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Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Akhlesh Lakhtakia,Raúl José Martín-Palma
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0123914329
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineered Biomimicry covers a broad range of research topics in the emerging discipline of biomimicry. Biologically inspired science and technology, using the principles of math and physics, has led to the development of products as ubiquitous as VelcroTM (modeled after the spiny hooks on plant seeds and fruits). Readers will learn to take ideas and concepts like this from nature, implement them in research, and understand and explain diverse phenomena and their related functions. From bioinspired computing and medical products to biomimetic applications like artificial muscles, MEMS, textiles and vision sensors, Engineered Biomimicry explores a wide range of technologies informed by living natural systems. Engineered Biomimicry helps physicists, engineers and material scientists seek solutions in nature to the most pressing technical problems of our times, while providing a solid understanding of the important role of biophysics. Some physical applications include adhesion superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning, structural coloration, photonic devices, biomaterials and composite materials, sensor systems, robotics and locomotion, and ultra-lightweight structures. Explores biomimicry, a fast-growing, cross-disciplinary field in which researchers study biological activities in nature to make critical advancements in science and engineering Introduces bioinspiration, biomimetics, and bioreplication, and provides biological background and practical applications for each Cutting-edge topics include bio-inspired robotics, microflyers, surface modification and more

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Michael S. Ellison
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072687
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In a sense, the archetype of bioinspiration for materials design and use is textiles. The field of biomimesis has spawned many new materials and continues to be a fruitful field of investigation. This chapter presents the current state of bioinspiration in textiles, how this has resulted in improved fibrous materials, how it may inform our continued progress. Because I have found many preconceived notions about the field that need addressing before the application of biomimetics to textiles can be truly appreciated, I begin with an introduction to textiles. Next, naturally enough, the discipline of biomimesis is introduced and then fleshed out in terms of its textile engineering importance. Following this, some details on fiber and textile science and engineering are discussed and biological concepts germane to our topic are presented. In the last step in this journey, the marriage of biomimesis and textiles is performed and some consequences revealed. Finally, I offer some prognostications on the topic.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Javaan Chahl,Akiko Mizutani
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Insects are dependent on the spatial, spectral, and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This chapter reports on flight trials of implementations of insect-inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical-flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigational capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other demonstrated vision-based techniques include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low-cost inertial heading and attitude systems.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Aditi S. Risbud,Michael H. Bartl
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nature generates structurally complex architectures with feature sizes covering several length scales under rather simple environmental conditions and with limited resources. Today, researchers understand how many of these structures look and behave, but, in many instances, we still lack nature’s ability to marry elegant structures with complex functionality. By unraveling the wonders of nature’s design, scientists have developed biomimetic and biotemplated materials with entirely new functions and behaviors. In particular, solution-based methods provide simple, inexpensive routes to generating bioreplicated structures. In this chapter, we survey solution-based bioreplication methods and provide an example for generating three-dimensional photonic crystal structures based on colored weevil scales. This example illustrates how structural engineering in biology can be replicated using sol–gel chemistry and results in an entirely new optical material with fascinating properties.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Torben Lenau,Thomas Hesselberg
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072717
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Self-organization and self-healing appeal to humans because difficult and repeated actions can be avoided through automation via bottom-up nonhierarchical processes. This is in contrast to the top-level controlled manner we normally apply as an action strategy in manufacturing and maintenance work. This chapter presents eight different self-organizing and self-healing approaches in nature and takes a look at realized and potential applications. Furthermore, the core principles for each approach are described using simplified drawings in order to make the ideas behind the self-organizing and self-healing principles more accessible to design practitioners.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Blayne M. Phillips,Peng Jiang
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The compound eyes of moths are composed by hexagonal arrays of non-close-packed nipples that exhibit low reflectance. The outer surface of the cornea of a moth consists of periodic arrays of conical protuberances, termed corneal nipples, typically of sub-250nm height and spacing. These arrays of subwavelength nipples generate a graded transition of refractive index, leading to minimized reflection over a broad range of wavelengths and angles of incidence. In this chapter, the fabrication, characterization, and modeling of moth-eye antireflection coatings on both transparent substrates (e.g., glass) and semiconductor wafers (such as crystalline silicon and GaAs) are discussed.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Mohsen Shahinpoor
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072644
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter discusses properties and characteristics of ionic biopolymer-metal nanocomposites (IBMCs) as biomimetic multifunctional distributed nanoactuators, nanosensors, nanotransducers, and artificial muscles. After presenting some fundamental properties of biomimetic distributed nanosensing and nanoactuation of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) and IBMCs, the discussion extends to some recent advances in the manufacturing techniques and 3-D fabrication of IBMCs and some recent modeling and simulations, sensing and transduction, and product development. This chapter also presents procedures on how biopolymers such as chitosan and perfluorinated ionic polymers can be combined to make new nanocomposites with actuation, energy harvesting, and sensing capabilities. Chitin-based chitosan and ionic polymeric networks containing conjugated ions that can be redistributed by an imposed electric field and consequently act as distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, and artificial muscles are also discussed. The manufacturing methodologies are briefly discussed, and the fundamental properties and characteristics of biopolymeric muscles as artificial muscles are presented. Two ionic models based on linear irreversible thermodynamics as well as charge dynamics of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms are also presented. Intercalation of biopolymers and ionic polymers and subsequent chemical plating of them with a noble metal by a reduction-oxidation (redox) operation is also reported and the properties of the new product are briefly discussed.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Ranjan Vepa
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072628
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Some basic features of biomimetic robotics and the technologies that are facilitating their development are discussed in this chapter. The emergence of smart materials and structures, smart sensors and actuators capable of mimicking biological transducers, bio-inspired signal-processing techniques, modeling and control of manipulators resembling biological limbs, and the shape control of flexible systems are the primary areas in which recent technological advances have taken place. Some key applications of these technological developments in the design of morphing airfoils, modeling and control of anthropomorphic manipulators and muscle activation modeling, and control for human limb prosthetic and orthotic applications are discussed. Also discussed, with some typical examples, are the related developments in the application of nonlinear optimal control and estimation, which are fundamental to the success of biomimetic robotics.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Mohammad Mirkhalaf,Deju Zhu,Francois Barthelat
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 012807261X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials such as bone, teeth, and seashells possess remarkable combinations of properties despite the poor structural quality of their ingredients (brittle minerals and soft proteins). Nacre from mollusk shells is 3,000 times tougher than the brittle mineral it is made of, a level of toughness amplification currently unmatched by any engineering material. For this reason, nacre has become the model for bio-inspiration for novel structural materials. The structure of nacre is organized over several length scales, but the microscopic brick-and-mortar arrangement of the mineral tablets is prominent. This staggered structure provides a universal approach to arranging hard building blocks in nature and is also found in bone and teeth. Recent models have demonstrated how an attractive combination of stiffness, strength, and toughness can be achieved through the staggered structure. The fabrication of engineering materials that duplicate the structure, mechanics, and properties of natural nacre still present formidable challenges to this day.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Natalia Dushkina,Akhlesh Lakhtakia
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Structural colors originate in the scattering of light from ordered microstructures, thin films, and even irregular arrays of electrically small particles, but they are not produced by pigments. Examples include the flashing sparks of colors in opals and the brilliant hues of some butterflies such as Morpho rhetenor. Structural colors can be implemented industrially to produce structurally colored paints, fabrics, cosmetics, and sensors.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Cameron H.G. Wright,Steven F. Barrett
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072598
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter is focused on vision sensors based on both mammalian and insect vision systems. Typically, the former uses a single large-aperture lens system and a large, high-resolution focal plane array; the latter uses many small-aperture lenses, each coupled to a small group of photodetectors. The strengths and weaknesses of each type of design are discussed, along with some guidelines for designing such sensors. A brief review of basic optical engineering, including simple diffraction theory and mathematical tools such as Fourier optics, is followed by a demonstration of how to match an optical system to some collection of photodetectors. Modeling and simulations performed with tools such as Zemax and MATLAB® are described for better understanding of both optical and neural aspects of biological vision systems and how they may be adapted to an artificial vision sensor. A biomimetic vision system based on the common housefly, Musca domestica, is discussed.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Jayant Sirohi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072636
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter describes recent developments in the area of manmade microflyers. The design space for microflyers is described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturizing mechanisms, energy storage, and electronics. Aspects of aerodynamics at the scale of microflyers are discussed. Microflyer concepts developed by a number of researchers are described in detail. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed-wing micro air vehicles and micro-helicopters, are not addressed. Modeling of the aeromechanics of flapping wing microflyers is described with an illustrative example. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers are discussed.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Princeton Carter,Narayan Bhattarai
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072652
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffold architectures that closely approximate or effectively mimic native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for regenerative success. In tissue engineering, native differentiable cells are incorporated into 3D scaffolds along with growth factors and other proteins. Materials used for the 3D scaffold construction must be biocompatible and bioresorbable to minimize adverse reactions during tissue regeneration. A 3D architecture is created by utilizing materials with specific surface properties, porosity, mechanical strength, etc., to improve desired cell activity and enhance tissue growth. Ideal 3D scaffolds should also not only have hierarchical macroporous structures comparable to those of living tissue, but they should also have surface features on the nanometer scale to improve cell adhesion and accelerate cell in growth.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Raúl J. Martín-Palma,Akhlesh Lakhtakia
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The term vapor deposition encompasses a large palette of techniques essential for both the reproduction of certain structural features of a biotemplate and the replication of a biotemplate. Physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy are succinctly described in this chapter in the context of engineered biomimicry.

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Thamira Hindo,Shantanu Chakrabartty
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072601
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Even though current micro-nano fabrication technology has reached integration levels at which ultra-sensitive sensors can be fabricated, the sensing performance (bits per Joule) of synthetic systems are still orders of magnitude inferior to those observed in neurobiology. For example, the filiform hair in crickets operates at fundamental limits of noise and energy efficiency. Another example is the auditory sensor in the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea that can precisely localize ultra-faint acoustic signatures in spite of the underlying physical limitations. Even though many of these biological marvels have served as inspirations for different types of neuromorphic sensors, the main focus of these designs has been to faithfully replicate the biological functions, without considering the constructive role of noise. In manmade sensors, device and sensor noise are typically considered nuisances, whereas in neurobiology noise has been shown to be a computational aid that enables sensing and operation at fundamental limits of energy efficiency and performance. In this chapter, we describe some of the important noise exploitation and adaptation principles observed in neurobiology and how they can be systematically used for designing neuromorphic sensors. Our focus is on two types of noise exploitation principles, namely, (a) stochastic resonance and (b) noise shaping, which are unified within a framework called ΣΔ learning. As a case study, we describe the application of ΣΔ learning for the design of a miniature acoustic source localizer, the performance of which matches that of its biological counterpart (O. ochracea).

Engineered Biomimicry

Engineered Biomimicry Book
Author : Erwin A. Vogler
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-24
ISBN : 0128072660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The principal motivation behind surface engineering and modification for improved biocompatibility of a biomaterial is to control interactions of the biomaterial with components of living systems or subsets thereof in a manner that mimics the normal physiological state or produces a desired change in biological state. This pursuit of biomimicry is discussed in this chapter within the context of the core mechanisms of the biological response to materials. A tutorial on surfaces, interfaces, and interphases leads to the identification of specific targets for surface engineering and modification. These targets include water wettability (surface energy), surface chemistry, surface chemical patterns and surface textures, and surface presentation of biomimetic motifs. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the essential conceptual tools required for building a biomaterials surface science laboratory, illustrated with an example of modifying surfaces for improved cardiovascular biomaterials.

Biologically Inspired Design

Biologically Inspired Design Book
Author : Torben A. Lenau,Akhlesh Lakhtakia
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2021-01-15
ISBN : 163639048X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the existence of all life forms on our planet is currently in grave danger from the climate emergency caused by Homo sapiens, the words "sustainability" and "eco-responsibility" have entered the daily-use vocabularies of scientists, engineers, economists, business managers, industrialists, capitalists, and policy makers. Normal activities undertaken for the design of products and systems in industrialisms must be revamped. As the bioworld is a great resource for eco-responsible design activities, an overview of biologically inspired design is presented in this book in simple terms for anyone with even high-school education. Beginning with an introduction to the process of design in industry, the book presents the bioworld as a design resource along with the rationale for biologically inspired design. Problem-driven and solution-driven approaches for biologically inspired design are described next. The last chapter is focused on biologically inspired design for environment.

Nano and Biotech Based Materials for Energy Building Efficiency

Nano and Biotech Based Materials for Energy Building Efficiency Book
Author : F. Pacheco Torgal,Cinzia Buratti,S. Kalaiselvam,Claes-Göran Granqvist,Volodymyr Ivanov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-04
ISBN : 3319275054
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the current state of knowledge on nanomaterials and their use in buildings, ranging from glazing and vacuum insulation to PCM composites. It also discusses recent applications in organic photovoltaics, photo-bioreactors, bioplastics and foams, making it an exciting read while also providing copious references to current research and applications for those wanting to pursue possible future research directions. Derek Clements-Croome, Emeritus Professor in Architectural Engineering, University of Reading (From the Foreword) Demonstrating how higher energy efficiency in new and existing buildings can help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, this book details the way in which new technologies, manufacturing processes and products can serve to abate emissions from the energy sector and offer a cost-effective means of improving competitiveness and drive employment. Maximizing reader insights into how nano and biotech materials – such as aerogel based plasters, thermochromic glazings and thermal energy adsorbing glass, amongst others – can provide high energy efficiency performance in buildings, it provides practitioners in the field with an important high-tech tool to tackle key challenges and is essential reading for civil engineers, architects, materials scientists and researchers in the area of the sustainability of the built environment.

Fundamental and Applied Nano Electromagnetics

Fundamental and Applied Nano Electromagnetics Book
Author : Antonio Maffucci,Sergey A. Maksimenko
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-04-08
ISBN : 9401774781
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of “Nanoelectromagnetics”, a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercial thin-film coatings to metamaterials to circuit components and nanodevices. The book is intended as a reference in advanced courses for graduate students and as a guide for researchers and industrial professionals involved in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics applications.

Advanced Maritime Technologies and Applications

Advanced Maritime Technologies and Applications Book
Author : Azman Ismail,Wardiah Mohd Dahalan,Andreas Öchsner
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 3030899926
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the outcomes from the 2nd International Conference on Marine and Advanced Technologies 2021 (Icmat2021) which was organized by the Research and Innovation section, University Kuala Lumpur - Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology. The theme Propelling to the Innovative Idea highlights prominence of recent developments in marine and advanced technologies in the field of marine application, maritime operation, energy and reliability, advanced materials and applied science. This online conference provided a platform for presentations and discussions at the local and international level between educationists, researchers, students, and industrialists. Furthermore, it created opportunities to establish networks and meet experts in addition to exchange of up-to-date knowledge in the field. This book is the up-to-date reference, especially to those who want to learn and explore more about the latest developments and technologies of maritime industries.