therapy. The book explores the promise for more effective therapy through the use of nanostructured materials, while also assessing the challenges their use might pose from both an economic and medicinal point of view. This innovative look at how nanostructured materials are used in therapeutics will be of great benefit to researchers, providing a greater understanding of the different ways nanomaterials could improve medical treatment, along with a discussion of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to guarantee widespread availability. Outlines how the characteristics of nanostructures made from different materials gives particular properties that can be successfully used in therapeutics Compares the properties of different nanostructures, allowing medicinal chemists and engineers to select which are most appropriate for their needs Highlights new uses of nanostructures within the therapeutic field, enabling the discovery of new, more effective drugs

Behaviors and Persistence of Nanomaterials in Biomedical Applications

Behaviors and Persistence of Nanomaterials in Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Domenico Cassano,Valerio Voliani
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-06-01
ISBN : 111941895X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the last two decades, several promising engineered nanomaterials that combine therapeutic features and imaging functionalities have been presented, but very few have arrived on the market. The purpose of this book is to collect and comprehensively discuss the advances in this current and exciting topic in order to promote and enhance its growth. In the first part, a general introduction about the main features of both organic and inorganic nanomaterials is provided. Then, the most promising and innovative applications for cancer treatment and diagnostic are introduced. In the second part, an analysis of the nanomaterials in the market for healthcare applications is presented. The issue of unwanted accumulation of metals in organisms after the designed action is then discussed. Finally, the most recent progresses in the design of nanomaterials that are able to escape from organisms after the selected action are comprehensively described, and the perspectives of this exciting field provided.

Near Infrared Emitting Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Near Infrared Emitting Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Antonio Benayas,Eva Hemmer,Guosong Hong,Daniel Jaque
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-13
ISBN : 3030320367
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

​This book analyzes and evaluates the growing field of light-emitting nanoprobes as contrast agents for in vivo imaging and sensing. It is a comprehensive resource that critically analyzes the state of the art in an interdisciplinary manner, with a special focus on the shift of emission wavelengths into the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (ranging from 0.7 to 2 microns), which has greatly contributed to the latest advances in biomedical imaging and sensing. This book discusses merits of different contrast agents at nanoscale, and how their unique chemical and structural properties lead to the emission and interaction of light within the NIR window. Both the NIR-emitting materials and various surface modification strategies governing their interactions with the biological system at the “nano” level are discussed. Furthermore, different experimental techniques and protocols for NIR-light-based in vivo imaging and sensing are addressed to shed light on further understanding of the advantages and limitations of each category of these nanoprobes. Assembles the state of the art heretofore appearing in scientific literature into a comprehensive, multi-perspective guidebook on near infrared-emitting nanomaterials in an assortment of biomedical applications; Explains the physical, chemical, and biological phenomena underlying near infrared-emitting nanomaterials for biomedical applications; Presents conceptual and experimental approaches surrounding a unique spectral range of light emission from nanosized contrast agents, while offering a clear explanation of basic and general phenomena regarding the interaction between light and biological tissues, such as absorption, scattering and autofluorescence.