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Earth And Life Processes Discovered From Subseafloor Environments

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Earth and Life Processes Discovered from Subseafloor Environments

Earth and Life Processes Discovered from Subseafloor Environments Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-12-03
ISBN : 0444626115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2000-2013) has provided crucial records of past and present processes and interactions within and between the biosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. Research in IODP encompasses a wide range of fundamental and applied issues that affect society, such as global climate change, biodiversity, the origin of life, natural hazards involving the study of earthquakes processes, and the internal structure and dynamics of our planet. This compilation of major findings from the 2003-2013/14 phase of IODP, focusing on scientific results rather than description of data acquisition and early inferences, provides invaluable information. Anyone wondering what scientific drilling can achieve will gain quick understanding of the range of questions that are uniquely addressed with this methodology and the ways these data dovetail with other regional information. The excitement of breakthrough findings that occasionally accompanies a drilling project will be evident. IODP obtained unique records from the global ocean basins during the 2003-2013 program phase. This book highlights findings in three theme areas: Subseafloor life and the marine biosphere; Earth's changing environments; and Dynamics of the solid Earth. Each core or borehole log provides a window revealing insights that no other data achieve. Presents syntheses of key results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Encompasses a wide range of issues that affect society Describes the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and its expeditions

Astrobiology

Astrobiology Book
Author : Akihiko Yamagishi,Takeshi Kakegawa,Tomohiro Usui
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-02-27
ISBN : 9811336393
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides concise and cutting-edge reviews in astrobiology, a young and still emerging multidisciplinary field of science that addresses the fundamental questions of how life originated and diversified on Earth, whether life exists beyond Earth, and what is the future for life on Earth. Readers will find coverage of the latest understanding of a wide range of fascinating topics, including, for example, solar system formation, the origins of life, the history of Earth as revealed by geology, the evolution of intelligence on Earth, the implications of genome data, insights from extremophile research, and the possible existence of life on other planets within and beyond the solar system. Each chapter contains a brief summary of the current status of the topic under discussion, sufficient references to enable more detailed study, and descriptions of recent findings and forthcoming missions or anticipated research. Written by leading experts in astronomy, planetary science, geoscience, chemistry, biology, and physics, this insightful and thought-provoking book will appeal to all students and scientists who are interested in life and space.

Past Glacial Environments

Past Glacial Environments Book
Author : John Menzies,Jaap van der Meer
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-28
ISBN : 0081005253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Past Glacial Environments, Second Edition, presents a revised and updated version of the very successful first edition of Menzies’ book, covering a breadth of topics with a focus on the recognition and analysis of former glacial environments, including the pre-Quaternary glaciations. The book is made up of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world, with the editor’s expertise and experience bringing the chapters together. This new and updated volume includes at least 45% new material, along with five new chapters that include a section on techniques and methods. Additionally, this new edition is presented in full color and features a large collection of photographs, line diagrams, and tables with examples of glacial environments and landscapes that are drawn from a worldwide perspective. Informative knowledge boxes and case studies are included, helping users better understand critical issues and ideas. Provides the most complete reference concerning the study of glacial processes and their geological, sedimentological, and geomorphological products Comprised of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world Includes specific case studies to alert readers to important ideas and issues Uses text boxes throughout to explain key concepts from glacial literature Presents full color photographs, line diagrams, and tables throughout

Exploring the Earth under the Sea

Exploring the Earth under the Sea Book
Author : Neville Exon
Publisher : ANU Press
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 1760461466
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring the Earth under the Sea brings to life the world’s largest and longest-lived geological research program, which has been drilling over many decades at many locations deep below the ocean floor to recover continuous cores of sediment and rock. Study of these materials has helped us understand how the Earth works now, how it has worked in the past and how it may work in the future. The cores are a wonderful source of information on the dynamic processes that form and reform the Earth, both beneath the ocean and on land. The results have revealed climate and oceanographic change on different time frames, the history of life in the sea and on land including global mass extinctions, the extraordinary story of the great masses of ‘extremophile’ microbes that live beneath the sea bed, the nature of the giant earthquakes and tsunami generated at the trenches where tectonic plates collide, and the nature of submarine volcanoes and metalliferous deposits. This book outlines the technology and enduring international partnerships that underlie the scientific ocean drilling accomplished by the first phase of IODP, currently involving 23 countries. It highlights the important role of Australian and New Zealand scientists in the program, and the great scientific benefits we have derived from our partnership since joining IODP in 2008. As well as the scientific summaries, there are personal accounts by shipboard scientists of how they found life at sea on two-month expeditions, working 12-hour shifts on a noisy drill ship.

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Advances in Applied Microbiology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-02-23
ISBN : 0128052198
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Published since 1959, Advances in Applied Microbiology continues to be one of the most widely read and authoritative review sources in microbiology. The series contains comprehensive reviews of the most current research in applied microbiology, and includes recent research on the roles of fungal communities in soil nutrient recycling, the microbial nitrogen cycle in soil, and the inter-kingdom associations between soil bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizal fungi. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field of applied microbiology Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Includes new information on the role of fungal communities in soil nutrient recycling, the microbial nitrogen cycle in soil, and the inter-kingdom associations between soil bacteria, fungi, and mycorrhizal fungi

World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins

World Atlas of Submarine Gas Hydrates in Continental Margins Book
Author : Jürgen Mienert,Christian Berndt,Anne M. Tréhu,Angelo Camerlenghi,Char-Shine Liu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-01-01
ISBN : 3030811867
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This world atlas presents a comprehensive overview of the gas-hydrate systems of our planet with contributions from esteemed international researchers from academia, governmental institutions and hydrocarbon industries. The book illustrates, describes and discusses gas hydrate systems, their geophysical evidence and their future prospects for climate change and continental margin geohazards from passive to active margins. This includes passive volcanic to non-volcanic margins including glaciated and non-glaciated margins from high to low latitudes. Shallow submarine gas hydrates allow a glimpse into the past from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to modern environmental conditions to predict potential changes in future stability conditions while deep submarine gas hydrates remained more stable. This demonstrates their potential for rapid reactions for some gas hydrate provinces to a warming world, as well as helping to identify future prospects for environmental research. Three-dimensional and high-resolution seismic imaging technologies provide new insights into fluid flow systems in continental margins, enabling the identification of gas and gas escape routes to the seabed within gas hydrate environments, where seabed habitats may flourish. The volume contains a method section detailing the seismic imaging and logging while drilling techniques used to characterize gas hydrates and related dynamic processes in the sub seabed. This book is unique, as it goes well beyond the geophysical monograph series of natural gas hydrates and textbooks on marine geophysics. It also emphasizes the potential for gas hydrate research across a variety of disciplines. Observations of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in 2D and 3D seismic reflection data combined with velocity analysis, electromagnetic investigations and gas-hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) modelling, provide the necessary insights for academic interests and hydrocarbon industries to understand the potential extent and volume of gas hydrates in a wide range of tectonic settings of continental margins. Gas hydrates control the largest and most dynamic reservoir of global carbon. Especially 4D, 3D seismic but also 2D seismic data provide compelling sub-seabed images of their dynamical behavior. Sub-seabed imaging techniques increase our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the distribution and migration of gas before it enters the gas-hydrate stability zone. As methane hydrate stability depends mainly on pressure, temperature, gas composition and pore water chemistry, gas hydrates are usually found in ocean margin settings where water depth is more than 300 m and gas migrates upward from deeper geological formations. This highly dynamic environment may precondition the stability of continental slopes as evidenced by geohazards and gas expelled from the sea floor. This book provides new insights into variations in the character and existence of gas hydrates and BSRs in various geological environments, as well as their dynamics. The potentially dynamic behavior of this natural carbon system in a warming world, its current and future impacts on a variety of Earth environments can now be adequately evaluated by using the information provided in the world atlas. This book is relevant for students, researchers, governmental agencies and oil and gas professionals. Some familiarity with seismic data and some basic understanding of geology and tectonics are recommended.

Recent Advances in Geomicrobiology of the Ocean Crust

Recent Advances in Geomicrobiology of the Ocean Crust Book
Author : Beth N. Orcutt,Jason B. Sylvan,Cara M. Santelli
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-09-29
ISBN : 2889452832
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Igneous oceanic crust is one of the largest potential habitats for life on earth, and microbial activity supported by rock-water-microbe reactions in this environment can impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, our understanding of the microbiology of this system, especially the subsurface “deep biosphere” component of it, has traditionally been limited by sample availability and quality. Over the past decade, several major international programs (such as the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations, the current International Ocean Discovery Program and its predecessor Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and the Deep Carbon Observatory) have focused on advancing our understanding of life in this cryptic, yet globally relevant, biosphere. Additionally, many field and laboratory research programs are examining hydrothermal vent systems –a seafloor expression of seawater that has been thermally and chemically altered in subseafloor crust – and the microbial communities supported by these mineral-rich fluids. The Frontiers in Microbiology 3 September 2017 | Recent Advances in Geomicrobiology of the Ocean Crust papers in this special issue bring together recent discoveries of microbial presence, diversity and activity in these dynamic ocean environments. Cumulatively, the articles in this special issue serve as a tribute to the late Dr. Katrina J. Edwards, who was a pioneer and profound champion of studying microbes that “rust the crust”. This special issue volume serves as a foundation for the continued exploration of the subsurface ocean crust deep biosphere.

Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems

Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems Book
Author : Jun-ichiro Ishibashi,Kyoko Okino,Michinari Sunamura
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-01-10
ISBN : 4431548653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized into four types, TAIGAs of sulfur, hydrogen, carbon (methane), and iron, according to the most dominant reducing substance, and the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria/archaea that are inextricably associated with respective types of TAIGAs which are strongly affected by their geological background such as surrounding host rocks and tectonic settings. Sub-seafloor ecosystems are sustained by hydrothermal circulation or TAIGA that carry chemical energy to the chemosynthetic microbes living in an extreme environment. The results of the project have been summarized comprehensively in 50 chapters, and this book provides an overall introduction and relevant topics on the mid-ocean ridge system of the Indian Ocean and on the arc-backarc systems of the Southern Mariana Trough and Okinawa Trough.

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments Book
Author : Vivien Gornitz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-31
ISBN : 1402045514
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

Scientific Ocean Drilling

Scientific Ocean Drilling Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Review of the Scientific Accomplishments and Assessment of the Potential for Future Transformative Discoveries with U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2012-01-22
ISBN : 0309219019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Through direct exploration of the subseafloor, U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling programs have significantly contributed to a broad range of scientific accomplishments in Earth science disciplines, shaping understanding of Earth systems and enabling new fields of inquiry. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges reviews the scientific accomplishments of U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling over the past four decades. The book evaluates how the programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project [DSDP], 1968-1983, Ocean Drilling Program [ODP], 1984-2003, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP], 2003-2013) have shaped understanding of Earth systems and Earth history and assessed the role of scientific ocean drilling in enabling new fields of inquiry. This book also assesses the potential for transformative discoveries for the next proposed phase of scientific ocean drilling, which is scheduled to run from 2013 to 2023. The programs' technological innovations have played a strong role in these accomplishments. The science plan for the proposed 2013-2023 program presents a strong case for the continuation of scientific ocean drilling. Each of the plan's four themes identifies compelling challenges with potential for transformative science that could only be addressed through scientific ocean drilling, although some challenges appear to have greater potential than others. Prioritizing science plan challenges and integrating multiple objectives into single expeditions would help use resources more effectively, while encouraging technological innovations would continue to increase the potential for groundbreaking science.

Exploration of the Seas

Exploration of the Seas Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Exploration of the Seas
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-12-04
ISBN : 0309089271
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the summer of 1803, Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on a journey to establish an American presence in a land of unqualified natural resources and riches. Is it fitting that, on the 200th anniversary of that expedition, the United States, together with international partners, should embark on another journey of exploration in a vastly more extensive region of remarkable potential for discovery. Although the oceans cover more than 70 percent of our planet’s surface, much of the ocean has been investigated in only a cursory sense, and many areas have not been investigated at all. Exploration of the Seas assesses the feasibility and potential value of implementing a major, coordinated, international program of ocean exploration and discovery. The study committee surveys national and international ocean programs and strategies for cooperation between governments, institutions, and ocean scientists and explorers, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in these activities. Based primarily on existing documents, the committee summarizes priority areas for ocean research and exploration and examines existing plans for advancing ocean exploration and knowledge.

Earth Oceans and Life

Earth  Oceans and Life Book
Author : Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Earth Oceans and Life book written by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microbial Life of the Deep Biosphere

Microbial Life of the Deep Biosphere Book
Author : Jens Kallmeyer,Dirk Wagner
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2014-04-01
ISBN : 3110370670
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last two decades, exploration of the deep subsurface biosphere has developed into a major research area. New findings constantly challenge our concepts of global biogeochemical cycles and the ultimate limits to life. In order to explain our observations from deep subsurface ecosystems it is necessary to develop truly interdisciplinary approaches, ranging from microbiology and geochemistry to physics and modeling. This book aims to bring together a wide variety of topics, covering the broad range of issues that are associated with deep biosphere exploration. Not only does the book present case studies of selected projects, but also treats questions arising from our current knowledge. Despite nearly two decades of research, there are still many boundaries to exploration caused by technical limitations and one section of the book is devoted to these technical challenges and the latest developments in this field. This volume will be of high interest to biologists, chemists and earth scientists all working on the deep biosphere.

Deep Subsurface Microbiology

Deep Subsurface Microbiology Book
Author : Andreas Teske,Jennifer F. Biddle,Virginia P. Edgcomb, Axel Schippers
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-01
ISBN : 2889195368
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-12
ISBN : 0128130822
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches

Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium

Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ocean Sciences at the New Millennium book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fungi in Biogeochemical Cycles

Fungi in Biogeochemical Cycles Book
Author : Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006-05-04
ISBN : 9780521845793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book promotes further understanding of the contribution that fungi make to the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the chemical and biological mechanisms involved, and their environmental and biotechnological significance.

Astrobiology and Planetary Missions

Astrobiology and Planetary Missions Book
Author : Richard B. Hoover,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.

Life at Vents and Seeps

Life at Vents and Seeps Book
Author : Jens Kallmeyer
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2017-11-07
ISBN : 3110493675
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vents and seeps are the epitome of life in extreme environments, but there is much more to these systems than just black smokers or hydrocarbon seeps. Many other ecosystems are characterized by moving fluids and this book provides an overview of the different habitats, their specific conditions as well as the technical challenges that have to be met when studying them. The book provides the current state of the art and will be a valuable resource for everybody that has an interest in such environments.

Sea Change

Sea Change Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Guidance for NSF on National Ocean Science Research Priorities: Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-05-19
ISBN : 0309366917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ocean science connects a global community of scientists in many disciplines - physics, chemistry, biology, geology and geophysics. New observational and computational technologies are transforming the ability of scientists to study the global ocean with a more integrated and dynamic approach. This enhanced understanding of the ocean is becoming ever more important in an economically and geopolitically connected world, and contributes vital information to policy and decision makers charged with addressing societal interests in the ocean. Science provides the knowledge necessary to realize the benefits and manage the risks of the ocean. Comprehensive understanding of the global ocean is fundamental to forecasting and managing risks from severe storms, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and managing ocean resources. In the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is the primary funder of the basic research which underlies advances in our understanding of the ocean. Sea Change addresses the strategic investments necessary at NSF to ensure a robust ocean scientific enterprise over the next decade. This survey provides guidance from the ocean sciences community on research and facilities priorities for the coming decade and makes recommendations for funding priorities.