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Durability And Reliability Of Polymers And Other Materials In Photovoltaic Modules

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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-06-13
ISBN : 0128115467
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications Book
Author : Bikash C. Chakraborty,Debdatta Ratna
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-01-22
ISBN : 0128192534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications is a detailed guide on the use of polymers and polymer composites for vibration and shock damping. The book begins with two chapters that introduce the fundamentals of both vibration and shock damping. The next part of the book presents in-depth coverage of polymeric materials for vibration damping, including viscoelastic properties, design of polymer systems, and modes and applications. Finally, measurement techniques are discussed in detail. Throughout the book, the different perspectives of materials and engineering are considered, and both mathematical and conceptual approaches are used. This is an essential resource for all those looking to understand the application of polymers for vibration damping, including researchers, scientists and advanced students in polymer science, plastics engineering, materials science and mechanical engineering, as well as engineers and R&D personnel in the automotive, marine, defense and construction industries. Equips the reader with a complete, fundamental understanding of vibration and shock damping Explains the viscoelastic properties, design and applications of polymeric materials for vibration damping applications Includes cutting-edge research on the use of polymers for advanced civil and defense applications

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Abdulkerim Gok
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-01-08
ISBN : 1789848229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Peter Hacke
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book
Author : Peter Hacke
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

Photovoltaic Module Reliability

Photovoltaic Module Reliability Book
Author : John H. Wohlgemuth
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-01-08
ISBN : 111945896X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications

Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications Book
Author : Michael Köhl,Michaela Georgine Meir,Philippe Papillon,Gernot M. Wallner,Sandrin Saile
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-08-14
ISBN : 3527659625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.

Future of solar photovoltaic

Future of solar photovoltaic Book
Author : International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA
Publisher : International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Release : 2019-11-01
ISBN : 9292601989
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This study presents options to fully unlock the world’s vast solar PV potential over the period until 2050. It builds on IRENA’s global roadmap to scale up renewables and meet climate goals.

Shell like Structures

Shell like Structures Book
Author : Holm Altenbach,Victor Eremeyev
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-09
ISBN : 3319422774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents mathematical and mechanical aspects of the theory of plates and shells, applications in civil, aero-space and mechanical engineering, as well in other areas. The focus relates to the following problems:• comprehensive review of the most popular theories of plates and shells,• relations between three-dimensional theories and two-dimensional ones,• presentation of recently developed new refined plates and shells theories (for example, the micropolar theory or gradient-type theories),• modeling of coupled effects in shells and plates related to electromagnetic and temperature fields, phase transitions, diffusion, etc.,• applications in modeling of non-classical objects like, for example, nanostructures,• presentation of actual numerical tools based on the finite element approach.

ASHRAE Handbook

ASHRAE Handbook Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download ASHRAE Handbook book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells Book
Author : Frederik C. Krebs
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-04-02
ISBN : 1118312236
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review Book
Author : Harin S. Ullal,National Photovoltaics Program. Review Meeting
Publisher : American Institute of Physics
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work represents recent progress in photovoltaics technology including progress made in such areas as amorphous silicon, crystalline silican, cadmium telluride, and so on. Special focus is given to PV applications for rural electrifications.

Polymeric Materials

Polymeric Materials Book
Author : Marta Fernández-García,Marina P. Arrieta,Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla,Coro Echeverría,Agueda Sonseca
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-05-28
ISBN : 3038979627
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Materials for Sustainable Energy

Materials for Sustainable Energy Book
Author : Vincent Dusastre
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9814317640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The search for cleaner, cheaper, smaller and more efficient energy technologies has to a large extent been motivated by the development of new materials. The aim of this collection of articles is therefore to focus on what materials-based solutions can offer and show how the rationale design and improvement of their physical and chemical properties can lead to energy-production alternatives that have the potential to compete with existing technologies. In terms of alternative means to generate electricity that utilize renewable energy sources, the most dramatic breakthroughs for both mobile (i.e., transportation) and stationary applications are taking place in the fields of solar and fuel cells. And from an energy-storage perspective, exciting developments can be seen emerging from the fields of rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage.

Solar Module Packaging

Solar Module Packaging Book
Author : Michelle Poliskie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439850747
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring current and future opportunities in PV polymeric packaging, this work offers an insider's perspective on the manufacturing processes and needs of the solar industry and reveals opportunities for future material development and processing. Suitable for nonspecialists in polymer science, it provides a basic understanding of polymeric concepts, fundamental properties, and processing techniques commonly used in solar module packaging. The book also presents guidelines for using polymers in commercial PV modules as well as the tests required to establish confidence in the selection process.

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications Book
Author : G. N. Tiwari,Swapnil Dubey
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1849730202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presently there is no single publication available which covers the topics related to photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, thermal modelling, CO2 mitigation and carbon trading. This book disseminates the current knowledge in the fundamentals of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, energy security and climate change and is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students and professionals. The main emphasis of the book is on the design, construction, performance and application of PV and PV/T from the electricity and thermal standpoint. Hot topics covered in the book include: energy security of a nation, climate change, CO2 mitigation and carbon credit earned by using PV or PV/T technologies (Carbon Trading). This information will prove helpful in filling the gap between the researchers and professionals working on the application of photovoltaic and global climate change. It also covers economic, cost effective and sustainable aspects of photovoltaic technologies. The book gives a detailed history of the new technological developments in PV/T systems worldwide with system photographs and references and elaborates on the fundamentals of hybrid systems and their performances with thermal modelling. Energy and exergy analysis, techno-economic analysis and carbon trading are key chapters for research professionals. The book also includes important case studies to aid understanding of the subject for all readers.

End Of life Management

End Of life Management Book
Author : International Renewable Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016-06
ISBN : 9789295111981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment has grown at unprecedented rates since the early 2000s. As the global PV market increases, so will the volume of decommissioned PV panels, and large amounts of annual waste are anticipated by the early 2030s. Growing PV panel waste presents a new environmental challenge, but also unprecedented opportunities to create value and pursue new economic avenues.This report, prepared jointly by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (IEA-PVPS), is the first-ever projection of PV panel waste volumes to 2050. It highlights that recycling or repurposing solar PV panels at the end of their roughly 30-year lifetime can unlock an estimated stock of 78 million tonnes of raw materials and other valuable components globally by 2050. If fully injected back into the economy, the value of the recovered material could exceed USD 15 billion by 2050.

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review Book
Author : R. Noufi,H.S. Ullal
Publisher : American Institute of Physics
Release : 2000-04-14
ISBN : 9781563963155
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Materials Research to Meet 21st Century Defense Needs

Materials Research to Meet 21st Century Defense Needs Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-03-25
ISBN : 0309087007
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to achieve the revolutionary new defense capabilities offered by materials science and engineering, innovative management to reduce the risks associated with translating research results will be needed along with the R&D. While payoff is expected to be high from the promising areas of materials research, many of the benefits are likely to be evolutionary. Nevertheless, failure to invest in more speculative areas of research could lead to undesired technological surprises. Basic research in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science will provide the seeds for potentially revolutionary technologies later in the 21st century.

Handbook of Thermoplastics Second Edition

Handbook of Thermoplastics  Second Edition Book
Author : Olagoke Olabisi,Kolapo Adewale
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-02-03
ISBN : 1466577231
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications. With contributions from 65 internationally recognized authorities in the field, the second edition features new and updated discussions of several topics, including: Polymer nanocomposites Laser processing of thermoplastic composites Bioplastics Natural fiber thermoplastic composites Materials selection Design and application Additives for thermoplastics Recycling of thermoplastics Regulatory and legislative issues related to health, safety, and the environment The book also discusses state-of-the-art techniques in science and technology as well as environmental assessment with regard to the impact of thermoplastics. Each chapter is written in a review format that covers: Historical development and commercialization Polymerization and process technologies Structural and phase characteristics in relation to use properties The effects of additives on properties and applications Blends, alloys, copolymers, and composites derived from thermoplastics Applications Giving thorough coverage of the most recent trends in research and practice, the Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition is an indispensable resource for experienced and practicing professionals as well as upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines and industries.