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Dissolved Gas Concentration In Water

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Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water

Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water Book
Author : John Colt
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-01-17
ISBN : 0124159672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aquacultural, oceanographic, and fisheries engineering, as well as other disciplines, require gas solubility data to compute the equilibrium concentration. These calculations, for example, can affect the output of aquacultural production or assist in environmental consulting. Until now, published solubility information has not been available in a consistent and uniform manner in one location. This book presents solubility concentrations of major atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium, neon, krypton, xenon), and trace gases (hydrogen, methane, nitrous oxide) as a function of temperature, salinity, pressure, and gas composition in a variety of formats. Data, equations, and theory are explained so that the user is able to understand the calculations and problems. Furthermore, data and solubility information are presented in a range of units to make them accessible across disciplines. This book will help the reader to look at a problem from a quantitative viewpoint and better understand carbonate chemistry. Revised from the earlier edition to include more accurate carbon dioxide tables and separate sections on the solubility of noble gases, trace gases, and oxygen in brines to provide a single resource for gas solubility data. This book is essential for all students and practitioners working in aquatic fields. A single source for highly accurate and comprehensive tables for gas solubility in aquatic systems Information provided in tables, equations, and computer programmes Theory is presented to better understand the equations and calculations

Computation of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Water as Functions of Temperature Salinity and Pressure

Computation of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Water as Functions of Temperature  Salinity  and Pressure Book
Author : John Colt
Publisher : Amer Fisheries Society
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Both the measurement and control of dissolved gas concentrations depend on an accurate knowledge of equilibrium gas concentrations. It is necessary to be able to compute the equilibrium concentration as functions of temperature, salinity, pressure, and gas composition. In this book, solubilities of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide are presented for a variety of conditions. The book is divided into three sections: 1) the solubility of gases in fresh water; 2) the solubility of gases in saline waters; and 3) the computation and reporting of gas supersaturation levels. Solubility data are presented in both equation and tabular forms. With this information, the equilibrium concentration of pure gases, air, or mixtures of gases can be computed. In most cases, interpolation should not be required. Sample problems are included in each section. Programs for the computation of dissolved gas concentrations with hand-held calculators are also presented.

Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water

Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water Book
Author : John Colt
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-01-17
ISBN : 0124159168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aquacultural, oceanographic, and fisheries engineering, as well as other disciplines, require gas solubility data to compute the equilibrium concentration. These calculations, for example, can affect the output of aquacultural production or assist in environmental consulting. Until now, published solubility information has not been available in a consistent and uniform manner in one location. This book presents solubility concentrations of major atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide), noble gases (helium, neon, krypton, xenon), and trace gases (hydrogen, methane, nitrous oxide) as a function of temperature, salinity, pressure, and gas composition in a variety of formats. Data, equations, and theory are explained so that the user is able to understand the calculations and problems. Furthermore, data and solubility information are presented in a range of units to make them accessible across disciplines. This book will help the reader to look at a problem from a quantitative viewpoint and better understand carbonate chemistry. Revised from the earlier edition to include more accurate carbon dioxide tables and separate sections on the solubility of noble gases, trace gases, and oxygen in brines to provide a single resource for gas solubility data. This book is essential for all students and practitioners working in aquatic fields. A single source for highly accurate and comprehensive tables for gas solubility in aquatic systems Information provided in tables, equations, and computer programmes Theory is presented to better understand the equations and calculations

Water Quality

Water Quality Book
Author : Claude E. Boyd
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-09-12
ISBN : 3030233359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is of great importance to humans and other living organisms. The study of water quality draws information from a variety of disciplines including chemistry, biology, mathematics, physics, engineering, and resource management. University training in water quality is often limited to specialized courses in engineering, ecology, and fisheries curricula. This book also offers a basic understanding of water quality to professionals who are not formally trained in the subject. The revised third edition updates and expands the discussion, and incorporates additional figures and illustrative problems. Improvements include a new chapter on basic chemistry, a more comprehensive chapter on hydrology, and an updated chapter on regulations and standards. Because it employs only first-year college-level chemistry and very basic physics, the book is well-suited as the foundation for a general introductory course in water quality. It is equally useful as a guide for self-study and an in-depth resource for general readers.

Chemistry

Chemistry Book
Author : Bruce Averill,Patricia Eldredge
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9780321413703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emphasises on contemporary applications and an intuitive problem-solving approach that helps students discover the exciting potential of chemical science. This book incorporates fresh applications from the three major areas of modern research: materials, environmental chemistry, and biological science.

Total Dissolved Gas and Water Temperature in the Lower Columbia River Oregon and Washington 2003

Total Dissolved Gas and Water Temperature in the Lower Columbia River  Oregon and Washington  2003 Book
Author : Dwight Q. Tanner,Matthew W. Johnston,Heather M. Bragg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Total Dissolved Gas and Water Temperature in the Lower Columbia River Oregon and Washington 2003 book written by Dwight Q. Tanner,Matthew W. Johnston,Heather M. Bragg, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Multiphase Flow Dynamics 4

Multiphase Flow Dynamics 4 Book
Author : Nikolay Ivanov Kolev
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-09-25
ISBN : 3642207499
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present Volume 4 of the successful monograh package “Multiphase Flow Dynamics”is devoted to selected Chapters of the multiphase fluid dynamics that are important for practical applications but did not find place in the previous volumes. The state of the art of the turbulence modeling in multiphase flows is presented. As introduction, some basics of the single phase boundary layer theory including some important scales and flow oscillation characteristics in pipes and rod bundles are presented. Then the scales characterizing the dispersed flow systems are presented. The description of the turbulence is provided at different level of complexity: simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity, simple algebraic models based on the Boussinesq hypothesis, modification of the boundary layer share due to modification of the bulk turbulence, modification of the boundary layer share due to nucleate boiling. The role of the following forces on the mathematical description of turbulent flows is discussed: the lift force, the lubrication force in the wall boundary layer, and the dispersion force. A pragmatic generalization of the k-eps models for continuous velocity field is proposed containing flows in large volumes and flows in porous structures. A Methods of how to derive source and sinks terms for multiphase k-eps models is presented. A set of 13 single- and two phase benchmarks for verification of k-eps models in system computer codes are provided and reproduced with the IVA computer code as an example of the application of the theory. This methodology is intended to help other engineers and scientists to introduce this technology step-by-step in their own engineering practice. In many practical application gases are solved in liquids under given conditions, released under other conditions and therefore affecting technical processes for good of for bad. Useful information on the solubility of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in water under large interval of pressures and temperatures is collected, and appropriate mathematical approximation functions are provided. In addition methods for the computation of the diffusion coefficients are described. With this information solution and dissolution dynamics in multiphase fluid flows can be analyzed. For this purpose the non-equilibrium absorption and release on bubble, droplet and film surfaces under different conditions is mathematically described. A systematic set of internally consistent state equations for diesel fuel gas and liquid valid in broad range of changing pressure and temperature is provided. This new second edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections. In many practical application gases are solved in liquids under given conditions, released under other conditions and therefore affecting technical processes for good of for bad. Useful information on the solubility of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in water under large interval of pressures and temperatures is collected, and appropriate mathematical approximation functions are provided. In addition methods for the computation of the diffusion coefficients are described. With this information solution and dissolution dynamics in multiphase fluid flows can be analyzed. For this purpose the non-equilibrium absorption and release on bubble, droplet and film surfaces under different conditions is mathematically described. A systematic set of internally consistent state equations for diesel fuel gas and liquid valid in broad range of changing pressure and temperature is provided. This new second edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections.

Regulation of Tissue Oxygenation Second Edition

Regulation of Tissue Oxygenation  Second Edition Book
Author : Roland N. Pittman
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2016-08-18
ISBN : 1615047212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This presentation describes various aspects of the regulation of tissue oxygenation, including the roles of the circulatory system, respiratory system, and blood, the carrier of oxygen within these components of the cardiorespiratory system. The respiratory system takes oxygen from the atmosphere and transports it by diffusion from the air in the alveoli to the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries. The cardiovascular system then moves the oxygenated blood from the heart to the microcirculation of the various organs by convection, where oxygen is released from hemoglobin in the red blood cells and moves to the parenchymal cells of each tissue by diffusion. Oxygen that has diffused into cells is then utilized in the mitochondria to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of all cells. The mitochondria are able to produce ATP until the oxygen tension or PO2 on the cell surface falls to a critical level of about 4–5 mm Hg. Thus, in order to meet the energetic needs of cells, it is important to maintain a continuous supply of oxygen to the mitochondria at or above the critical PO2 . In order to accomplish this desired outcome, the cardiorespiratory system, including the blood, must be capable of regulation to ensure survival of all tissues under a wide range of circumstances. The purpose of this presentation is to provide basic information about the operation and regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, as well as the properties of the blood and parenchymal cells, so that a fundamental understanding of the regulation of tissue oxygenation is achieved.

Solubility and Rate of Solution of Gases

Solubility and Rate of Solution of Gases Book
Author : Sidney Lionel Neave
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1924
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Solubility and Rate of Solution of Gases book written by Sidney Lionel Neave, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ultrafine Bubbles

Ultrafine Bubbles Book
Author : Koichi Terasaka,Kyuichi Yasui,Wataru Kanematsu,Nobuhiro Aya
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 1000333639
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ultrafine bubbles (UFBs) are gas-filled bubbles with a diameter smaller than 1 μm. They are sometimes called bulk nanobubbles because these are not on a solid surface but inside a bulk liquid (water). They are already being used in commercial processes such as cleaning and plant cultivation. However, many mysteries still exist with respect to UFBs, such as mechanisms of stability, OH radical formation, and biological and medical effects. This is the first book on UFBs that reviews research done on them. It is helpful for those interested in the fundamentals of this emerging field and its applications, including cleaning, biological, medical, and dental students and researchers.

Gases in Molten Salts

Gases in Molten Salts Book
Author : Reginald P. T. Tomkins,Narottam P. Bansal
Publisher : Pergamon Press
Release : 1991
ISBN : 9780080307350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

The Progressive Fish Culturist

The Progressive Fish Culturist Book
Author : U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Progressive Fish Culturist book written by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management

Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management Book
Author : Claude E. Boyd,C.S. Tucker
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998-08-31
ISBN : 9780412071812
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The only hope of supplying the world's ever-increasing demand for aquatic food products is through aquaculture, and the vast majority of this is conducted in ponds. Although pond aquaculture may appear at first to be an archaic method of growing aquatic animals, it is one that is consistently profitable when the pond is managed properly. The most important aspect of pond management is the maintenance of adequate environmental conditions for good growth and health of the animal under culture. Water quality in ponds also extends into the areas of environmental protection and food quality and safety, which are increasingly important in today's world. This book provides the most complete, up-to-date account of water quality and its management in aquaculture ponds. It provides background information on the physical, chemical, and biological environment of pond aquaculture, and illustrates how the proper balance of these factors is the essential ingredient for successful production of fish and other aquatic animals. Management techniques for the control of water quality and productivity include liming, fertilization, mechanical aeration, water exchange, and the use of algicides and herbicides. The authors examine the effects of pollution on aquaculture and the validity of current criticisms by environmentalists. This book will be of great benefit to students, extension agents, policy-makers, government officials and the commercial aquaculture industry.

Ultrasound Technologies for Food and Bioprocessing

Ultrasound Technologies for Food and Bioprocessing Book
Author : Hao Feng,Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas,Jochen Weiss
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-11-17
ISBN : 1441974725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traditional food and bioprocessing technologies are facing challenges due to high expectation from the consumers and producers for better quality and safety, higher process efficiency, and products with novel properties or functionalities. For this reason, in the last few years new forms of physical energies have been explored to propose alternatives to traditional processing technologies. Acoustic energy has the potential to replace or partially substitute conventional processes, and at the same time offer unique opportunities in the characterization of foods and biomaterials. This book is a resource for experts and newcomers in the field of power ultrasound, gives insights into the physical principles of this technology, details the latest advancements, and links them to current and potential applications in the food and bioprocessing related industries.

Possible amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Possible amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public Works and Transportation. Subcommittee on Water Resources
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Possible amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public Works and Transportation. Subcommittee on Water Resources, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Applied Underwater Acoustics Book
Author : Thomas Neighbors,David Bradley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-01-19
ISBN : 0128112476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter

Biophysics and Physiology of Carbon Dioxide

Biophysics and Physiology of Carbon Dioxide Book
Author : C. Bauer,G. Gros,H. Bartels
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 3642675727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains the papers presented at the symposium on Biophysics and Physiology of Carbon Dioxide held at Regensburg, April 17-20, 1979. The manuscripts represent the full or even an extended account of the oral presentations. We have decided not to include any part of the discussions which took place after the lectures because this would have led to an undue enlargement of the already substantial volume. The symposium brought together some 60 scientists of various disciplines including biophysicists, chemists, biochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, as well as clinicians whose research activities are cen tered around the various aspects of the reactions and the regulatory role of CO within the body. 2 In view of the fact that numerous textbooks and Proceedings of Symposia deal expertly with the role of CO in acid-base balance, it 2 was decided not to include this aspect in the present symposium. This holds also for the biochemistry of carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Particular emphasis was placed on the following subjects: (1) Chemical reactions of CO in water and facilitated diffusion of CO2 , 2 (2) CO adducts to proteins, in particular hemoglobin, and peptide 2 hormones, (3) structure and function of carbonic anhydrase, (4) CO 2 exchange and carbonic anhydrase activity in respiratory and nonrespi ratory systems. Each section contains at least one introductory paper that presents the current knowledge in a more general framework.

Water Pollution Research and Control

Water Pollution Research and Control Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Water Pollution Research and Control book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Hydro Environmental Analysis

Hydro Environmental Analysis Book
Author : James L. Martin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-12-04
ISBN : 1482206072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Focusing on fundamental principles, Hydro-Environmental Analysis: Freshwater Environments presents in-depth information about freshwater environments and how they are influenced by regulation. It provides a holistic approach, exploring the factors that impact water quality and quantity, and the regulations, policy and management methods that are necessary to maintain this vital resource. It offers a historical viewpoint as well as an overview and foundation of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics affecting the management of freshwater environments. The book concentrates on broad and general concepts, providing an interdisciplinary foundation. The author covers the methods of measurement and classification; chemical, physical, and biological characteristics; indicators of ecological health; and management and restoration. He also considers common indicators of environmental health; characteristics and operations of regulatory control structures; applicable laws and regulations; and restoration methods. The text delves into rivers and streams in the first half and lakes and reservoirs in the second half. Each section centers on the characteristics of those systems and methods of classification, and then moves on to discuss the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each. In the section on lakes and reservoirs, it examines the characteristics and operations of regulatory structures, and presents the methods commonly used to assess the environmental health or integrity of these water bodies. It also introduces considerations for restoration, and presents two unique aquatic environments: wetlands and reservoir tailwaters. Written from an engineering perspective, the book is an ideal introduction to the aquatic and limnological sciences for students of environmental science, as well as students of environmental engineering. It also serves as a reference for engineers and scientists involved in the management, regulation, or restoration of freshwater environments.