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Emerging Policy Issues In Synthetic Biology

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Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2014-06-04
ISBN : 9264208429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines policy issues in synthetic biology including R&D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement.

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : OCDE
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9789264208414
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic biology is at such an early stage of development that there is no uniform agreement as yet about what it actually is. To some, it represents a natural extension of genetic engineering, and therefore is "business as usual". For others, it is a way to bring mass manufacturing out from the decades of biotechnology research. Currently the discipline is limited by the ability to synthesise DNA cost-effectively but this is a technical barrier that it is anticipated will be overcome. Synthetic biology raises a number of policy issues around R&D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement. In preparation for the continuing development and greater use of synthetic biology, some countries have started to prepare synthetic biology technical roadmaps and a global roadmap for the medium term would be an extremely useful policy tool. Technical roadmaps could both identify likely future policy requirements, and be a useful vehicle in public engagement.

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology

Emerging Policy Issues in Synthetic Biology Book
Author : OECD. OCDE
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9781306934848
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic biology is at such an early stage of development that there is no uniform agreement as yet about what it actually is. To some, it represents a natural extension of genetic engineering, and therefore is "business as usual". For others, it is a way to bring mass manufacturing out from the decades of biotechnology research. Currently the discipline is limited by the ability to synthesise DNA cost-effectively but this is a technical barrier that it is anticipated will be overcome. Synthetic biology raises a number of policy issues around R & D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement. In preparation for the continuing development and greater use of synthetic biology, some countries have started to prepare synthetic biology technical roadmaps and a global roadmap for the medium term would be an extremely useful policy tool. Technical roadmaps could both identify likely future policy requirements, and be a useful vehicle in public engagement.

The Patentability of Synthetic Biology Inventions

The Patentability of Synthetic Biology Inventions Book
Author : Ilaria de Lisa
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-09-29
ISBN : 3030512061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses Synthetic Biology (SynBio), a new and promising biotechnology that has attracted much interest from both a scientific and a policy perspective. Yet, questions concerning the patentability of SynBio inventions have not been examined in detail so far; as a result, it remains unclear whether these inventions are patentable on the basis of current norms and case law. The book addresses this question, focusing especially on the subject matter’s eligibility and moral criteria. It provides an overview of the legislation and decisions applicable to SynBio patents and examines this new technology in view of the ongoing debate over the patentability of biotechnologies in general. The legal analysis is complemented by the practical examination of several patent applications submitted to the European and US patent offices (EPO and USPTO), and by an assessment of the patent issues that are likely to be raised by future SynBio developments.

Insecurity and Emerging Biotechnology

Insecurity and Emerging Biotechnology Book
Author : Brett Edwards
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-02-05
ISBN : 3030021882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines how emergent trends in innovation and its governance are raising new and old questions about how to control technology. It develops a new framework for understanding how emergent fields of science and technology emerge as security concerns; and the key challenges these fields pose from a global security perspective. The study focuses on the politics which have surrounded the emergent field of Synthetic Biology, a field which has become emblematic of both the potentials and limits of more preemptive approaches to governance. This highly accessible work will be of interest to both scholars and practitioners working on the ethical responsibilities of innovators and the assessment of emergent technology as well as the global governance of weapons.

Socio Technical Futures Shaping the Present

Socio Technical Futures Shaping the Present Book
Author : Andreas Lösch,Armin Grunwald,Martin Meister,Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-11
ISBN : 3658271558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

​The exploration of ways to conceptualize the shaping of the present by socio‐technical futures is the aim of this volume. Therefore it brings together contributions from Science and Technology Studies and Technology Assessment, which focus all on the question how socio-technical images of the future shape present processes of innovation and transformation starting from empirical case studies and generalizing specific findings or by tackling conceptual questions from the outset. A white paper of 23 authors, which aims to sensitize researchers and practitioners completes the volume.

Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century

Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century Book
Author : National Research Council,National Academy of Engineering,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-08-05
ISBN : 0309225868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic biology -- unlike any research discipline that precedes it -- has the potential to bypass the less predictable process of evolution to usher in a new and dynamic way of working with living systems. Ultimately, synthetic biologists hope to design and build engineered biological systems with capabilities that do not exist in natural systems -- capabilities that may ultimately be used for applications in manufacturing, food production, and global health. Importantly, synthetic biology represents an area of science and engineering that raises technical, ethical, regulatory, security, biosafety, intellectual property, and other issues that will be resolved differently in different parts of the world. As a better understanding of the global synthetic biology landscape could lead to tremendous benefits, six academies -- the United Kingdom's Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, the United States' National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, and the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering -- organized a series of international symposia on the scientific, technical, and policy issues associated with synthetic biology. Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century summarizes the symposia proceedings.

Industrialization of Biology

Industrialization of Biology Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-06-29
ISBN : 0309316553
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved drugs and diagnostics, and biofuels that reduce our dependency on oil are all results of research and innovation in the biological sciences. In the past decade, we have witnessed major advances made possible by biotechnology in areas such as rapid, low-cost DNA sequencing, metabolic engineering, and high-throughput screening. The manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster. A proactive strategy - implemented through the development of a technical roadmap similar to those that enabled sustained growth in the semiconductor industry and our explorations of space - is needed if we are to realize the widespread benefits of accelerating the industrialization of biology. Industrialization of Biology presents such a roadmap to achieve key technical milestones for chemical manufacturing through biological routes. This report examines the technical, economic, and societal factors that limit the adoption of bioprocessing in the chemical industry today and which, if surmounted, would markedly accelerate the advanced manufacturing of chemicals via industrial biotechnology. Working at the interface of synthetic chemistry, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology, Industrialization of Biology identifies key technical goals for next-generation chemical manufacturing, then identifies the gaps in knowledge, tools, techniques, and systems required to meet those goals, and targets and timelines for achieving them. This report also considers the skills necessary to accomplish the roadmap goals, and what training opportunities are required to produce the cadre of skilled scientists and engineers needed.

Intellectual Property and Emerging Technologies

Intellectual Property and Emerging Technologies Book
Author : Matthew Rimmer,Alison McLennan
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 1781001189
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique and comprehensive collection investigates the challenges posed to intellectual property by recent paradigm shifts in biology. It explores the legal ramifications of emerging technologies, such as genomics, synthetic biology, stem cell research, nanotechnology, and biodiscovery. Extensive contributions examine recent controversial court decisions in patent law such as Bilski v. Kappos, and the litigation over Myriad's patents in respect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 while other papers explore sui generis fields, such as access to genetic resources, plant breeders' rights, and traditional knowledge. The collection considers the potential and the risks of the new biology for global challenges such as access to health-care, the protection of the environment and biodiversity, climate change, and food security. It also considers Big Science projects such as biobanks, the 1000 Genomes Project, and the Doomsday Vault. The inter-disciplinary research brings together the work of scholars from Australia, Canada, Europe, the UK and the US and involves not only legal analysis of case law and policy developments, but also historical, comparative, sociological, and ethical methodologies. Intellectual Property and Emerging Technologies will appeal to policy-makers, legal practitioners, business managers, inventors, scientists and researchers.

Emerging Conceptual Ethical and Policy Issues in Bionanotechnology

Emerging Conceptual  Ethical and Policy Issues in Bionanotechnology Book
Author : Fabrice Jotterand
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-20
ISBN : 1402086490
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiotechnology is the convergence of existing and new biotechnology with the 1 ability to manipulate matter at or near the molecular level. This ability to manipulate matter on a scale of 100 nanometers (nm) or less is what constitutes the nanotechnology revolution occurring today, the potentially vast economic and social implications of which are yet to be fully understood (Royal Society, 2004). The most immediate way to understand the implications of nanobiotechnology for ethics is to consider the real life concerns of communities that are mobilizing within civil society. The conflicts and ethical debates surrounding nanotechnology will, almost by definition, emerge on the fault lines between different civil society actors, researchers and financial interests associated with nanobiotechnology, as well as (potentially) government regulators. These fault lines are all reflected within the concerns (as expressed d- cursively) of the communities mobilizing. This chapter will explore converging d- courses regarding converging technologies. Converging Technologies (CT) are already a familiar theme in the next gene- tion of biotechnology, nanotechnology, pharmacogenomics and proteomics research 2 and development. Nanobiotechnology means that previously separate disciplines (IT, physics, chemistry, and biology) are merging and converging to create new applications and even new life forms through converged technological platforms. Schummer (2004), and Glimell and Fogelberg (2003, p. 43), note the predominance of interdisciplinarity as a core theme of nano-discourse.

OECD Science Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016

OECD Science  Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016 Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2016-12-08
ISBN : 9264263063
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fully revamped and re-titled OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook is a biennial publication that aims to inform policy makers and analysts on recent and future changes in global science, technology and innovation (STI) patterns and their potential implications.

The OECD Observer

The OECD Observer Book
Author : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010-10
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The OECD Observer book written by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

OECD Science Technology and Innovation Outlook 2021 Times of Crisis and Opportunity

OECD Science  Technology and Innovation Outlook 2021 Times of Crisis and Opportunity Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2021-01-12
ISBN : 9264784322
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In immediate responses to the COVID-19 crisis, science and innovation are playing essential roles in providing a better scientific understanding of the virus, as well as in the development of vaccines, treatments and diagnostics. Both the public and private sectors have poured billions of dollars into these efforts, accompanied by unprecedented levels of global cooperation.

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic Biology Book
Author : Huimin Zhao
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 9780123944306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic Biology provides a framework to examine key enabling components in the emerging area of synthetic biology. Chapters contributed by leaders in the field address tools and methodologies developed for engineering biological systems at many levels, including molecular, pathway, network, whole cell, and multi-cell levels. The book highlights exciting practical applications of synthetic biology such as microbial production of biofuels and drugs, artificial cells, synthetic viruses, and artificial photosynthesis. The roles of computers and computational design are discussed, as well as future prospects in the field, including cell-free synthetic biology and engineering synthetic ecosystems. Synthetic biology is the design and construction of new biological entities, such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells, or the redesign of existing biological systems. It builds on the advances in molecular, cell, and systems biology and seeks to transform biology in the same way that synthesis transformed chemistry and integrated circuit design transformed computing. The element that distinguishes synthetic biology from traditional molecular and cellular biology is the focus on the design and construction of core components that can be modeled, understood, and tuned to meet specific performance criteria and the assembly of these smaller parts and devices into larger integrated systems that solve specific biotechnology problems. Includes contributions from leaders in the field presents examples of ambitious synthetic biology efforts including creation of artificial cells from scratch, cell-free synthesis of chemicals, fuels, and proteins, engineering of artificial photosynthesis for biofuels production, and creation of unnatural living organisms Describes the latest state-of-the-art tools developed for low-cost synthesis of ever-increasing sizes of DNA and efficient modification of proteins, pathways, and genomes Highlights key technologies for analyzing biological systems at the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels which are especially valuable in pathway, whole cell, and multi-cell applications Details mathematical modeling tools and computational tools which can dramatically increase the speed of the design process as well as reduce the cost of development.

Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century

Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century Book
Author : Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Academy of Engineering,National Research Council
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-08-19
ISBN : 0309225841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic biology -- unlike any research discipline that precedes it -- has the potential to bypass the less predictable process of evolution to usher in a new and dynamic way of working with living systems. Ultimately, synthetic biologists hope to design and build engineered biological systems with capabilities that do not exist in natural systems -- capabilities that may ultimately be used for applications in manufacturing, food production, and global health. Importantly, synthetic biology represents an area of science and engineering that raises technical, ethical, regulatory, security, biosafety, intellectual property, and other issues that will be resolved differently in different parts of the world. As a better understanding of the global synthetic biology landscape could lead to tremendous benefits, six academies -- the United Kingdom's Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, the United States' National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, and the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering -- organized a series of international symposia on the scientific, technical, and policy issues associated with synthetic biology. Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century summarizes the symposia proceedings.

Microbial Resources

Microbial Resources Book
Author : Ipek Kurtböke
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-03-31
ISBN : 012805140X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial Resources: From Functional Existence in Nature to Applications provides an exciting interdisciplinary journey through the rapidly developing field of microbial resources, including relationships to aspects of microbiology. Covers the functional existence of microorganisms in nature, as well as the transfer of this knowledge for industrial and other applications. Examines the economic perspective of revealing the potential value of microbial material and figuring it into socio-economic value; legal perspectives; and how to organize a fair allotment of socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders who have effectively contributed to the preservation, study, and exploitation of microbiological material. Covers aspects of foundational information related to microbiology, microbial ecology, and diversity, as well as new advances in microbial genomics Provides information on the utilization of microbial resources in biotechnology Covers legislative issues and related law in biodiscovery Fills a need for a very broad audience and is a good resource for microbiologists seeking to know the extent of microbiology approaches, the policies associated with microbiology, and potential career paths for researchers Has significant added value due to the inclusion of comprehensive coverage of the biology, ecology, biochemistry and international legislation surrounding these applications

OECD Health Policy Studies Addressing Dementia The OECD Response

OECD Health Policy Studies Addressing Dementia The OECD Response Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2015-03-13
ISBN : 9264231722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the large and growing human and financial cost of dementia and discusses policy options for improving care, controlling costs, and facilitating research.

Super Soldiers

Super Soldiers Book
Author : Jai Galliott,Mianna Lotz
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-03-03
ISBN : 1317048423
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Spartan City State produced what is probably one of the most iconic and ruthless military forces in recorded history. They believed that military training and education began at birth. Post-World War II saw a shift to army tanks, fighter jets and missiles that would go on to fight the next huge battle in Northern Europe. Today, with the advent of unmanned systems, our hopes are attached to the idea that we can fight our battles with soldiers pressing buttons in distant command centres. However, soldiers must now be highly trained, super strong and have the intelligence and mental capacity to handle the highly complex and dynamic military operating environment. It is only now as we progress into the twenty-first century that we are getting closer to realising the Spartan ideal and creating a soldier that can endure more than ever before. This book provides the first comprehensive and unifying analysis of the moral, legal and social questions concerning military human enhancement, with a view toward developing guidance and policy that may influence real-world decision making.