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Drug Targeting And Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems

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Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems

Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2018-05-21
ISBN : 0128136901
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems covers recent advances in the area of stimuli sensitive drug delivery systems, providing an up-to-date overview of the physical, chemical, biological and multistimuli-responsive nanosystems. In addition, the book presents an analysis of clinical status for different types of nanoplatforms. Written by an internationally diverse group of researchers, it is an important reference resource for both biomaterials scientists and those working in the pharmaceutical industry who are looking to help create more effective drug delivery systems. Shows how the use of nanomaterials can help target a drug to specific tissues and cells Explores the development of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems Includes case studies to showcase how stimuli responsive nanosystems are used in a variety of therapies, including camptothecin delivery, diabetes and cancer therapy

Stimuli responsive Drug Delivery Systems

Stimuli responsive Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Amit Singh,Mansoor M Amiji
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2018-07-09
ISBN : 1788014669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The increased understanding of molecular aspects associated with chronic diseases, such as cancer and the role of tumor microenvironment, has led to the identification of endogenous and exogenous stimuli that can be exploited to devise “stimuli-responsive” materials for site-specific drug delivery applications. This book provides a comprehensive account on the design, materials chemistry, and application aspects behind these novel stimuli-responsive materials. Setting the scene, the editors open with a chapter addressing the need for smart materials in delivery applications for therapy, imaging and disease diagnosis. The following chapter describes the key physical and chemical aspects of smart materials, from lipids to polymers to hybrid materials, providing the reader with a springboard to delve into the more application oriented chapters that follow. With in-depth coverage of key drug delivery systems such as pH-responsive, temperature responsive, enzyme-responsive and light responsive systems, this book provides a rigorous foundation to the field. A perfect resource for graduate students and newcomers, the closing chapter on regulatory and commercialization challenges also makes the book ideal for those wanting to take the next step towards clinical translation.

Drug Delivery and Targeting

Drug Delivery and Targeting Book
Author : Anya M. Hillery,Andrew W. Lloyd,James Swarbrick
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-09-02
ISBN : 0203302761
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The advances in biotechnology and molecular biology over recent years have resulted in a large number of novel molecules with the potential to revolutionize the treatment and prevention of disease. However, such potential is severely compromised by significant obstacles to delivery of these drugs in vivo. These obstacles are often so great that effective drug delivery and targeting is now recognized as the key to effective development of many therapeutics. Advanced drug delivery and targeting can offer significant advantages to conventional drugs, such as increased efficiency, convenience, and the potential for line extensions and market expansion. An accessible and easy-to-read textbook, Drug Delivery and Targeting for Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists is the first book to provide a comprehensive introduction to the principles of advanced drug delivery and targeting, their current applications and potential future developments, including: *Methods to optimize therapeutic efficacy, and the related commercial implications *Difficulties with drug absorption, unwanted distribution and premature inactivation / elimination *Attempts to minimize toxicity or alter immunogenicity *Methods to achieve rate-controlled drug release and effective drug targeting *Novel and established routes of delivery *Use of new generation technologies such as biosensors, microchips, stimuli-sensitive hydrogels and plasmid-based gene therapy This volume is indispensable for pharmaceutical students, scientists and researchers.

Construction and Biological Evaluation of Nanoparticle Based Tumor Targeting Drug Delivery Systems

Construction and Biological Evaluation of Nanoparticle Based Tumor Targeting Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Hong Wu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have gained immense popularity due to their ability to overcome biological barriers, effectively deliver drugs, and preferentially target tissue. In this chapter, the current progresses and challenges, especially evaluation methods for nanodrugs in antitumor drug delivery systems, are summarized, citing our works targeted at cancer therapy. It includes four parts. First, the principle, advantages, and significance of nanoparticle-based tumor targeting drug delivery system are presented. Recent developments in nanoparticle-based tumor targeting drug delivery system including passive targeting, active targeting, and stimuli-responsive systems/triggered release are introduced. Second, current formulations of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are described, including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. Third, analytical techniques used for evaluating nanodrugs in vitro and in vivo are emphatically described. Finally, disadvantages and challenges of nanodrug are also discussed.

Handbook of Drug Targeting and Monitoring

Handbook of Drug Targeting and Monitoring Book
Author : Boris Andreev,Vasily Egorov
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2010-01-01
ISBN : 9781607418399
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drug monitoring in clinical chemistry refers to the measurement of drug concentration in blood serum/plasma so that an optimal concentration is obtained to benefit patients with minimal toxic adverse effects. Drug delivery systems have been developed for enhancing the pharmacokinetic profile of any given active agent, increasing the accumulation at the target site, while minimising their systemic distribution. Magnetic colloids, for example, are very promising stimuli-sensitive drug delivery systems because of their magnetic-field responsiveness. This book describes the main synthesis strategies and surface functionalisation processes of magnetic colloids, giving an overview of the recent developments in magnetic drug targeting. The possibilities of very promising strategies for controlling the biodistribution profiles of chemotherapy agents are also investigated, including passive and active targeting strategies involving the use of drug carriers. Other chapters in this book examine the application of nanotechnology in pharmacotherapy, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDS), a mathematical modelling approach to testing drug effects on Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the recent developments in drug monitoring by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Targeted Delivery of Small and Macromolecular Drugs

Targeted Delivery of Small and Macromolecular Drugs Book
Author : Ajit S. Narang,Ram I. Mahato
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-05-12
ISBN : 9781420087727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Site-specific drug delivery and targeting attracts much research interest from both academia and industry, but because of the many challenges faced in the development of these systems, only a handful of targeted therapies have successfully made it into clinical practice. Focusing on the delivery technologies that utilize both systemic and local routes of administration, Targeted Delivery of Small and Macromolecular Drugs brings together field experts who summarize current progress and discuss novel ideas currently being explored to overcome these challenges. The contributors discuss the most promising strategies for drug targeting and also examine targeted drug delivery platforms and technologies at various stages of clinical and preclinical development, including: Active targeting Nucleic acid delivery and targeting Intracellular/organelle-specific strategies Prodrug strategies Organ or tissue-specific drug delivery Drug-polymer conjugates and micelles Stimuli-responsive systems The book demonstrates why targeted delivery is one of the most exciting contributions pharmaceutical sciences can make to drug therapy.

Brain Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

Brain Targeted Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Huile Gao,Xiaoling Gao
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09-20
ISBN : 012814002X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: A Focus on Nanotechnology and Nanoparticulates provides a guide on nanoparticulates to both academic and industry researchers. The book discusses key points in the development of brain targeted drug delivery, summarizes available strategies, and considers the main problems and pitfalls evidenced in current studies on brain targeted drug delivery systems. As the brain is the most important organ in the human body, and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most serious threat to human life, this book highlights advances and new research in drug delivery methods to the brain. Provides an overview of brain targeting drug delivery that is useful to both academic and industry-based researchers Discusses key points in developing brain targeting drug delivery systems Summarizes and presents currently available strategies for brain targeting drug delivery Covers not only current studies and their strengths, but also gives insight into the pitfalls of current research

Smart Materials for Drug Delivery

Smart Materials for Drug Delivery Book
Author : Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo,Angel Concheiro
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-04-25
ISBN : 1849736804
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Smart materials, which can change properties when an external stimulus is applied, can be used for the targeted drug delivery of an active molecule to a specific site in the correct dosage. Different materials such as liposomes, polymeric systems, nanomaterials and hydrogels can respond to different stimuli such as pH, temperature and light and these are all attractive for controlled release applications. With so many papers available on smart and stimuli-responsive materials for drug delivery applications it's hard to know where to start reading about this exciting topic. This two volume set brings together the recent findings in the area and provides a critical analysis of the different materials available and how they can be applied to advanced drug delivery systems. With contributions from leading experts in the field, including a foreword from distinguished scientist Nicholas Peppas, The University of Texas at Austin, USA, the book will provide both an introduction to the key areas for graduate students and new researchers in the stimuli-responsive field as well as serving as a reference for those already working on fundamental materials research or drug delivery applications.

Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery Volume One

Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery  Volume One Book
Author : José L. Arias
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-08-04
ISBN : 1466599472
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacotherapy is often limited by the inefficient activity and severe toxicity of drug molecules. Nanotechnology offers a revolutionary and definitive approach for the efficient delivery of drug molecules to non-healthy tissues and cells. This first volume of a series of two volumes analyzes the basics in the development of drug-loaded nanoplatforms, the so-called nanomedicines. Special attention is given to physicochemical engineering, pharmacokinetics, biocompatibility and biodegradability, representative nanoplatforms (based on lipids, polymers, cyclodextrins, metals, carbon, silica, iron oxides, etc.), and advanced nano-engineering strategies for passive, ligand-mediated, and/or stimuli-sensitive drug delivery and release.

Smart Materials for Drug Delivery

Smart Materials for Drug Delivery Book
Author : Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo,Angel Concheiro
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 1849734313
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Smart materials, which can change properties when an external stimulus is applied, can be used for the targeted drug delivery of an active molecule to a specific site in the correct dosage. Different materials such as liposomes, polymeric systems, nanomaterials and hydrogels can respond to different stimuli such as pH, temperature and light and these are all attractive for controlled release applications. With so many papers available on smart and stimuli-responsive materials for drug delivery applications it's hard to know where to start reading about this exciting topic. This two volume set brings together the recent findings in the area and provides a critical analysis of the different materials available and how they can be applied to advanced drug delivery systems. With contributions from leading experts in the field, including a foreword from distinguished scientist Nicholas Peppas, The University of Texas at Austin, USA, the book will provide both an introduction to the key areas for graduate students and new researchers in the stimuli-responsive field as well as serving as a reference for those already working on fundamental materials research or drug delivery applications.

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Book
Author : K. S. Joshy,Sabu Thomas,Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-06-22
ISBN : 9789811621185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces the reader to drug delivery with specific emphasis on the use of nanoparticles. It covers properties, characterization, and preparation of different types of nanoparticles and discusses recent advances in their structural design and biomedical application, as well as the issues and challenges associated with their design and use. Some of the topics covered include the potential application of nanoparticles in biomedical fields, hazards associated with use of nanoparticles for drug delivery, size-dependent factors in drug delivery applications, different organic, inorganic and their hybrid systems used in drug delivery, etc. It also highlights use of nanoparticles in controlled and targeted drug delivery, and their application in stimuli-responsive, especially pH-responsive, drug release. Additionally, it also focuses on biomimetic nanoparticles, challenges faced in the designing of nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer, viral and bacterial diseases. The contents of this volume will be useful to researchers and professionals working on advances in targeted drug delivery systems.

Development of Dual Enzyme and Oxidation responsive Drug Delivery Systems

Development of Dual Enzyme and Oxidation responsive Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Sung Hwa Hong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conventional chemotherapy using small molecular weight anticancer drugs presents many side effects due to poor specificities and aqueous solubility. To overcome the limitations, polymer-based drug delivery systems (PDDS) have been emerged for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Upon introduction of stimuli-responsive platform, the drugs can be released in controlled manner at the targeted tumor site providing enhanced drug efficacy and reduced toxicity. Stimuli-responsive degradation platform involves incorporation of covalent linkages that can be cleaved in response to external stimuli. The external stimuli can be found in altered microenvironment in pathophysiological tissues. For example, elevated levels of esterase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are found in cancer tumor cells. As esters can be cleaved by the esterase and sulfides can be oxidized by the ROS, esters and sulfides can be incorporated to polymer to exhibit esterase and oxidation-responsive properties. Size is an important consideration for the design of drug delivery systems. Ideally, the size should be ranged from 50 to 150 nm for optimal biodistributions and targeting ability. Microfluidic process provides high degree of control over the size of NPs. Chapter 2 examines size tunability of the dual enzyme- and oxidation-responsive polyester-based nanoparticulates (DPE-NPs) using a microfluidic instrument for cancer therapy. The DPE-NPs can be fabricated by using the polyester and polymeric stabilizer. The size of NPs can be influenced by changing the variables such as microfluidic parameters (total flow rate and organic/aqueous flow rate ratio) and formulation parameters (molecular weight of polyesters, concentration of nanoparticles, and nature and amount of stabilizers). In addition to size of NPs, it turns out that these parameters have an effect on colloidal stability. The results obtained from dual stimuli-responsive degradation and in vitro experiments with an enhanced cellular uptake demonstrate that the DPE-NPs can offer a versatile platform for the development of drug delivery systems. Chapter 3 describes biological assessment of DPE-NPs as effective tumor-targeting intracellular nanocarriers. Doxorubicin (Dox), a clinically used anticancer drug, was incorporated into DPE-NPs stabilized with PEG and Brij S20. They exhibited excellent colloidal stability and as well as in pseudo-physiological conditions without any aggregation. They were destabilized in response to esterase that cleaved ester linkages and to hydrogen peroxide that oxidized sulfides. Such disruption led to an enhanced release of encapsulated therapeutics. For biological perspectives, the DPE-NPs were assessed in vitro using HeLa cervical cancer cells as a model. The results from MTT assay, epifluorescence microscope, flow cytometry, and cellular entry assay suggest that the dual responses triggered the intracellular release of the Dox to prohibit the cell proliferation followed by a rapid internalization through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Further evaluation on 3D HeLa multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) indicated that the penetration ability of Dox was significantly enhanced when encapsulated in DPE NPs, suggesting that such deep penetration could be effective in vivo.

Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine

Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine Book
Author : Vladimir Torchilin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-05-08
ISBN : 1000067041
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the fast-developing field of nanomedicine, a broad variety of materials have been used for the development of advanced delivery systems for drugs, genes, and diagnostic agents. With the recent breakthroughs in the field, we are witnessing a new age of disease management, which is governed by precise regulation of dosage and delivery. This book presents the advances in the use of lipid-based and inorganic nanomaterials for medical imaging, diagnosis, theranostics, and drug delivery. The materials discussed include liposome-scaffold systems, elastic liposomes, targeted liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipoproteins, exosomes, porous inorganic nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles, and inorganic nanohybrids. The book provides all available information about them and describes in detail their advantages and disadvantages and the areas where they could be utilized successfully.

Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine

Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine Book
Author : Vladimir Torchilin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-03-16
ISBN : 1000067092
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the fast-developing field of nanomedicine, a broad variety of materials have been used for the development of advanced delivery systems for drugs, genes, and diagnostic agents. With the recent breakthroughs in the field, we are witnessing a new age of disease management, which is governed by precise regulation of dosage and delivery. This book presents the advances in the use of metal-based and other nanomaterials for medical imaging, diagnosis, theranostics, and drug delivery. It discusses silver, hybrid gold, and surface-modified magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent quantum dots, lipid bubbles, and nanobubbles. It provides all available information about these materials and describes in detail their advantages and disadvantages and the areas where they could be utilized successfully. The text also covers topics such as improving bioactivity of poorly soluble actives, cellular and molecular toxicology of nanoparticles, and biofate of nanoemulsions.

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications Book
Author : Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Nedal Y. Abu-Thabit
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-10-24
ISBN : 0081019963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Applications: Volume Two: Advanced Nanocarriers for Therapeutics discusses, in detail, the recent trends in designing dual and multi-responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery. Chapters cover dual-responsive polymeric nanocarriers for drug delivery and their different stimuli, multi-responsive polymeric nanocarriers, and the therapeutic applications of stimuli-responsive polymers. With an emphasis on advanced medical applications and synergistic operational and technological methodologies for the improvement of polymers systems for the production of stimuli-responsive polymers, this book is essential reading for materials scientists and researchers working in the drug delivery and pharmaceutical industries. As innovation and development in the area of stimuli responsive polymer-based nanomaterials for drug delivery is moving fast and there is an increased global demand for biodegradable and biocompatible responsive polymers and nanoparticles for safe drug delivery, users will find this to be a timely resource. Focusses on the most advanced technologies, recent evaluation methods, technical aspects, and advanced synthesis techniques stimuli-responsive polymers Examines advanced medical applications of stimuli responsive polymers Analyzes synergistic operational and technological methodologies for the improvement of polymer systems for the production of stimuli-responsive polymers in drug delivery

Targeted and Stimuli responsive Polymers as Chemotherapeutic Delivery Systems

Targeted and Stimuli responsive Polymers as Chemotherapeutic Delivery Systems Book
Author : Noreen Tasneem Zaman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

(Cont.) The galactose-targeted paclitaxel-loaded particles synthesized from the temperature- and pH-sensitive polymer achieved a remarkable increase in toxicity in the target cell line, while maintaining base toxicity in the control cell line. Both the amount of drug delivered and the rate of release were found to be important in the efficacy of the drug delivery vehicles.

Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Advanced Drug Delivery Systems

Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Advanced Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Zhaosheng Liu,Yanping Huang,Yi Yang
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 9811602271
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes the recent advancements for drug delivery systems (DDS) in terms of fundamental principles, rapidly emerging techniques and developing frontiers of molecular imprinting. Especially with the combination of enantioselective molecularly imprinted polymers and water compatible molecularly imprinted polymers, stimuli responsive imprinted DDS have been innovated and applied to dermal delivery, ophthalmic drugs and cancer treatment. This philosophy comprehensively revolutionizes the treatment strategy of human healthcare and provides the possibility to re-trigger in vivo an exhaust system after the complete release of the starting drug cargo, thus enabling precision medicine. To this end, the following unique features will be discussed and concluded: 1) State-of-the-art definition of MIP as drug delivery systems. 2) Advanced techniques and clinical applications of MIP as drug delivery systems in the past decade. 3) Novel frontiers and brand-new technologies, for example, drug delivery devices for zero-order sustained release and stimuli responsive imprinted DDS. 4) Revolutionary impact on dermal delivery, ophthalmic drugs and cancer treatment. 5) Future challenges and perspectives.

Smart Polymers and Their Applications

Smart Polymers and Their Applications Book
Author : Maria Rosa Aguilar,Julio San Román
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-02-15
ISBN : 0081024177
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Smart Polymers and Their Applications, Second Edition presents an up-to-date resource of information on the synthesis and properties of different types of smart polymers, including temperature, pH, electro, magnetic and photo-responsive polymers, amongst others. It is an ideal introduction to this field, as well as a review of the latest research in this area. Shape memory polymers, smart polymer hydrogels, and self-healing polymer systems are also explored. In addition, a very strong focus on applications of smart polymers is included for tissue engineering, smart polymer nanocarriers for drug delivery, and the use of smart polymers in medical devices. Additionally, the book covers the use of smart polymers for textile applications, packaging, energy storage, optical data storage, environmental protection, and more. This book is an ideal, technical resource for chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, mechanical engineers and other professionals in a range of industries. Includes a significant number of new chapters on smart polymer materials development, as well as new applications development in energy storage, sensors and devices, and environmental protection Provides a multidisciplinary approach to the development of responsive polymers, approaching the subject by the different types of polymer (e.g. temperature-responsive) and its range of applications

Advances in Personalized Nanotherapeutics

Advances in Personalized Nanotherapeutics Book
Author : Ajeet Kaushik,Rahul Dev Jayant,Madhavan Nair
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-08
ISBN : 3319636332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Personalized health care to manage diseases and optimized treatment is crucial for everyone to maintain health quality. Significant efforts have been made to design and develop novel nano-enabling therapeutic strategies to cure and monitor diseases for personalized health care. As state-of-the-art, various strategies have been reported to develop personalized nanomedicine to combat against target diseases with no side effects. In this book proposal, we are trying to describe fundamentals of personalized nanomedicine, novel nanomaterials for drug delivery, role of nanotechnology for efficient therapeutics approach, nano-pharmacology, targeted CNS drug delivery, stimuli responsive drug release and nanotechnology for diseases management. This book would serve as a platform for new scholars to understand state-of-the-art of nanotechnology for therapeutics and designing their future research to develop effective personalized nanomedicine against targeted diseases. As of now, various studies have been reported to design and develop nanomedicines of higher efficacy but unfortunately, such products are up to laboratory research only and need to be well-tested using pre-clinical or human models. Our book would be a call for experts to explore multidisciplinary research for developing novel and efficient approaches to explore smart efficient nanocarriers for site-specific on-demand controlled drug delivery to combat against targeted diseases to personalized health care.

Mesoporous Silica and Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Controlled Release

Mesoporous Silica and Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Controlled Release Book
Author : Giri Supratim
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2014-01
ISBN : 9783659516733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of twenty first century. It involves engineering with materials that have size dimension in nanometer range. As important biological entities like virus, pores of biological membranes, proteins, etc also share their sizes in the nanometer ranges; there has been an extensive application of nanotechnology in biology and biomedicine. Nanomaterial based drug delivery offers one of the most useful techniques to administer therapeutics in living cells and tissues. Mesoporous silica nanomaterials act as excellent hosts to store and deliver guest molecules. In this book, research topics on the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials as a stimuli responsive and controlled release delivery agents have been discussed. Magnetic nanoparticles were utilized for targeting the drug delivery assembly to a site of interest and induce stimuli responsive drug release in 'proof of principle' studies. The work described in this book is expected to provide a rational approach towards designing targeted and stimuli responsive smart drug delivery systems.