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Dna Modifications In The Brain

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DNA Modifications in the Brain

DNA Modifications in the Brain Book
Author : Timothy W Bredy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-12-23
ISBN : 0128017813
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA Modifications in the Brain: Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression begins with an historical overview of the early discoveries surrounding DNA methylation in the mammalian brain and then explores the evidence supporting a role for this epigenetic mechanism in controlling gene expression programs across the lifespan in both normal and diseased states. Chapters describe new directions and technological advances, and provide an overview of what the future holds for this exciting new field. This book is ideal for medical, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, but is also a great resource for researchers who need a broad introduction to the dynamic nature of DNA that sheds light on evolving concepts of gene-environment interaction and their effects on adaptation and neuropsychiatric disease. Provides a comprehensive overview of the many facets of DNA modifications Discusses the impact of this dynamic epigenetic mechanism across brain development and lifespan at behavioral, cognitive, molecular and genetic levels Contains contributions by influential leaders in the field Edited by a Neuroscientist to further promote synthesis between epigenetics, neuroscience, and clinical relevance

Epigenetics Brain and Behavior

Epigenetics  Brain and Behavior Book
Author : Paolo Sassone Corsi,Yves Christen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-28
ISBN : 3642279120
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What lies at the heart of neuronal plasticity? Accumulating evidence points to epigenetics. This word originally indicated potentially heritable modifications in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Today this definition is much less strict, and epigenetic control is thought to include DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, microRNA metabolic pathways and non-histone proteins modifications. Thus, while neuronal plasticity is rightly thought to be intimately associated to genomic control, it is critical to appreciate that there is much more to the genome than DNA sequence. Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the field of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigenetic regulation to brain functions has been accumulating. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molecular mechanisms implicated in epigenetic control and how these may operate in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specificity is achieved. Importantly, specific modifications seem to mediate both developmental processes and adult brain functions, such as synaptic plasticity and memory. Many aspects of the research in neurosciences and endocrinology during the upcoming decade will be dominated by the deciphering of epigenetic control. This book constitutes a compendium of the most updated views in the field.

The Epigenetics of Suicide

The Epigenetics of Suicide Book
Author : Benoit Labonté
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Suicide is a problem resulting from the interaction between several factors. Among these factors, early-life adversity, characterized by child sexual and physical abuse as well as parental neglect, is one of the strongest risk factors for depression and suicidal behaviors. While it is clear that child abuse increases the risk for depression and suicide, the mechanisms mediating these effects are still unknown. Recent evidences suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in mediating the effects of early-life adversity on behavior. Early-life stress in animals has been shown to alter DNA methylation in genes regulatory regions what, in turn, has been associated with changes in gene expression and behavioral modifications. Importantly, similar changes have been reported in several genes in the human brain. However, although epigenetic modifications have been found in several genes, the extent of epigenetic changes induced by early-life adversity is still unknown and their impacts on increasing suicide risk are unclear. This thesis aims at expanding our understanding of suicide by investigating one potential mechanism by which early-life adversity may increase vulnerability to mood disorders and suicide, namely epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We first expanded our characterization of DNA methylation alterations induced by early and adult-life stress in the regulatory regions of the glucocorticoid receptor gene which is one of the most consistent alterations associated with stress, depression and suicidal behaviors. We then opted for a genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation alterations found in the brains of suicide completers with and without a history of child abuse using microarray analyses focusing on gene promoters throughout the genome. Our findings revealed several DNA methylation alterations in genes with known roles on behavioral regulation and identified several new genes and networks which may be specifically altered by early-life adversity. We also characterized the functional impact of these alterations on gene expression and promoter transcriptional activity. Overall, this work identifies and characterizes the molecular mechanisms by which environment induces behavioral changes conferring vulnerability toward mood disorders and suicidal behaviors. " --

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity Evidence and Debate

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity   Evidence and Debate Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-05
ISBN : 0128010851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ‘epi-(Greek for ‘over’, ‘above’)genome’, with its rich cache of highly regulated, structural modifications—including DNA methylation, histone modifications and histone variants—defines the moldings and three-dimensional structures of the genomic material inside the cell nucleus and serves, literally, as a molecular bridge linking the environment to the genetic materials in our brain cells. Due to technological and scientific advances in the field, the field of neuroepigenetics is currently one of the hottest topics in the basic and clinical neurosciences. The volume captures some of this vibrant and exciting new research, and conveys to the reader an up-to-date discussion on the role of epigenetics across the lifespan of the human brain in health and disease. Topics cover the entire lifespan of the brain, from transgenerational epigenetics to neurodevelopmental disease to disorders of the aging brain. All chapters are written with dual intent, to provide the reader with a timely update on the field, and a discussion of provocative or controversial findings in the field with the potential of great impact for future developments in the field.

The Effects of Sodium Butyrate NaB and Maltreatment Early in Postnatal Development on DNA Methylation in the Hippocampus and Amygdala of Adult Male Rats

The Effects of Sodium Butyrate  NaB  and Maltreatment Early in Postnatal Development on DNA Methylation in the Hippocampus and Amygdala of Adult Male Rats Book
Author : Isabella Archer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9781085636933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Early life stress, especially childhood maltreatment, increases the risk for cognitive dysfunction and mental problems later in life. Studies have sought to identify how these phenotypes come about by examining structural and functional changes in various brain regions. Recent work has also focused on identifying whether changes in DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that helps regulate gene transcription important for the structural and functional capacity of the brain, is also responsible for phenotypic outcomes. Using a rat model, we investigated whether maltreatment leaves long-term epigenetic modifications on DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) gene in the adult amygdala and hippocampus and whether administering an epigenome modifying drug (sodium butyrate, NaB) at the time of maltreatment prevents these epigenetic modifications. We focused on the bdnf gene as it is critical for structural and functional capacity of the brain and known to be sensitive to early life stress. During first post-natal week, infant male rats were either administered NaB or a vehicle solution and exposed to either maltreatment or nurturing maternal care. We then assessed DNA methylation after pups reached adulthood. We replicate observations we made in a previous report that exposure to maltreatment alters bdnf DNA methylation in the amygdala and hippocampus. We also find concurrent administration of NaB with maltreatment capable of changing patterns of methylation. These results provide further empirical support that DNA methylation modifications are biological consequences of experiences within the caregiving environment and highlight the ability to potentially intervene and change epigenetic trajectories.

Brain Behavior and Epigenetics

Brain  Behavior and Epigenetics Book
Author : Arturas Petronis,Jonathan Mill
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-05-19
ISBN : 3642174264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenesis in the Developing Neocortex

Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenesis in the Developing Neocortex Book
Author : Magdalena Götz,Wieland B. Huttner,Mareike Albert
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-11-30
ISBN : 288971778X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenesis in the Developing Neocortex book written by Magdalena Götz,Wieland B. Huttner,Mareike Albert, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroepigenomics in Aging and Disease

Neuroepigenomics in Aging and Disease Book
Author : Raul Delgado-Morales
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-05-18
ISBN : 3319538896
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic mechanisms (DNA modifications, histone alterations and non-coding RNAs) are crucial for transcriptional regulation and alterations of the “physiological epigenome” are increasingly associated with human diseases. During the last decade the emerging field of neuroepigenomics have started to impact tremendously in areas such learning and memory, addiction or neurodegeneration. This expert volume covers the role of epigenetic molecular mechanism in regulation of central nervous system’s function, one of the most exciting areas of contemporary molecular neuroscience. The book describes the current knowledge on the epigenetic basis of human disease covering the complete lifespan: from neurodevelopment/childhood (Rett Syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi, autism), adolescence (eating disorders, drug addiction, anxiety), adulthood (depression, schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease) and elderly (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease). The book also covers the three major players on neuroepigenomic mechanisms: histones alterations, DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs, their roles at the molecular and cellular level and the impact of their alterations on neuronal function and behavior. Finally, a special chapter on state-of-the-art technologies helps the reader not only to understand epigenetic driven changes in human cognition and diseases but also the methodology that will help to generate paradigm shifts on our understanding of brain function and the role of the neuroepigenome in human diseases.

Epigenetics Book

Epigenetics Book Book
Author : Roy Carroll
Publisher : Youcanprint
Release : 2022-01-25
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

You Are About To Develop An Insider Understanding Of Epigenetics, Including Their Relationship With The DNA, Environmental Factors, Human Development And Evolution; Their Role In Human Mental And Physical Health, Including Their Use In The Treating Of Different Conditions And Diseases Along With The Most Current Epigenetic Practices And Research! What started as a broad research focused on combining genetics and developmental biology during the mid-twentieth century has evolved into the field we currently refer to as epigenetics- the mechanism of gene control that can either promote or repress gene expression without altering the genetic coding of the organism. Today, we know that the environment factors and individual lifestyles can have a direct interaction with epigenetic change, which can be reflected at various stages throughout the life of an individual and even in the later generations. You've heard that a mother's exposure to pollution can affect her child's asthma susceptibility, haven't you? No? How about the argument that a child's mental fitness can be (epigenetically) influenced by his/her dad's diet? Epigenetic change, which has nothing to do with the changes to the underlying DNA sequence, does affect how cells read genes and this biological change is influenced by several factors which include environment, lifestyle and health state through a mechanisms including a popular one known as DNA methylation. But what is the relationship between the epigenetic change and physical and physiological conditions as regards to their onset and improvement? How are epigenetic modifications being used to understand our environment, society and increasing human adaptation? How exactly do epigenetic therapies work? How does DNA affect epigenetic changes? How can we exploit epigenetic mechanisms to understand life better and improve it? If you have these and other related questions, this book is for you. More precisely, you will learn: What epigenetics are and their role in developmental psychology The influence of epigenetics at the molecular level and the impact of DNA damage in epigenetic change How epigenetics are studied The functions and consequences of epigenetics, and their specific benefits in mindfulness training, healthy eating and physical activity How genes control the growth and division of cells The role of epigenetic therapy in diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia and many more How epigenetic modifications are used in cancer treatment, and plant and animal evolution How epigenetic mechanisms are used in processes including human adaptation, memory formation, growth and infant neuro-behavior. How epigenetic mechanisms are used in maternal care How environmental chemical exposures affect epigenetics The role of epigenetics in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! So if you've been exposed to the concept of epigenetics as a novel way of understanding disorders, inheritance and evolution and wondered what it's really all about and how it's related with environmental exposure and different therapy practices, this book is all you need! Scroll up and click Buy Now With 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

Epigenetics for Intermediate The Most Comprehensive Exploration of the Practical Social and Ethical Impact of DNA on Our Society and Our World

Epigenetics for Intermediate  The Most Comprehensive Exploration of the Practical  Social and Ethical Impact of DNA on Our Society and Our World Book
Author : Frank Brown
Publisher : Youcanprint
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

You Are About To Develop An Insider Understanding Of Epigenetics, Including Their Relationship With The DNA, Environmental Factors, Human Development And Evolution; Their Role In Human Mental And Physical Health, Including Their Use In The Treating Of Different Conditions And Diseases Along With The Most Current Epigenetic Practices And Research! What started as a broad research focused on combining genetics and developmental biology during the mid-twentieth century has evolved into the field we currently refer to as epigenetics- the mechanism of gene control that can either promote or repress gene expression without altering the genetic coding of the organism. Today, we know that the environment factors and individual lifestyles can have a direct interaction with epigenetic change, which can be reflected at various stages throughout the life of an individual and even in the later generations. You've heard that a mother's exposure to pollution can affect her child's asthma susceptibility, haven't you? No? How about the argument that a child's mental fitness can be (epigenetically) influenced by his/her dad's diet? Epigenetic change, which has nothing to do with the changes to the underlying DNA sequence, does affect how cells read genes and this biological change is influenced by several factors which include environment, lifestyle and health state through a mechanisms including a popular one known as DNA methylation. But what is the relationship between the epigenetic change and physical and physiological conditions as regards to their onset and improvement? How are epigenetic modifications being used to understand our environment, society and increasing human adaptation? How exactly do epigenetic therapies work? How does DNA affect epigenetic changes? How can we exploit epigenetic mechanisms to understand life better and improve it? If you have these and other related questions, this book is for you. More precisely, you will learn: What epigenetics are and their role in developmental psychology The influence of epigenetics at the molecular level and the impact of DNA damage in epigenetic change How epigenetics are studied The functions and consequences of epigenetics, and their specific benefits in mindfulness training, healthy eating and physical activity How genes control the growth and division of cells The role of epigenetic therapy in diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia and many more How epigenetic modifications are used in cancer treatment, and plant and animal evolution How epigenetic mechanisms are used in processes including human adaptation, memory formation, growth and infant neuro-behavior. How epigenetic mechanisms are used in maternal care How environmental chemical exposures affect epigenetics The role of epigenetics in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! So if you've been exposed to the concept of epigenetics as a novel way of understanding disorders, inheritance and evolution and wondered what it's really all about and how it's related with environmental exposure and different therapy practices, this book is all you need! Scroll up and click Buy Now With 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

Patho Epigenetics of Disease

Patho Epigenetics of Disease Book
Author : Janos Minarovits,Hans Helmut Niller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-06-14
ISBN : 1461433452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Genetics and Epigenetics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Genetics and Epigenetics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Book
Author : Feng C. Zhou,Stephen Mason
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-08-06
ISBN : 2889195732
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System Book
Author : J. David Sweatt,Eric J. Nestler,Michael J. Meaney,Schahram Akbarian
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 0128058366
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System book written by J. David Sweatt,Eric J. Nestler,Michael J. Meaney,Schahram Akbarian, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Epigenetics for Beginners and Intermediate 2 Books in 1

Epigenetics for Beginners and Intermediate  2 Books in 1  Book
Author : Frank Brown
Publisher : Youcanprint
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

You Are About To Develop A Comprehensive Understanding Of The Concept Of Epigenetics, Its Place In Modern Day Medicine, And Health Optimization And Why It Is Literally Changing How We Approach The Treatment Of Various Health Problems! Modern research has now confirmed that the behavior of your genes doesn't always depend on their DNA sequence, but also on factors referred to epigenetics, and that changes in these factors can play a critical role in disease, life structures, behavior and all aspects of life. And that's not all; research also shows that therapies based on these factors have proven effective in reversing some conditions, boosting the immune system, optimizing psychology and human adaptation. Epigenetics have thus taken the center stage in understanding human biology at a deeper level, life, and evolution. But what are epigenetics, and how to they work? How does the environment affect them, and how is this "remembered" in the body? How does epigenetic therapy work? What does it treat? Isn't it risky? What is the relationship between epigenetics and the human psychology? How can we benefit from the discovery and understanding of epigenetics? If you have these and other related questions, this 2 in 1 book is for you so keep reading. Here is a bit of what you'll learn from this 2 in 1 book: • What epigenetics are, why they're important and how they work • How epigenetics relate with our experiences • How cells divide, and how genes control the growth and division of cells • The difference between the DNA, gene and chromosomes • The existing evidence of epigenetic changes, including in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance • The ins and outs of epigenetics mechanisms • The types of epigenetic therapies available today, including their risks, benefits and research on them • The effect of epigenetic control in transcriptional regulation in pluripotency and early differentiation, DNA methylation and Demethylation, nucleosome remodeling and chromatin looping • How epigenetics work at the molecular level and the effect of DNA damage in epigenetic change • The functions of epigenetics, and how they boost mindfulness training, healthy eating and exercise • How epigenetic therapy and modifications affects diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia, mesothelioma and many more • How epigenetic modifications are used in understanding plant and animal evolution • How epigenetic mechanisms are used in understanding human adaptation, boosting memory formation, growth and reinforcing infant neurobehavior. • The role of epigenetic mechanisms in maternal care • The role of environmental chemicals in epigenetics • How epigenetics are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more. • The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF • Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures • How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate in epigenetics, you will find this book educative, as you learn the A-Z of factors that are quickly changing our understanding of the structure of life. Don't wait…. Scroll up and click Buy Now with 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

Integrated Computational Analysis of Brain Cell Transcriptomes and Epigenomes

Integrated Computational Analysis of Brain Cell Transcriptomes and Epigenomes Book
Author : Fangming Xie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The mammalian brain consists of a vast network of neurons and non-neuronal cells with diverse morphology, anatomy, physiology and behavioral roles. These cellular phenotypes are enacted and maintained by a complex molecular program, including the abundance of gene transcripts, i.e. the transcriptome, and epigenetic modifications of DNA, i.e., the epigenome. Single cell sequencing assays, capable of measuring the entire transcriptome or epigenome for hundreds of thousands of single cells, have enabled the systematic characterization of brain cell types at unprecedented scale and with fine granularity. However, it is challenging to integrate diverse datasets, which differ in sample and library preparation, sequencing platforms, and assay modalities, for a consistent biological understanding of cell type organization. This thesis presents novel computational algorithms to integrate brain cell transcriptomes and epigenomes. We developed SingleCellFusion, which integrates disparate datasets into a common feature space based on a constrained k-nearest-neighbor graph algorithm. Using SingleCellFusion, we integrated 8 datasets with >400,000 cells from the mouse primary motor cortex (MOp). This analysis identified 56 neuronal cell types with consistent cell type specific patterns of gene expression, chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation. To validate the accuracy of SingleCellFusion, we helped to develop a novel multimodal sequencing assay, snmCAT-seq, that simultaneously measures methylCytosine (mC), chromatin Accessibility (A), and Transcriptome (T) from the same cells. Applying snmCAT-seq to 3,898 human frontal cortex cells, we identified fine grained neuronal cell types. SingleCellFusion integrated single-cell transcriptomes and DNA methylomes from the same cell types with 62.6~87.3% accuracy, recapitulating snmCAT-seq results at the cell type level. Cell type specific gene expression is in part regulated by epigenetic modifications of DNA at cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which are typically located thousands of base pairs away from the gene they regulate. We took advantage of co-variations in gene expression and epigenetic activity at candidate CREs across cell types to identify brain cell-type-specific gene-CRE associations. We developed a method that identified more than 10,000 robust gene-CRE associations from mouse MOp, using an empirical data shuffling procedure to control for false positives due to gene co-expression. Our results highlight the power of integrating transcriptomes and epigenomes to uncover the complex molecular regulation of brain cell types, and will directly enable design of reagents to target specific cell types for functional analysis. It also demonstrates that robust and efficient computational analysis methods are imperative to distill biological understandings from disparate large-scale single cell sequencing data.

Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-14
ISBN : 0128140860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Epigenetic Involvement of GluR2 Regulation in Epileptogenesis

Epigenetic Involvement of GluR2 Regulation in Epileptogenesis Book
Author : Chieh-Ting Tony Huang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood and therapies only serve to relieve the symptoms. A single episode of seizure can trigger epileptogenesis, a process in which the brain undergoes network reorganization including neurodegeneration and sprouting of axons. The mechanisms linking the first seizure to development of epilepsy are currently unknown. Interestingly, changes in neuronal circuitry in epilepsy are accompanied by chronic alterations in the normal brain gene expression profile. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications stably program the genome during gestation. However, recent studies suggest also that epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in modifying genome function in response to environmental stimuli. We therefore hypothesize that a single seizure can disrupt normal epigenetic programming in...

Genetics and Epigenetics of Psychiatric Diseases 2nd Edition

Genetics and Epigenetics of Psychiatric Diseases  2nd Edition Book
Author : Cunyou Zhao,Weihua Yue,Zhexing Wen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-10-09
ISBN : 2889660257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychiatric diseases have a highly complex etiology, aggregating in families but not segregating in a traditional Mendelian manner. Recent approaches to understanding the causes of psychiatric disease have focused on describing the genetic contribution to major psychiatric illnesses; the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exome sequencing has enabled a systematic exploration of genetic risk factors and identified over 100 independent genomic loci significantly associated with psychiatric diseases; however, there remains uncertainty about the causal genes involved in disease pathogenesis, and how their function is regulated. Since many GWAS variants reside in non-coding regions, the disease-associated common variants might be enriched in regulatory domains, including enhancers and regions of active chromatin state. These lead us to focus on the possible role of non-sequence-based genomic variation in health and disease. Of particular interest are epigenetic modifications that regulate gene expression through modifications to DNA, RNA, histone proteins, and chromatin. The availability of high-throughput profiling methods for quantifiying epigenomic modifications in large numbers of samples has enabled us to perform epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) aimed at screening methylomic variations associated with environmental exposure and disease. Thus systematic integration of genetic, epigenetic and epidemiological approaches will contribute to improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease phenotypes.

Population Neuroscience

Population Neuroscience Book
Author : Tomas Paus
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-23
ISBN : 3642364500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Is Newton’s brain different from Rembrandt’s? Does a mother’s diet during pregnancy impact brain growth? Do adolescent peers leave a signature in the social brain? Does the way we live in our middle years affect how our brains age? To answer these and many other questions, we can now turn to population neuroscience. Population neuroscience endeavors to identify environmental and genetic factors that shape the function and structure of the human brain; it uses the tools and knowledge of genetics (and the “omics” sciences), epidemiology and neuroscience. This text attempts to provide a bridge spanning these three disciplines so that their practitioners can communicate easily with each other when working together on large-scale imaging studies of the developing, mature and aging brain. By understanding the processes driving variations in brain function and structure across individuals, we will also be able to predict an individual’s risk of (or resilience against) developing a brain disorder. In the long term, the hope is that population neuroscience will lay the foundation for personalized preventive medicine and, in turn, reduce the burden associated with complex, chronic disorders of brain and body.

Sex and the Developing Brain

Sex and the Developing Brain Book
Author : Margaret M. McCarthy
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2017-08-31
ISBN : 1615047298
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brains of males and females, men and women, are different, that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important are those differences. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain, and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. Epigenetic modifications to the genome both establish and maintain sex differences in the brain and behavior. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health. Boys are much more likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum or attention and hyperactivity disorders, as well as speech and language deficits, compared to girls. By contrast, women are more likely to suffer from affective disorders, such as depression, anxiety, compulsion, and eating disorders and more likely to experience autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. Schizophrenia with an early onset is more common in males but a late-onset version is markedly more frequent in females. Male biased disorders have origins in development while female biased disorders are almost exclusively post-puberty. This remarkable shift in disease risk demands our attention. Novel insights into the biological origins of disease are also gained by comparing and contrasting the same processes in different sexes.