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Disinfection By Products In Drinking Water

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Disinfection By products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Book
Author : Michael Fielding,Mike Fielding,Mike Farrimond
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is 25 years since the discovery that potentially harmful chemical by-products are generated by the disinfection of drinking water. Since then, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have had a significant impact on drinking water standards, treatment processes and monitoring. Regulators and water suppliers must find a balance between the need to prevent microbial contamination, and the desire to control the levels of DBPs in the water we drink. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues brings together contributions from regulators, researchers and water suppliers from Europe and North America to discuss the current situation and identify the main issues associated with reaching a cost-effective balance between microbial and chemical risks. Overviews of the latest research are presented alongside case studies of practical approaches taken by water companies and regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Contributions are grouped into sections covering: DBP formation and occurrence; advances in analysis and monitoring; standards and regulation; balancing chemical and microbial risk; and control methods for DBPs. A final chapter pulls these strands together to provide a view of the way forward. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues is a unique collection of the views of key people, and as such will be essential reading for all those with an interest in this complex problem.

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Book
Author : K Clive Thompson,Simon Gillespie,Emma Goslan
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-09-29
ISBN : 1782622713
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering the latest developments in themes related to water disinfection by-products, this book brings the reader right up to date. Stemming from an international conference, contributions are from decision-makers, regulators and the relevant scientific community. Coverage includes emerging disinfection by-products, water treatment, water recycling, monitoring, regulation and health and toxicology aspects. It will be of interest to water companies, public health professionals, drinking water quality regulators, suppliers of laboratory and on-line monitoring equipment, analytical chemists, and academic and industry researchers working in the area of disinfection by-products.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water Book
Author : Yuefeng Xie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-08-27
ISBN : 9780203486917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The EPA has established regulations which classify four types of disinfection byproducts - TTHMs, haloacetic acids, bromate, and chlorite - and requires public water systems limit these byproducts to specific levels. Most of the information required to comply with these standards is either scattered throughout the literature or derived from confere

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Book
Author : Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff
Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since their discovery, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become one of the major driving forces in drinking water regulations, research and water utility operations throughout the world. The list of DBPs that can occur in treated drinking waters has grown from a few trihalomethanes to a long list of halogenated and non-halogenated organic or inorganic compounds. This list is expected to continue to grow as the analytical techniques are improved, as more information on their toxicity is developed, and as more occurrence studies are conducted. This book documents the latest DBP research findings, including emerging issues and state-of-the-art studies. Specifically, papers on the occurrence, formation, control, and health effects of emerging (unregulated) halogenated (e.g., brominated) and nonhalogenated (e.g., nitrosamines) DBPs (e.g., emerging nitrogenous vs. regulated carbonaceous DBPs) are presented. In addition to the characterization and reactivity of natural organic matter to form DBPs, new studies on algal organic matter and treated wastewater as sources of DBPs and their precursors are discussed.

Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water

Formation and Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Book
Author : Philip C. Singer
Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by more than 30 DBP experts, this technical and managerial reference tool provides essential background and addresses recent activities of the EPA and environmental consultants. It answers important questions, such as how to balance microbial and chemical risks, and includes information on new regulation and treatment costs.

Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Systems

Control of Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Systems Book
Author : Anastasia Nikolau,Luigi Rizzo,Hüseyin Selcuk
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been an issue of major concern during several decades. The formation of many DBPs species during water disinfection has been documented, while new by-products are still being detected, as the analytical instrumentation available becomes more accurate and sensitive. Most of the DBPs have been proven to have toxic effects on living organisms; therefore they pose risks to human health during drinking water consumption. The factors affecting their formation have been extensively investigated, their transport and fate have been studied, modelling efforts for several of them have been performed, in order to understand better their behaviour and therefore try to minimise their occurrence in waters. Techniques for their removal from water have also been applied, and a variety of disinfection methods or combinations of disinfecting agents have been investigated with the aim to produce safe drinking water containing the minimum possible concentrations of DBPs. This book deals with the advances in control of DBPs in drinking water systems. Further than an providing an overview of existing disinfection techniques and by-products, up-to-date information on the parameters affecting the procedures of DBPs formation, analytical methods for their determination, toxicity, regulation, it pays special emphasis on the advanced treatment methods applied recently for DBPs control and presents recent promising findings as well as case studies in this field, as the relevant research is proceeding, producing more knowledge and practical solutions in regard to the disinfected drinking water quality.

Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control

Disinfection By Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control Book
Author : Roger A. Minear,Gary Amy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-12-18
ISBN : 9781566701365
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them. The book includes several chapters on chlorine by-products and discusses techniques for the removal of chloroform from drinking water. It also describes gamma radiation techniques for removing microorganic by-product precursors from natural waters and the removal of bromate from drinking water.

Uncharted Waters

Uncharted Waters Book
Author : Anna Andersson
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2021-02-15
ISBN : 9179296947
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are potentially toxic compounds formed when drinking water is treated with disinfectants, such as chlorine or chloramine. A large proportion of the exposure to DBPs is still unknown and the health risks observed through epidemiological studies cannot be explained by DBPs known today. In this thesis, a part of the unknown DBP fraction is investigated, covering a wide range of non-volatile, chlorine/bromine-containing DBPs. The goals were to investigate how the compositions of these DBPs differ between water treatment plants, how their occurrence changes in the distribution system until reaching consumers and how new treatment techniques can reduce their formation and toxicity. To analyze unknown DBPs, a non-targeted approach adopting ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), was used, where the mass of molecules is measured with such accuracy that the elemental composition of individual DBPs can be calculated. A panel of bioassays was used to assess the combined toxic effects from these DBP mixtures. The results show that the formation of these DBPs to a large extent was specific to each water treatment plant and that local conditions influenced DBP formation, based on e.g., the abundance of organic material with certain chemical structures, bromide and disinfection procedure and agent (chlorine or chloramine). The DBPs were detected in both chlorinated and chloraminated water and in all tap water samples, demonstrating that they are part of human exposure. The number of DBP formulae decreased and the DBP composition changed between drinking water treatment and consumer taps, suggesting that DBP exposure to consumers is not necessarily resembling measurements at the treatment plants. Evaluation of new treatment techniques showed that suspended ion exchange and ozonation have potential to decrease the formation and toxic effects of DBPs and that the removal of organic matter can influence qualitative aspects of DBP formation, such as the proportions of chlorine-containing (less toxic) versus bromine-containing (more toxic) DBPs. Through increased knowledge about the role and relevance of non-volatile DBPs, this work can contribute to future monitoring and actions to reduce the health risks associated with DBPs in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. Desinfektionsbiprodukter (DBP:s) är potentiellt giftiga ämnen som bildas när dricksvatten renas med desinfektionsmedel såsom hypoklorit eller monokloramin. En stor del av exponeringen är ännu okänd och hittills kända DBP:s kan inte förklara de hälsorisker som förknippats med klorerat dricksvatten i epidemiologiska studier. I avhandlingen undersöks en relativt okänd fraktion av DBP:s som utgörs av icke-flyktiga, klor/brom-innehållande ämnen. Målen var att undersöka hur dessa DBP:s varierar mellan olika vattenverk, om de förekommer hos konsumenter och hur nya vattenreningstekniker kan minska dess bildandning och relaterad toxicitet. För att mäta okända DBP:s användes ultrahögupplöst masspektrometri (Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)), med vilken massan hos molekyler kan bestämmas så exakt att atomsammansättningen för enskilda DBP:s kan räknas ut. En serie effektbaserade metoder som bygger på biologiska testsystem användes för att mäta kombinerade toxiska effekter från de studerade biprodukterna. Resultaten visar att största delen av bildade DBP:s var unik för varje vattenverk och att lokala förutsättningar påverkar vilka DBP:s som bildas, till exempel om det finns organiskt material med särskilda kemiska strukturer, bromid eller vilket desinfektionsmedel (klor eller kloramin) som används. De studerade biprodukterna detekterades både i klorerat och kloraminerat dricksvatten och i samtliga kranvatten, vilket innebär att de bidrar till konsumenters exponering. Antalet detekterade DBP:s minskade och sammansättningen ändrades mellan vattenverk och konsument, vilket innebär att DBP exponeringen hos konsumenter inte är densamma som mäts på vattenverken. En utvärdering av nya reningstekniker visade att suspenderat jonbyte och ozonering har potential att minska bildning och relaterad toxisk effekt från DBP:s och att borttagning av organiskt material kan påverka kvalitativa aspekter av DBP bildning, såsom proportionerna av klorerade (mindre toxiska) och bromerade (mer toxiska) DBP:s. Genom ökad insikt om icke-flyktiga DBP:s roll och relevans kan detta arbete bidra till att förbättra framtida uppföljning och insatser för att minska hälsorisker kopplade till DBP:s i klorerat eller kloraminerat dricksvatten.

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By products in Drinking Water Book
Author : M.N.V. Prasad
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2020-02-18
ISBN : 0081029780
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Detection and Treatment presents cutting-edge research on how to understand the procedures, processes and considerations for detecting and treating disinfection by-products from drinking water, swimming pool water, and wastewater. The book begins with an overview of the different groups of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs), such as: Trihalomethanes (THM), Halo acetic acids, and Haloacetonitrile (HAN). This coverage is quickly followed by a clear and rigorous exposition of the latest methods and technologies for the characterization, occurrence, formation, transformation and removal of DBPs in drinking water. Other chapters focus on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP detection and treatment, including various recent techniques, such as microfiltration, nanofiltration membrane and nanotechnology. Explains the latest research in detection, treatment processes and remediation technologies Includes sampling, analytical and characterization methods and approaches Covers cutting-edge research, including membrane based technologies, nanotechnology treatment technologies and bioremediation treatment technologies Provides background information regarding contamination sources

Unit Processes in Drinking Water Treatment

Unit Processes in Drinking Water Treatment Book
Author : Masschelein
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1992-08-13
ISBN : 9780824786786
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text offers information on the theory of major drinking water treatment processes and contains real-life practical examples. It aims to create guidelines for the design of unit processes that operate within an overall framework for water treatment plants.

Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques

Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques Book
Author : Jyoti Kishen Kumar,Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-12-13
ISBN : 1439877408
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Water is our natural heritage, our miracle of life. However, our increasingly technological society has become indifferent to water. Far from being pure, modern drinking water around the world contains many undesirable chemical and bacterial contaminants. The existing techniques employed for the disinfection of water are either energy-intensive or have by-products harmful to human health. Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques reviews these processes and explores novel technologies for water disinfection synergistic with existing techniques. The book covers a wide audience and gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques commonly used for the disinfection of water as well as newer emerging technologies in terms of their mode of action, scale of operation, efficacy, merits, and demerits. It broadly addresses the issues related to water disinfection in three sections: Disinfection techniques—chemical, physical, and hybrid (combination)—and their likely scale of operation efficacy Disinfection by-product as a function of water source and the type of treatment Emerging and novel techniques, including new work on cavitation, an economical, energy-efficient, and simple alternative to the conventional methods of disinfection Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques effectively combines the chemical, physical, biological, and engineering principles of water disinfection in one text. Discussing both conventional and novel techniques used for disinfection and the economics involved, the book gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques used for disinfection to create potable water.

Disinfection By products

Disinfection By products Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Disinfection By products book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-12-30
ISBN : 3540466851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry provides the compilation of today's knowledge of processes in the natural environment and the behavior and impact of pollutants. It provides a valuable source for environmental managers, decision-makers, and scientists. Volume 5A is dedicated to water pollution.

Identification and Occurrence of Ozonation By Products in Drinking Water

Identification and Occurrence of Ozonation By Products in Drinking Water Book
Author : William Glaze,Howard S. Weinberg
Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9780898676914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the discovery of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated disinfection by-products, many utilities are considering alternative oxidants and disinfectants to chlorine. One such alternative is ozonation. However, almost no information exists on the by-products produced upon ozonation. This report describes methods for ozonation by-product analysis and the results of a by-products survey of facilities using ozonation on the full or pilot scale. -- Foreword.

Development of an Environmental Decision Support System EDSS for Comparing Drinking Water Treatment Practices and Associated Health Risks

Development of an Environmental Decision Support System  EDSS  for Comparing Drinking Water Treatment Practices and Associated Health Risks Book
Author : Douglas J. Crawford-Brown,Shannon Marquez-Nyarko
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of an Environmental Decision Support System EDSS for Comparing Drinking Water Treatment Practices and Associated Health Risks book written by Douglas J. Crawford-Brown,Shannon Marquez-Nyarko, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Haloforms and Related Compounds in Drinking Water

Haloforms and Related Compounds in Drinking Water Book
Author : Anastasia Nikolaou
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-11-17
ISBN : 9783540404217
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drinking water quality has been a matter of concern for several decades. Disinfection of drinking water improves its microbiological quality and prevents disease outbreaks. However, continuously increasing scientific research concerns the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants in water. Many of these compounds, named haloforms, originate from the procedure of disinfection, being formed during reactions of disinfectants with natural organic matter present in water. Haloforms may possess carcinogenic or mutagenic properties; therefore minimization of their concentrations in drinking water is a critical issue. Regulatory measures are becoming more and more stringent, as new health effects become known and optimized high-sensitivity analytical methodologies are being developed. Up-to-date research findings concerning all these aspects have been collected, critically reviewed, summarized, and are presented and discussed in the present book.

Water Encyclopedia Water Quality and Resource Development

Water Encyclopedia  Water Quality and Resource Development Book
Author : Jay H. Lehr,Jack Keeley,Jane Lehr,Thomas B. Kingery
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release : 2005-06
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume deals with the big picture of regional water supplies, how they become contaminated, how they can be protected and how they can best serve the surrounding populations and industries. Significant focus is placed upon the natural chemistry of available water supplies and its biological impacts. Case studies from regions around the world offer an excellent picture of the world's water resources.

Proceedings

Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water

Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water Book
Author : Sylvia E. Barrett,Stuart W. Krasner,Gary L. Amy
Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are many by-products of water disinfection that are still not fully understood and can be potentially harmful. In this volume all the current research in this area is discussed, along with an examination of the role of NOM (natural organic matter) and its relationship to DBP (disinfection by-product) formation and control in drinking water. Understanding the relationship of NOM to DBP may well lead to new techniques for analyzing and treating water and enable reasonable choices to be made for source-water protection, treatment plant process optimization, and distribution system operation to control DBP's. This volume emphasizes the characterization and reactivity of polar natural organic matter. It examines analytical methods which better characterize NOM and determines some of the polar and nonvolatile DBP forms. It presents innovative new methods, sich as capillary electrophoresis for haloacetic aceids and LC/MS for the identification of polar dinking water DBPs.

A One year Survey of Halogenated Disinfection By products in the Distribution System of Treatment Plants Using Three Different Disinfection Processes

A One year Survey of Halogenated Disinfection By products in the Distribution System of Treatment Plants Using Three Different Disinfection Processes Book
Author : Canada. Environmental Health Directorate
Publisher : Environmental Health Directorate Health Protection Branch
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A One year Survey of Halogenated Disinfection By products in the Distribution System of Treatment Plants Using Three Different Disinfection Processes book written by Canada. Environmental Health Directorate, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.