Skip to main content

Ecofriendly Pest Management For Food Security

In Order to Read Online or Download Ecofriendly Pest Management For Food Security Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security

Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security Book
Author : Omkar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-02-03
ISBN : 0128032669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security explores the broad range of opportunity and challenges afforded by Integrated Pest Management systems. The book focuses on the insect resistance that has developed as a result of pest control chemicals, and how new methods of environmentally complementary pest control can be used to suppress harmful organisms while protecting the soil, plants, and air around them. As the world’s population continues its rapid increase, this book addresses the production of cereals, vegetables, fruits, and other foods and their subsequent demand increase. Traditional means of food crop production face proven limitations and increasing research is turning to alternative means of crop growth and protection. Addresses environmentally focused pest control with specific attention to its role in food security and sustainability. Includes a range of pest management methods, from natural enemies to biomolecules. Written by experts with extensive real-world experience.

Climate Resilient Agriculture for Ensuring Food Security

Climate Resilient Agriculture for Ensuring Food Security Book
Author : P. Parvatha Reddy
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-12-26
ISBN : 8132221990
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Climate Resilient Agriculture for Ensuring Food Security comprehensively deals with important aspects of climate resilient agriculture for food security using adaptation and mitigation measures. Climatic changes and increasing climatic variability are likely to aggravate the problem of future food security by exerting pressure on agriculture. For the past few decades, the gaseous composition of the earth’s atmosphere has been undergoing significant changes, largely through increased emissions from the energy, industry and agriculture sectors; widespread deforestation as well as fast changes in land use and land management practices. Agriculture and food systems must improve and ensure food security, and to do so they need to adapt to climate change and natural resource pressures, and contribute to mitigating climate change. Climate-resilient agriculture contributes to sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes, adapting and building resilience to climate change and reducing and/or eliminating greenhouse gas emissions where possible. The information on climate resilient agriculture for ensuring food security is widely scattered. There is currently no other book that comprehensively and exclusively deals with the above aspects of agriculture and focuses on ensuring food security. This volume is divided into fourteen chapters, which include the Introduction, Causes of Climate Change, Agriculture as a Source of Greenhouse Gases, Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture, Regional Impacts on Climate Change, Impacts on Crop Protection, Impacts on Insect and Mite Pests, Impacts on Plant Pathogens, Impacts on Nematode Pests, Impacts on Weeds, Impacts on Integrated Pest Management, Climate Change Adaptation, Climate Change Mitigation, and A Road Map Ahead. The book is extensively illustrated with excellent photographs, which enhance the quality of publication. It is clearly written, using easy-to-understand language. It also provides adoptable recommendations involving eco-friendly adaptation and mitigation measures. This book will be of immense value to the scientific community involved in teaching, research and extension activities. The material can also be used for teaching post-graduate courses. It will also serve as a very useful reference source for policy makers.

Microbes for Sustainable Lnsect Pest Management

Microbes for Sustainable Lnsect Pest Management Book
Author : Md. Aslam Khan,Wasim Ahmad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 303067231X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The search for new strategies of pest control with safer molecules is currently of great importance and interest. Microbe-mediated biological crop protection is an attractive and promising technology with no concern for a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity. Microbial hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, chitinases, lipases, etc. are attractive for this purpose. They present toxic properties and act synergistically to control pest attacks. Also, some metabolites, that microorganisms produce for their survival or defense, can be explored and exploited for plant protection. The focus of this Volume is on the potential of microbial hydrolytic enzymes and their metabolites in agroecosystem functioning. Subsequent chapters review topics such as microbial hydrolytic enzymes as powerful management tools, chitinases in IPM of agro-horticultural crops, metabolites as pesticides and the importance of the metabolites of entomopathogenic fungi, metabolites and virulence factors. Other topic as include: microbial-based nanoparticles, recombinant DNA technologies to improve the efficacy of microbial insecticides, the effects of entomopathogens on insect predators and parasitoids, and the management of major vegetable insect pests. This Volume provides detailed accounts on the safe use of microbial products for sustainable management of insect pests. Its aim is to build solid foundations for the students, teachers, and researchers interested in eco-friendly management of important insect crop pests.

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Book
Author : David Pimentel,Rajinder Peshin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-10
ISBN : 9400777965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The book deals with the present state and problems of integrated pest management as relating to stakeholder acceptance of IPM and how integrated pest management can become a sustainable practice. The discussions include using less pesticides and the possibility of eliminating pesticides from agricultural practice.

Microbes for Sustainable Insect Pest Management

Microbes for Sustainable Insect Pest Management Book
Author : Md. Aslam Khan,Wasim Ahmad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-09-16
ISBN : 3030230457
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This Volume comprises 14 chapters in an attempt to provide the reader with available information on safe and effective use of entomopathogens. Chapters in this book dealing with soil-borne entomopathogens and their phylogeny also provide a review on most updated information of their isolation and molecular identification. Employing fungal pathogens in biological control programmes plays a key role, and conidial thermotolerance and oxidative stress are examined in separate chapters. Entomopathogenic bacteria are able to kill their hosts quickly. An important contribution concerns informations provided upon bacterial cytotoxic factors on insect haemocytes. Nematodes are biological control agents safe to the environment. The information with respect to their direct and indirect effects on non-target organisms is provided. Viruses as highly specific, virulent candidates for use as biological insecticides are safe to non-target species. A separate chapter on the role of granuloviruses in IPM contributes a wealth of information. Biopesticides in combination with synthetic insecticides are reported as effective, economic, and eco-friendly. Understanding their interactions will certainly promote their uses. Finally, emphasis has been given on reviewing synergistic and antagonistic interactions of microbial and chemical pesticides, in other chapters.

Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture

Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture Book
Author : Rakhimol K. R.,Sabu Thomas,Tatiana Volova,Jayachandran K.
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-01
ISBN : 3030233960
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book ​presents an introduction to the concept and need of sustainable agriculture, the mechanisms of conventional and controlled release of pesticides, herbicides and plant hormones. It also contains the carriers which supply controlled release including polymers and nanoparticles. A full chapter is devoted to the theory and simulation aspects.

Nature Based Solutions to 21st Century Challenges

Nature Based Solutions to 21st Century Challenges Book
Author : Robert C. Brears
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-04-15
ISBN : 100004775X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book provides a systematic review of nature-based solutions and their potential to address current environmental challenges. In the 21st century, society is faced by rapid urbanisation and population growth, degradation and loss of natural capital and associated ecosystem services, an increase in natural disaster risks, and climate change. With growing recognition of the need to work with ecosystems to resolve these issues there is now a move towards nature-based solutions, which involve utilising nature’s ecosystem to solve societal challenges while providing multiple co-benefits. This book systematically reviews nature-based solutions from a public policy angle, assessing policy developments which encourage the implementation of nature-based solutions to address societal challenges while simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits. This includes enhancing sustainable urbanisation, restoring degraded ecosystems, mitigating and adapting to climate change, and reducing risks from natural disasters. While nature-based solutions can be applied strategically and equitably to help societies address a variety of climatic and non-climatic challenges, there is still a lack of understanding on how best to implement them. The book concludes by providing a best practice guide for those aiming to turn societal challenges into opportunities. This book will be of great interest to policymakers, practitioners and researchers involved in nature-based solutions, sustainable urban planning, environmental management, and sustainable development generally.

Pests and Their Management

Pests and Their Management Book
Author : Omkar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-01
ISBN : 9811086877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book comprehensively compiles information on some of the major pests that afflict agricultural, horticultural and medicinal crops in particular as well as many polyphagous pests. Not only does this book deal with the pests of common globally produced crops it also addresses those of rarely dealt with crops such as seed spices, medicinal and aromatic plants. While the perspective of insect pests is largely Indian and South East Asian in context, the book does deal with globally problematic pests, particularly polyphagous ones. Not only will the readers be acquainted with the pests, their damaging potential and their life cycle but also with the latest methods of managements including ecofriendly measures being employed to keep pest populations at manageable levels. The 27 chapters in the book, are grouped into four sections primarily based on crop types, viz. pest of agricultural, horticultural and medicinal crops, and polyphagous pests, making the book easy to navigate. Each of the chapters is comprehensive and well illustrated and written by academicians who have dedicated their entire lives to the study of a particular crop-pest complex. The final chapter of this book provides an overview on the principles and processes of pest management.

Industrial Entomology

Industrial Entomology Book
Author : Omkar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-13
ISBN : 9811033048
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book is a compilation of writings focused on conventional and unconventional insect products. Some of these products are commercials successes, while others are waiting to be launched and are the potential produce of the future. In addition to the well known products honey, mulberry silk, and lac, the book primarily concentrates on silk producing insects other than the mulberry silkworm, insects as food, as sources of medicines, pest and weed managers, and as pollinators. The book highlights the all pervasive role of insects in improving human lives at multiple levels. Accordingly, while most books on insects concentrate on how to limit growth in their population, it instead focuses on how to propagate them. In each chapter, the book brings to the fore how insects are far more beneficial to us than their well publicised harmful roles. This book approaches both unconventional and conventional insect products, such as honey, silk and lac in much more depth than the available literature. It investigates different aspects of the production of these insects, such as the related processes, problems and utilities, in dedicated chapters. Because this book deals with the production of insects or their produce, it has been named Industrial Entomology, perhaps the only book that truly reveals the tremendous potential of insects to help humans live better lives. Based on the research and working experience of the contributors, who are global experts in their respective fields, it provides authentic, authoritative and updated information on these topics. The book offers a unique guide for students, teachers, policy planners, small scale industrialists, and government ministries of agriculture and industry across the globe. It will provide a much required stimulus to insect appreciation and generate enthusiasm for research and the broader acceptance for insect produce. Hopefully, it will also present the Indian perspective on these topics to a global readership.

The Soil Human Health Nexus

The Soil Human Health Nexus Book
Author : Rattan Lal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-12-20
ISBN : 1000326330
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The term "soil health" refers to the functionality of a soil as a living ecosystem capable of sustaining plants, animals, and humans while also improving the environment. In addition to soil health, the environment also comprises the quality of air, water, vegetation, and biota. The health of soil, plants, animals, people, and the environment is an indivisible continuum. One of the notable ramifications of the Anthropocene is the growing risks of decline in soil health by anthropogenic activities. Important among these activities are deforestation, biomass burning, excessive soil tillage, indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, excessive irrigation by flooding or inundation, and extractive farming practices. Soil pollution, by industrial effluents and urban waste adversely impacts human health. Degradation of soil health impacts nutritional quality of food, such as the uptake of heavy metals or deficit of essential micro-nutrients, and contamination by pests and pathogens. Indirectly, soil health may impact human health through contamination of water and pollution of air. This book aims to: Present relationships of soil health to human health and soil health to human nutrition. Discuss the nexus between soil degradation and malnourishment as well as the important links between soil, plant, animal and human health. Detail reasons oil is a cause of infectious diseases and source of remedial measures. Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences series, this informative volume covering various aspects of soil health appeals to soil scientists, environmental scientists and public health workers.

Innovative Pest Management Approaches for the 21st Century

Innovative Pest Management Approaches for the 21st Century Book
Author : Akshay Kumar Chakravarthy
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 9811507945
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Several Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches are available for managing pests of varied kinds, including individual and integrated methods for pest suppression. Recently the focus has shifted to pest management tools that act on insect systems selectively, are compatible with the environment, and are not harmful for ecosystems. Other approaches target specific biochemical and physiological aspects of insect metabolism, and involve biotechnological and genetic manipulation. Still other approaches include the use of nanotechnology, endophytes, optical and sonic manipulation to detect and control pest insects. Unfortunately, conventional forms of pest management do not focus on technology transfer to the ground level workers and farmers. As a result, farmers are incurring huge losses of crops and revenues. This book highlights the importance of using communication tools in pest management and demonstrates some success stories of utilizing automated unmanned technologies in this context. The content is divided into three sections, the first of which, “Pest Population Monitoring: Modern Tools,” covers long and short-range pest population monitoring techniques and tools such as satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles/drones, remote sensing, digital tools like GIS, GPS for mapping, lidar, mobile apps, software systems, artificial diet designs and functional diversity of info-chemicals. The second section of the book is devoted to “Emerging Areas in Pest Management” and offers a glimpse of diversified tactics that have been developed to contain and suppress pest populations such as endophytes, insect vectors of phytoplasma, Hymenopterans parasitoids, mass production and utilization of NPV etc. In turn, the third section focuses on “Integrated Pest Management” and presents farming situations that illustrate how research in diversified aspects has helped to find solutions to specific pest problems, and how some new and evolving tactics can be practically implemented. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for entomology and plant pathology researchers, students of zoology and plant protection, and readers whose work involves agriculture, horticulture, forestry and other ecosystems.

Biopesticides

Biopesticides Book
Author : Amitava Rakshit,Vijay Singh Meena,P.C. Abhilash,B.K. Sarma,H B Singh,Leonardo Fraceto,Manoj Parihar,Anand Kumar
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-11-17
ISBN : 0128236140
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biopesticide: Volume Two, the latest release in the Advances in Bioinoculant series, provides an updated overview on the active substances utilized in current bioinsecticides, along with information on which of them can be used for integrated pest management programs in agro-ecosystems. The book presents a comprehensive look at the development of novel solutions against new targets, also introducing new technologies that enhance the efficacy of already available active substances. Finally, readers will find insights into the advanced molecular studies on insect microbial community diversity that are opening new frontiers in the development of innovative pest management strategies. This book will be valuable to those prioritizing agro biodiversity management to address optimal productizing and enhanced food security. Explores the increasing number of newly introduced and improved products that can be used alone or in rotation or combination with conventional chemicals Promotes the importance of, and tactics for, managing the agro ecosystem surrounding food security Provides state of the art description of various approaches and techniques for the real-world application of biopesticides

Natural Remedies for Pest Disease and Weed Control

Natural Remedies for Pest  Disease and Weed Control Book
Author : Chukwuebuka Egbuna,Barbara Sawicka
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-10-23
ISBN : 0128193050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Natural Remedies for Pest, Disease and Weed Control presents alternative solutions in the form of eco-friendly, natural remedies. Written by senior researchers and professionals with many years of experience from diverse fields in biopesticides, the book presents scientific information on novel plant families with pesticidal properties and their formulations. It also covers chapters on microbial pest control and control of weeds by allelopathic compounds. This book will be invaluable to plant pathologists, agrochemists, plant biochemists, botanists, environmental chemists and farmers, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students. Details microbial biopesticides and other bio-botanical derived pesticides and their formulation Contains case studies for major crops and plants Discuses phytochemicals of plant-derived essential oils

Human Insect Interactions

Human Insect Interactions Book
Author : Sergey Govorushko
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-01-09
ISBN : 1351646222
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book presents a 360-degree picture of the world of insects and explores how their existence affects our lives: the "good, bad, and ugly" aspects of their interactions with humankind. It provides a lucid introductory text for beginning undergraduate students in the life sciences, particularly those pursuing beginner courses in entomology, agriculture, and botany.

Handbook of Vegetable Pests

Handbook of Vegetable Pests Book
Author : John Capinera
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-04-23
ISBN : 0128144890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Handbook of Vegetable Pests, Second Edition, provides two types of diagnostic aids: the easy-to-use "guides to pests of vegetable crops", which guides the reader to the most likely pests of each vegetable crop based on the portion of the plant attacked and the category of pest; and the more technical dichotomous keys for identification of many of the difficult-to-identify species. It includes over 300 common and occasional pest species, detailing the geographic distribution of vegetable pests, host plant relationships, natural enemies, damage, life history, and methods of control and damage prevention. Presents a current and comprehensive synthesis of vetted information for the support of both commercial and home vegetable production Includes over 300 common and occasional pest species, or species complexes, known to affect vegetables grown in the United States and Canada Summarizes the important findings of the last 150 years Provides citations to the original literature

Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production

Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Book
Author : P. Parvatha Reddy
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-17
ISBN : 9811027021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book outlines a new paradigm, Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production (SICP), which aims to produce more from the same area of land by increasing efficiency, reducing waste, conserving resources, reducing negative impacts on the environment and enhancing the provision of ecosystem services. The use of ecologically based management strategies can increase the sustainability of agricultural production while reducing off-site consequences. The book also highlights the underlying principles and outlines some of the key management practices and technologies – such as minimum soil disturbance; permanent organic soil covers; species diversification; selection of suitable cultivars, planting time, age and spacing; balanced plant nutrition; agro-ecological pest management; efficient water management; careful management of farm machinery; and integrated crop-livestock production – required to implement SICP. The green revolution (by using high-yielding crop varieties, mono-cropping, fertilization, irrigation, and pesticides) has led to enormous gains in food production and improved world food security. In many countries, however, intensive crop production has had negative impacts on production, ecosystems and the larger environment, putting future productivity at risk. In order to meet the projected demands of a growing population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, farmers in the developing world must double food production, a challenge complicated by the effects of climate change and growing competition for land, water and energy. This book will be of immense value to all members of the scientific community involved in teaching, research and extension activities concerning sustainable intensification. The material can be used for teaching post-graduate courses, or as a useful reference guide for policy makers.

Pesticidal Plants

Pesticidal Plants Book
Author : Philip C. Stevenson,Steven R. Belmain,Murray B. Isman
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-05-27
ISBN : 3039287885
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The global biodiversity and climate emergencies demand transformative changes to human activities. For example, food production relies on synthetic, industrial and non-sustainable products for managing pests, weeds and diseases of crops. Sustainable farming requires approaches to managing these agricultural constraints that are more environmentally benign and work with rather than against nature. Increasing pressure on synthetic products has reinvigorated efforts to identify alternative pest management options, including plant-based solutions that are environmentally benign and can be tailored to different farmers’ needs, from commercial to small holder and subsistence farming. Botanical insecticides and pesticidal plants can offer a novel, effective and more sustainable alternative to synthetic products for controlling pests, diseases and weeds. This Special Issue reviews and reports the latest developments in plant-based pesticides from identification of bioactive plant chemicals, mechanisms of activity and validation of their use in horticulture and disease vector control. Other work reports applications in rice weeds, combination biopesticides and how chemistry varies spatially and influences the effectiveness of botanicals in different locations. Three reviews assess wider questions around the potential of plant-based pest management to address the global challenges of new, invasive and established crop pests and as-yet underexploited pesticidal plants.

Nano Biopesticides Today and Future Perspectives

Nano Biopesticides Today and Future Perspectives Book
Author : Opender Koul
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-03-16
ISBN : 0128158301
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nano-Biopesticides Today and Future Perspectives is the first single-volume resource to examine the practical development, implementation and implications of combining the environmentally aware use of biopesticides with the potential power of nanotechnology. While biopesticides have been utilized for years, researchers have only recently begun exploring delivery methods that utilize nanotechnology to increase efficacy while limiting the negative impacts traditionally seen through the use of pest control means. Written by a panel of global experts, the book provides a foundation on nano-biopesticide development paths, plant health and nutrition, formulation and means of delivery. Researchers in academic and commercial settings will value this foundational reference of insights within the biopesticide realm. Provides comprehensive insights, including relevant information on environmental impact and safety, technology development, implementation, and intellectual property Discusses the role of nanotechnology and its potential applications as a nanomaterial in crop protection for a cleaner and greener agriculture Presents a strategic, comprehensive and forward-looking approach

Managing Biological and Ecological Systems

Managing Biological and Ecological Systems Book
Author : Brian D. Fath,Sven Erik Jorgensen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-07-29
ISBN : 1000062066
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Bringing together a wealth of knowledge, Environmental Management Handbook, Second Edition, gives a comprehensive overview of environmental problems, their sources, their assessment, and their solutions. Through in-depth entries and a topical table of contents, readers will quickly find answers to questions about environmental problems and their corresponding management issues. This six-volume set is a reimagining of the award-winning Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, published in 2013, and features insights from more than 400 contributors, all experts in their field. The experience, evidence, methods, and models used in studying environmental management are presented here in six stand-alone volumes, arranged along the major environmental systems. Features The first handbook that demonstrates the key processes and provisions for enhancing environmental management Addresses new and cutting-edge topics on ecosystem services, resilience, sustainability, food–energy–water nexus, socio-ecological systems, and more Provides an excellent basic knowledge on environmental systems, explains how these systems function, and offers strategies on how to best manage them Includes the most important problems and solutions facing environmental management today In this second volume, Managing Biological and Ecological Systems, the reader is introduced to the general concepts and processes of the biosphere and all its systems. This volume explains how these systems function and provides strategies on how to best manage them. It serves as an excellent resource for finding basic knowledge on the biosphere and ecological systems and includes important problems and solutions that environmental managers face today. This book practically demonstrates the key processes, methods, and models used in studying environmental management.

Reproductive Strategies in Insects

Reproductive Strategies in Insects Book
Author : Omkar,Geetanjali Mishra
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-02-16
ISBN : 1000529991
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Reproduction is one of the most inherent tasks that all living organisms are actively involved in. It forms the backbone of their existence with all evolutionary energies directed over billion years of creation into maximizing reproductive effort. For so simple and directed a need such as maximizing reproduction, it is interesting to see how much diversity and complexity exists in this task. Each organism despite having the same end goal employs different strategies. The complexities, intricacies and strategies of successful reproduction while being extremely fascinating are equally befuddling. Reproductive Strategies in Insects provides an expansive critical look at the reproductive strategies of the most diverse group of animals, the insects. Insects which inhabit myriad niches in all ecosystems except the oceans, show the most diverse reproductive strategies ranging from simplest to most complex. Reproductive strategies, viz., search for mates, number of mates, display of mate quality, assessment of mate quality, acceptance of mate, rejection of mates, forced copulations, the fight for paternity pre, during and post copula, the modulation of paternity, ovipositional strategies and parental care are described in detail in this book. Also, each strategy in analyzed in relation to its morphological, physiological, ethological, ecological and evolutionary aspects. Features: Covers a wide variety of reproductive strategies, A detailed step by step description of reproductive strategies. Discusses morphological, physiological, ethological, ecological and evolutionary aspects. Modulation of these strategies and responsible modulatory factors are also discussed. Well-illustrated. Recent research results and probable future research directions. This is a niche reference book for ethologists, biologists studying behavioural evolution and entomologists. It may also be used as a textbook for a graduate level course in behaviour.