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Dispositional Theories Of Knowledge

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Dispositional Theories of Knowledge

Dispositional Theories of Knowledge Book
Author : Lars Bo Gundersen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-05-15
ISBN : 135194357X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers an original examination of human cognition, arguing that cognitive skills are dispositional in nature. Opposing influential views in modern Anglo-American philosophy, Gundersen starts from the received premis that knowledge is analyzable in terms of belief, justification and truth, and goes on to clarify and improve on these ingredients' exact nature and internal association. Exploring a wide range of arguments offered by influential contributors in the field of modal epistemology, Gundersen argues that external conditions are secondary in developing and cultivating cognitive competence and that the fulcrum of the cognitive investigation is the fascinating interplay between and cultivation of internal cognitive powers.

The Dispositional Architecture of Epistemic Reasons

The Dispositional Architecture of Epistemic Reasons Book
Author : Hamid Vahid
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-09-07
ISBN : 1000179028
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is concerned with the conditions under which epistemic reasons provide justification for beliefs. The author draws on metaethical theories of reasons and normativity and then applies his theory to various contemporary debates in epistemology. In the first part of the book, the author outlines what he calls the dispositional architecture of epistemic reasons. The author offers and defends a dispositional account of how propositional and doxastic justification are related to one another. He then argues that the dispositional view has the resources to provide an acceptable account of the notion of the basing relation. In the second part of the book, the author examines how his theory of epistemic reasons bears on the issues involving perceptual reasons. He defends dogmatism about perceptual justification against conservatism and shows how his dispositional framework illuminates certain claims of dogmatism and its adherence to justification internalism. Finally, the author applies his dispositional framework to epistemological topics including the structure of defeat, self-knowledge, reasoning, emotions and motivational internalism. The Dispositional Architecture of Epistemic Reasons demonstrates the value of employing metaethical considerations for the justification of beliefs and propositions. It will be of interest to scholars and advanced students working in epistemology and metaethics.

What Tends to Be

What Tends to Be Book
Author : Rani Lill Anjum,Stephen Mumford
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-05-11
ISBN : 1351009796
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

People tend to enjoy listening to music or watching television, sleeping at night and celebrating birthdays. Plants tend to grow and thrive in sunlight and mild temperatures. We also know that tendencies are not perfectly regular and that there are patterns in the natural world, which are reliable to a degree, but not absolute. What should we make of a world where things tend to be one way but could be another? Is there a position between necessity and possibility? If there is, what are the implications for science, knowledge and ethics? This book explores these questions and is the first full-length treatment of the philosophy of tendencies. Anjum and Mumford argue that although the philosophical language of tendencies has been around since Aristotle, there has not been any serious commitment to the irreducible modality that they involve. They also argue that the acceptance of an irreducible and sui generis tendential modality ought to be the fundamental commitment of any genuine realism about dispositions or powers. It is the dispositional modality that makes dispositions authentically disposition-like. Armed with this theory the authors apply it to a variety of key philosophical topics such as chance, causation, epistemology and free will.

Buddhism as Philosophy

Buddhism as Philosophy Book
Author : Mark Siderits
Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release : 2007-01-01
ISBN : 9780754653691
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Buddhism as Philosophy' does more than just report what Buddhist philosophers said: it presents their arguments and invites the reader to assess their overall cogency.

Illuminating the Mind

Illuminating the Mind Book
Author : Jonathan Stoltz
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2021-03-19
ISBN : 0190907568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Illuminating the Mind puts the field of Buddhist epistemology in conversation with contemporary debates in philosophy. Jonathan Stoltz provides readers with an introduction to epistemology within the Buddhist intellectual tradition in a manner that is accessible to those whose primary background is in the "Western" tradition of philosophy. The book examines many of the most important topics in the field of epistemology, topics that are central both to contemporary discussions of epistemology and to the classical Buddhist tradition of epistemology in India and Tibet. Among the topics discussed are Buddhist accounts of the nature of knowledge episodes, the defining conditions of perceptual knowledge and of inferential knowledge, the status of testimonial knowledge, and skeptical criticisms of the entire project of epistemology. Stoltz demonstrates how many of the arguments and debates occurring within classical Buddhist epistemological treatises coincide with the arguments and disagreements found in contemporary epistemology. He shows, for example, how Buddhist epistemologists developed an anti-luck epistemology-one that is linked to a sensitivity requirement for knowledge. Likewise, Stoltz explores the question of how the study of Buddhist epistemology can be of relevance to contemporary debates about the value of contributions from experimental epistemologists, and to broader debates concerning the use of philosophical intuitions about knowledge. Illuminating the Mind is essential reading for scholars and students interested in epistemology and its treatment in intellectual traditions beyond Western philosophy.

What Comes Before the Mind s Eye

What Comes Before the Mind s Eye Book
Author : Robert Steven Cheadle
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9783836497367
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work explores philosophical accounts of memory, and develops an alternative account of memory in terms of the dispositional theory. Chapter 1 gives an overview over the two central realist theories of memory, namely Direct Realism and Indirect Realism. There, criticisms of the traditional representative and the direct realist theories are developed and evaluated, and both theories are discredited as acceptable theories of memory. Chapter 2 develops a dispositional approach to memory. There, criticisms of the traditional realist theories are replied to, and new explanations within the framework of the dispositional approach are given. The concluding chapter points out epistemological consequences of the dispositional theory, in particular, whether memory proves to be a source of knowledge. It is found that all realist theories share the burden of skepticism. A solution for the skeptical problem can be found on epistemological ground by adopting an externalist view on justification. Finally, the relation of the dispositional account to the other realist theories is outlined.

The SAGE Handbook of Industrial Work Organizational Psychology 3v

The SAGE Handbook of Industrial  Work   Organizational Psychology  3v Book
Author : Deniz S Ones,Neil Anderson,Chockalingam Viswesvaran,Handan Kepir Sinangil
Publisher : SAGE
Release : 2017-12-14
ISBN : 1473942799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of this best-selling Handbook presents a fully updated and expanded overview of research, providing the latest perspectives on the analysis of theories, techniques, and methods used by industrial, work, and organizational psychologists. Building on the strengths of the first edition, key additions to this edition include in-depth historical chapter overviews of professional contexts across the globe, along with new chapters on strategic human resource management; corporate social responsibility; diversity, stress, emotions and mindfulness in the workplace; environmental sustainability at work; aging workforces, among many others. Providing a truly global approach and authoritative overview, this three-volume Handbook is an indispensable resource and essential reading for professionals, researchers and students in the field. Volume One: Personnel Psychology and Employee Performance Volume Two: Organizational Psychology Volume Three: Managerial Psychology and Organizational Approaches

Rational Belief

Rational Belief Book
Author : Robert Audi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2015-07-01
ISBN : 0190221852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rational Belief provides conceptions of belief and knowledge, offers a theory of how they are grounded, and connects them with the will and thereby with action, moral responsibility, and intellectual virtue. A unifying element is a commitment to representing epistemology-which is centrally concerned with belief-as integrated with a plausible philosophy of mind that does justice both to the nature of belief and to the conditions for its formation and regulation. Part One centers on belief and its relation to the will. It explores our control of our beliefs, and it describes several forms belief may take and shows how beliefs are connected with the world outside the mind. Part Two concerns normative aspects of epistemology, explores the nature of intellectual virtue, and presents a theory of moral perception. The book also offers a theory of the grounds of both justification and knowledge and shows how these grounds bear on the self-evident. Rationality is distinguished from justification; each clarified in relation to the other; and the epistemological importance of the phenomenal-for instance, of intuitional experience and other "private" aspects of mental life-is explored. The final section addresses social epistemology. It offers a theory of testimony as essential in human knowledge and a related account of the rational resolution of disagreements.

Knowledge Dexterity and Attention

Knowledge  Dexterity  and Attention Book
Author : Abrol Fairweather,Carlos Montemayor
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-05-18
ISBN : 1107089824
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title provides the first thorough defense of a naturalized virtue epistemology.

Mainstream and Formal Epistemology

Mainstream and Formal Epistemology Book
Author : Vincent F. Hendricks
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9780521857895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an analysis of the meeting point between mainstream and formal theories of knowledge.

Legal Directives and Practical Reasons

Legal Directives and Practical Reasons Book
Author : Noam Gur
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2018-07-26
ISBN : 0199659877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book takes up a central question in jurisprudence: What difference can law make to normative reasons relevant to our actions? Following a critical examination of two competing models, an exclusionary model and a weighing model, Gur proposes a third way that aims to capture the strengths of both of these models while avoiding their pitfalls.

Epistemic Contextualism

Epistemic Contextualism Book
Author : Peter Baumann
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-10-13
ISBN : 0191069264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Peter Baumann develops and defends a distinctive version of epistemic contextualism, the view that the truth conditions or the meaning of knowledge attributions of the form "S knows that p" can vary with the context of the attributor. The first part of the book examines arguments for contextualism and develops Baumann's version. The first chapter deals with the argument from cases and ordinary usage; the following two chapters address "theoretical" arguments, from reliability and from luck. The second part of the book discusses the problems contextualism faces, to which it must respond, and provides an extension of contextualism beyond epistemology. Chapter 4 discusses "lottery-scepticism" and argues for a contextualist response. Chapter 5 is dedicated to a homemade problem for contextualism: a threat of inconsistency. Baumann argues for a way out and for a version of contextualism that can underwrite this solution. Chapter 6 proposes a contextualist account of responsibility: The concept of knowledge is not the only one which allows for a contextualist analysis and it is important to explore structural analogies in other areas of philosophy. The third part of the book is focused on some major objections to contextualism and alternative views, namely subject-sensitive invariantism, contrastivism and relativism.

Kant s Theory of Knowledge

Kant s Theory of Knowledge Book
Author : Georges Dicker
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2004-11-04
ISBN : 9780198034933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Critique of Pure Reason is Kant's acknowledged masterpiece, in which he tackles the question of how we can possibly have knowledge that does not rest on experience (a priori knowledge). The first half of the Critique advances a constructive theory of human cognition and defends the possibility of human knowledge against the skeptical empiricism of Hume. These sections of the Critique are difficult for beginners and for advanced students alike. While there exist many scholarly works discussing the Critique on an advanced level, this book is explicitly designed to be read alongside the text by first-time readers of Kant. Dicker makes Kant's views and arguments as accessible as possible without oversimplifying them, and synthesizes the views of contemporary scholars. Kant's Theory of Knowledge will be useful to both undergraduate and graduate students struggling with this notoriously difficult yet deeply influential thinker.

Reality Making

Reality Making Book
Author : Lecturer in Philosophy Mark Jago,Mark Jago
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-02-11
ISBN : 0198755724
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What makes up reality, and how? What kinds of entity are fundamental to reality, and how do dependent entities depend on the fundamental ones? How does one entity metaphysically ground another? These questions are central to contemporary metaphysics. The papers in this collection, written by a new generation of metaphysicians, address these and related questions. They investigate the metaphysical concepts of grounding and fundamentality, and the relationship between the fundamental and all the other parts of reality. Together, these papers represent the cutting-edge of a central topic in contemporary metaphysics.

Performance Epistemology

Performance Epistemology Book
Author : Miguel Angel Fernandez Vargas
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-02-11
ISBN : 0198746946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Performance-based epistemology conceives the normativity involved in epistemic evaluation as a special case of a pattern of evaluation that can be applied to any domain where there are agents that carry out performances with an aim. For example, it conceives believing and judging as types of performances with an epistemic aim that are carried out by persons. Evaluating beliefs epistemically becomes then a task with essentially the same structure that evaluating athletic, culinary or any other sort of performance; in all cases the performance in question is evaluated in terms of how it relates to certain relevant competences and abilities of the subject that carries it out. In this way, performance-based epistemology locates epistemic evaluation within a general normative pattern that spreads across many different human activities and disciplines. This volume presents new essays by leading epistemologists who discuss key issues concerning the foundations and applications of this approach to epistemology. The essays in Part I examine some foundational issues in the conceptual framework. They address questions central to the debate, including the compatibility of apt success with some forms of luck; the connection between aptness and a safety condition for knowledge; the fallibility of perceptual recognitional abilities; actual-world reliabilism and reliabilism about epistemic justification; the nature of the agency required to make a cognitive success truly one's own; the basic conceptual framework of performance-based epistemology. Part II explores Sosa's epistemology of a priori intuition; internalist objections to Sosa's views on second-order knowledge; the roles that epistemic agency is meant to play in performance-based epistemology; the value that second-order reflection may have; epistemic incompetence; and the problem of epistemic circularity and criticises Sosa's alternative solution.

Epistemology

Epistemology Book
Author : Nicholas Rescher
Publisher : SUNY Press
Release : 2012-02-01
ISBN : 0791486370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive introduction to the theory of knowledge.

Plato s Theaetetus Revisited

Plato   s    Theaetetus    Revisited Book
Author : Beatriz Bossi,Thomas M. Robinson
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 3110715597
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book meets the need to revise the standard interpretations of an apparently aporetic dialogue, full of eloquent silences and tricky suggestions, as it explores, among many other topics, the dramatis personae, including Plato's self-references behind the scene and the role of Socrates on stage, the question of method and refutation and the way dialectics plays a part in the dialogue. More especifically, it contains a set of papers devoted to perception and Plato's criticism of Heraclitus and Protagoras. A section deals with the problem of the relation between knowledge and thinking, including the the aviary model and the possibility of error. It also emphasizes some positive contributions to the classical Platonic doctrines and his philosophy of education. The reception of the dialogue in antiquity and the medieval age closes the analysis. Representing different hermeneutical traditions, prestigious scholars engage with these issues in divergent ways, as they shed new light on a complex controversial work.

Content and Justification

Content and Justification Book
Author : Paul A. Boghossian
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2008-09-11
ISBN : 0191558907
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Content and Justification presents a series of essays by Paul Boghossian on the theory of content and on its relation to the phenomenon of a priori knowledge. Part one comprises essays on the nature of rule-following and its relation to the problem of mental content; on the intelligibility of eliminativist views of the mental; on the prospects for a naturalistic reduction of mental content; and on the currently influential view that meaning is a normative notion. Part two includes three widely discussed papers on the phenomenon of self-knowledge and its compatibility with externalist conceptions of mental content. Part three concerns the classical but ill-understood phenomenon of knowledge that is based upon knowledge of meaning or conceptual competence. Finally, part four turns its attention from general issues about mental content to an account of a specific class of mental contents. It contains two widely discussed papers on the nature of colour concepts, and colour properties.

Dispositional Pluralism

Dispositional Pluralism Book
Author : Jennifer McKitrick
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-05-31
ISBN : 0191027626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Jennifer McKitrick offers an opinionated guide to the philosophy of dispositions. In her view, when an object has a disposition, it is such that, if a certain type of circumstance were to occur, a certain kind of event would occur. Since it is very common for this to be the case for a variety of reasons, dispositions are very abundant and diverse. They include such varied properties as character traits like a hero's courage, characteristics of physical objects like a wine glass's fragility, and characteristics of microphysical entities like an electron's charge. Some dispositions are natural while others are non-natural. Some dispositions called "powers" are ungrounded while non-fundamental dispositions are grounded in other properties. Some dispositions manifest constantly, some of them manifest spontaneously, while others manifest only when they are triggered to do so. Some dispositions manifest by causing another dispositional property to be instantiated, while others have manifestations that involve non-dispositional properties and relations. Some dispositions are intrinsic to their bearers while others are extrinsic. Some of them are causally relevant to their manifestations while others are not. Some dispositions manifest in some particular way in particular circumstances, while other dispositions manifest in various ways in various circumstances. What makes all of these diverse properties dispositions is their connection to a certain kind of counterfactual fact. Nevertheless, disposition ascriptions are not semantically reducible to counterfactual claims.

The Nature of Desire

The Nature of Desire Book
Author : Federico Lauria,Julien A. Deonna
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0199370966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Despite desire's universally understood significance, it has been largely omitted from recent philosophy of mind scholarship. This book's purpose is to redress the imbalance, and to bestow on desire the same level of inquiry as is frequently given to, for example, perception, belief, emotion,and intention.What are desires? According to dogma, desire is a motivational state: desiring is being disposed to act. This conception aligns with the functionalist approach to desire and the standard account of desire's role in explaining action. According to a second influential approach, however, desire isfirst and foremost an evaluation: "desiring" is representing something as good. Are desires motivational states, or are they evaluative states? The first section of the volume is devoted to these questions, and to the puzzle of desire's essence. The second part investigates some implications that the various conceptions of desire have on a number of fundamental issues. For example, why are inconsistent desires problematic? What is desire'srole in practical deliberation? How do we know what we want? This volume will contribute to the emergence of a fruitful debate on a neglected, albeit crucial, dimension of the mind.