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Directed Self Assembly Of Block Co Polymers For Nano Manufacturing

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Directed Self assembly of Block Co polymers for Nano manufacturing

Directed Self assembly of Block Co polymers for Nano manufacturing Book
Author : Roel Gronheid,Paul Nealey
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2015-07-17
ISBN : 0081002610
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The directed self-assembly (DSA) method of patterning for microelectronics uses polymer phase-separation to generate features of less than 20nm, with the positions of self-assembling materials externally guided into the desired pattern. Directed self-assembly of Block Co-polymers for Nano-manufacturing reviews the design, production, applications and future developments needed to facilitate the widescale adoption of this promising technology. Beginning with a solid overview of the physics and chemistry of block copolymer (BCP) materials, Part 1 covers the synthesis of new materials and new processing methods for DSA. Part 2 then goes on to outline the key modelling and characterization principles of DSA, reviewing templates and patterning using topographical and chemically modified surfaces, line edge roughness and dimensional control, x-ray scattering for characterization, and nanoscale driven assembly. Finally, Part 3 discusses application areas and related issues for DSA in nano-manufacturing, including for basic logic circuit design, the inverse DSA problem, design decomposition and the modelling and analysis of large scale, template self-assembly manufacturing techniques. Authoritative outlining of theoretical principles and modeling techniques to give a thorough introdution to the topic Discusses a broad range of practical applications for directed self-assembly in nano-manufacturing Highlights the importance of this technology to both the present and future of nano-manufacturing by exploring its potential use in a range of fields

Self assembly of Block Copolymers for Nanopatterning

Self assembly of Block Copolymers for Nanopatterning Book
Author : Nathanael Lap-Yan Wu,University of Alberta. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The impressive developments in the semiconductor industry over the past five decades have largely been dependent on the ability to continually reduce the dimensions of devices on a chip. However, as critical dimension requirements for these devices approach the limits of photolithography, new fabrication strategies must be introduced for these remarkable advances to continue. One technology listed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a candidate for next-generation nanostructure fabrication is the directed self-assembly of block copolymers. Block copolymers have received significant attention of late for their ability to template large regular arrays of nanostructures with dimensions ranging from 10 to 50 nm. The production of denser sub-10 nm nanostructures is also possible by reducing the size of these polymers, but a reduction of the polymer size also compromises the quality of nanostructures, making small polymers extremely difficult to use. In this thesis, two different patterning approaches are introduced to push the nanostructure density limits possible for a given polymer. In the first, a novel patterning approach involving thin films of bilayer block copolymer domains is used to effectively double the nanostructure density patterned by a given polymer. The technique is successfully applied to different types and sizes of polymer, and can also form highly controlled arrays of patterns with the help of surface topography. By varying different process parameters during the self-assembly or subsequent plasma steps, the dimensions of these density-doubled patterns may be finely-tuned to the desired width and pitch. The surface coverage of these density-doubled nanostructures is also maximized through adjusting the film thickness and parameters in the self-assembly process. Besides using bilayer films, dense arrays of nanostructures may also be patterned using a multi-step patterning approach. In this approach, multiple layers of block copolymer films are subsequently deposited onto the substrate to template nanostructures. Because nanostructures from previous layers contribute to the surface topography, they influence the self-assembly of successive layers and more dense and complex patterns may be produced as a result.

Mesoscale Modeling of Directed Self Assemblies of Block Copolymer Lithography

Mesoscale Modeling of Directed Self Assemblies of Block Copolymer Lithography Book
Author : Shubham Dattaram Pinge
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Block copolymers (BCPs) self organize at molecular level building blocks and forming nano-structures with characteristic length scales. As these nano-structures resemble the lithographic features desired in the micro-electronics industry, they are used as a nanotemplate in the manufacture of micro-chips. This study focusses on the pillarpost guide method of directing self assemblies to form 'punch hole' lithographic nano-patterns. The work aims to elucidate the necessary conditions required to form hexagonal packed cylinders using di-block copolymers. It sheds lights on various factors that affect the BCP self assembly and how the morphology is altered due to these factors. These include biasing the surfaces (selective towards one of the BCP phase) and altering the BCP properties (chain length, volume fraction etc). The morphologies attained have been independently verified by experimental results obtained from our collaborators at EMD Performance Materials Group, NJ-USA. Apart from optimizing the morphology of the system, fundamental studies have been performed on the system. The behavior of the BCP chains is analyzed under a simple confinement between two flat substrates that selectively wets one of the phases. The morphology thus formed is studied with the polymer chain length being the reaction coordinate for a fixed critical confinement. The results obtained from the fundamental study has helped us in explaining the morphology formed in a more complex geometry like pillarpost guide that uses topography to confine the polymers. This in turn has proven to be of great benefit to optimally design the system and achieve the ideal nanolithographic patterns. iii.

Templated Self assembly of Novel Block Copolymers

Templated Self assembly of Novel Block Copolymers Book
Author : Li-Chen Cheng (Ph.D.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) is emerging as a promising route for numerous technological applications to fabricate a variety of nanoscopic structures. The resulting feature sizes range from a few to several hundred nanometers, and are readily tunable by varying the molecular weights of block copolymers. Directed self-assembly of block copolymer is an effective way to pattern periodic arrays of features with long-range order, to generate complex patterns, and to multiplicatively increase the pattern density and resolution that are far beyond the limit of conventional lithography. Despite of the significant progress in the area of directed self-assembly in recent years, critical research problems regarding the dimension scalability toward sub-10-nm regime and large feature sizes on hundreds of nanometers scale as well as the capability of generating complex device-oriented patterns remain challenging. In this thesis, BCP systems, including high-v BCPs that are capable of self-assembling into extreme small and large feature sizes as well as those with more complex block architectures, are identified and studied in order to understand how those materials may be processed and directed selfassembly to bridge the patterning size spectrum between nano- and micro-fabrication. Another focus is placed on the scientific exploration of directed self-assembly of triblock terpolymers and the investigation on the mechanisms that regulate the scaling and geometry of self-assembled patterns. A comprehensive understanding about self-assembly of BCP thin films will enable developing device-oriented geometries, manipulating BCPs phase behavior, and incorporating new functional materials for a wider range of applications. In the meanwhile, optimizing the processing condition of self-assembly of various BCPs is essential to confirm viability of the directed self-assembly of block copolymers process in manufacturing.

Directed Self assembly for Nanofabrication and Device Integration

Directed Self assembly for Nanofabrication and Device Integration Book
Author : He Yi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For more than 50 years, the size of the semiconductor devices has been scaling by approximately a factor of two every 1.5-2 years. This has brought tremendous benefits for the industry including lower cost per transistor, more computing power and higher speed. However, it has been recently observed that the scaling of devices is approaching fundamental (i.e. atomic scale) and economic (i.e. cost per fabrication facility) limits, in large part because traditional lithography is facing substantial challenges for printing the shrinking features while maintaining a reasonable cost. In response to this urgent need, researchers are actively searching for alternative patterning approaches as the next generation lithography. Potential solutions such as extreme ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, and multiple patterning lithography have attracted much attention from the lithography community. However, each one of these solutions has its own drawbacks, such as extremely high cost or low throughput. Among these solutions, block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) stands out due to its low cost, high throughput, well-controlled sub-20 nm features, and experimentally demonstrated potential to scale below 14 nm. Block copolymers are unique soft materials that can self-assemble through microphase separation into various periodic nanostructures such as cylinders, spheres and lamellas, driven by the incompatibility between the different blocks. The feature size of these nanostructures is dependent on the molecular weight of the block copolymers and therefore not limited by the same factors that limit optical lithography such as ultraviolet light wavelength. In addition, the self-assembly could be controlled by a simple thermal annealing process, which significantly reduces the cost and improves the throughput. Among all the varieties of nanostructures, the cylindrical self-assembled patterns are especially suitable for patterning contacts and vias in integrated circuits (ICs). This dissertation focuses on the application of block copolymer DSA for contact hole patterning in ICs. This work first demonstrates the flexible control of aperiodic DSA patterns using small physical guiding templates, using both experiments and computational simulations. This is followed by the first patterning example of memory and random logic circuit contacts using DSA. To enable practical technology adoption, I introduce an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contact configurations on integrated circuits. This work also illustrates, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements. Last but not least, the dissertation introduces a method to reduce DSA defectivity by using sub-DSA-resolution Assist Features (SDRAFs).

Selective Directed Self assembly of Coexisting Morphologies Using Block Copolymer Blends

Selective Directed Self assembly of Coexisting Morphologies Using Block Copolymer Blends Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is an emergent technique for nano-lithography, but is limited in the range of structures possible in a single fabrication step. We expand on traditional DSA chemical patterning. Moreover, a blend of lamellar- and cylinder-forming block copolymers assembles on specially designed surface chemical line gratings, leading to the simultaneous formation of coexisting ordered morphologies in separate areas of the substrate. The competing energetics of polymer chain distortions and chemical mismatch with the substrate grating bias the system towards either line/space or dot array patterns, depending on the pitch and linewidth of the prepattern. This contrasts with typical DSA, wherein assembly of a single-component block copolymer on chemical templates generates patterns of either lines/spaces (lamellar) or hexagonal dot arrays (cylinders). In our approach, the chemical template encodes desired local spatial arrangements of coexisting design motifs, self-assembled from a single, sophisticated resist.

Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymers and Ternary Block Copolymer homopolymer Blends on Chemically Patterned Surfaces Into Device oriented Geometries

Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymers and Ternary Block Copolymer homopolymer Blends on Chemically Patterned Surfaces Into Device oriented Geometries Book
Author : Mark P. Stoykovich
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymers and Ternary Block Copolymer homopolymer Blends on Chemically Patterned Surfaces Into Device oriented Geometries book written by Mark P. Stoykovich, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Next Generation Materials for Block Copolymer Lithography

Next Generation Materials for Block Copolymer Lithography Book
Author : Michael Joseph Maher
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The electronics industry is a trillion dollar industry that has drastically changed everyday life. Advances in lithography have enabled manufacturers to continually shrink the dimensions of microelectronic components, which has resulted in devices that outperform previous generations. Unfortunately, conventional patterning techniques are approaching their physical resolution limits. The ability to economically pattern sub-10 nm features is necessary for the future growth of the industry. Block copolymer self-assembly has emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithography and nanofabrication because block copolymers self-assemble into periodic nanostructures (e.g. cylinders and lamellae) on a length scale that exceeds the physical limits of optical lithography. However, for block copolymer lithography to be realized, the block copolymer domains need to form sub-10 nm features and display etch resistance for pattern transfer. Additionally, the orientation, alignment, and placement of block copolymer domains must be carefully controlled. This dissertation discusses the synthesis, orientation and alignment of silicon-containing BCPs that are inherently etch resistant and provide access to nanostructures in the sub-10 nm regime. The orientation of domains is controlled by interactions between each block copolymer domain and each interface. Preferential interactions between the block copolymer domains and the either the substrate or air interface lead to a parallel orientation of domains, which is not useful for lithography. Non-preferential (“neutral”) interactions are needed to promote the desired perpendicular orientation. The synthesis of surface treatments and top coats is described, and methods to determine the preferential and non-preferential interactions are reported. Orientation control is demonstrated via rapid thermal annealing between two neutral surfaces. Combining orientation control of block copolymer domains with well established directed self-assembly strategies was used to produce perpendicular domains with long range order. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to lithography and block copolymer self-assembly. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of silicon-containing block copolymers. Chapters 4-6 focus on controlling block copolymer domain orientation, and Chapter 7 focuses on directed self-assembly. Chapter 8 covers spatial orientation control of domains using photopatternable interfaces. Finally, Chapter 9 covers tin-containing polymers that are resistant to fluorine-containing etch chemistries and can be used to pattern silicon oxide.

Dynamic Temperature Gradient Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymer nanoparticle Thin Films

Dynamic Temperature Gradient Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymer nanoparticle Thin Films Book
Author : Ren Zhang (Chemical engineer)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Block copolymers (BCPs) have received considerable attention as a promising platform for synthesis of heterogeneous nanomaterials and fabrication of nanostructures with improved electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. Here we demonstrate a facile fabrication strategy towards long-range ordered block copolymer/nanoparticle (BCP/NP) hybrid structures utilizing a novel dynamic thermal field-induced gradient soft-shear process (CZA-SS). Structural uniformity of nanocomposite films is quantified in terms of the orientation order parameter (S) and it is demonstrated that CZA-SS can facilitate unidirectional alignment with low loading fraction of AuNP additives. The application of sharp dynamic thermal gradient process (CZA-S) is shown to result in the morphological transition from out-of plane to in-plane cylinder orientation that is rationalized as a consequence of suppressed normal expansion of AuNP filled BCP films. Our current work may open new avenues for fabrication of unidirectional oriented hybrid materials,

Directed Self Assembly of Nanostructured Block Copolymer Thin Films Via Dynamic Thermal Annealing

Directed Self Assembly of Nanostructured Block Copolymer Thin Films Via Dynamic Thermal Annealing Book
Author : Monali N. Basutkar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aggressive miniaturization of nanoelectronic devices poses a pressing challenge in using conventional patterning technologies that are fast approaching their intrinsic resolution limits. Molecular self-assembling block copolymers (BCPs) are promising candidates for integrating and extending the current photolithographic constraints, facilitating the fabrication of next-generation nanotemplating materials via directed self-assembly. The current work focuses on the development of viable dynamic self-assembly strategies for achieving highly ordered versatile BCP nanostructures with precise feature size control and registration, as well as provides insights into the fundamentals of BCP thin film self-assembly driven by dynamic annealing fields A continuous template-free method toward rapid fabrication (2-4 minutes) of highly ordered through-thickness vertical lamellar polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) l-PS-b-PMMA) microdomains in l-BCP films on quartz (silicon oxide) substrate was developed. A molecular relaxation induced vertical l-BCP ordering occurs under a transient macroscopic vertical strain field, imposed by a high film thermal expansion rate under sharp thermal gradient cold zone annealing (CZA-S). The high thermal gradient had to be selectively tuned with the CZA-S sweep rates for controlling the polymer chain relaxation dynamics for vertical order. Comparable conventional static thermal annealing of identical l-BCP films using vacuum oven failed to induce the desired nanostructure. Morphology evolution tracked in real time along the CZA-S thermal gradient profile using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) demonstrated four regimes of ordering: microphase separation from a quenched-disordered state (Regime 1), initial formation of vertical lamellae due to the sharp thermal gradient imposed on the l-BCP film (Regime 2), polygrain structure resulting from the broad [del] T region around Tmax (Regime 3), and an ultimate highly vertically ordered l-BCP morphology due to grain coarsening on the cooling edge (Regime 4). A detailed examination of the influence of CZA process parameters such as temperature gradient field strength ([del] T) of the thermal annealing profile, sweep velocity (v) and the corresponding annealing time (t) on the mechanism and dynamics of l-BCP ordering was performed. The complex interplay between thermodynamic equilibrium, surface and interfacial energies, confinement effects and BCP ordering kinetics was also investigated to determine the effect of BCP film attributes on morphological development. By tuning the CZA-S process dynamics with the l-BCP relaxation timescales, this process created vertical l-BCP nanodomains with controlled feature sizes via molecular weight control. Besides regulating the out-of-plane nanostructure orientation, the alignment of BCP microdomains in-plane was locally tuned by biasing the BCP assembly energetics using an edge-templating strategy. The relaxation of residual stresses and minimization of chain distortion energy penalties along the film boundary were the factors governing the edge-templating mechanism that spontaneously aligns the BCP microdomains orthogonal to the film-discontinuity. Both, kinetic and thermodynamic factors were associated with the boundary-propagation effect. This research demonstrates a new paradigm for advancement of BCP nanotemplating and nanolithography applications due to its potential to fabricate user-defined hierarchical micro-nanopatterns.

Nanomanufacturing Handbook

Nanomanufacturing Handbook Book
Author : Ahmed Busnaina
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-19
ISBN : 1351829831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Breakthroughs in nanotechnology have been coming at a rapid pace over the past few years. This was fueled by significant worldwide investments by governments and industry. But if these promising young technologies cannot begin to show commercial viability soon, that funding is in danger of disappearing as investors lose their appetites and the economic and scientific promise of nanotechnology may not be realized. Scrutinizing the barriers to commercial scale-up of nanotechnologies, the Nanomanufacturing Handbook presents a broad survey of the research being done to bring nanotechnology out of the laboratory and into the factory. Current research into nanotechnology focuses on the underlying science, but as this forward-looking handbook points out, the immediate need is for research into scale-up, process robustness, and system integration issues. Taking that message to heart, this book collects cutting-edge research from top experts who examine such topics as surface-programmed assembly, fabrication and applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) including nanoelectronics, manufacturing nanoelectrical contacts, room-temperature nanoimprint and nanocontact technologies, nanocontacts and switch reliability, defects and surface preparation, and other innovative, application-driven initiatives. In addition to these technical issues, the author provides a survey of the current state of nanomanufacturing in the United States—the first of its kind—and coverage also reaches into patenting nanotechnologies as well as regulatory and societal issues. With timely, authoritative coverage accompanied by numerous illustrations, the Nanomanufacturing Handbook clarifies the current challenges facing industrial-scale nanotechnologies and outlines advanced tools and strategies that will help overcome them.

Molecular Pathways for Defect Annihilation in Directed Self assembly

Molecular Pathways for Defect Annihilation in Directed Self assembly Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last few years, the directed self-assembly of block copolymers by surface patterns has transitioned from academic curiosity to viable contender for commercial fabrication of next-generation nanocircuits by lithography. Recently, it has become apparent that kinetics, and not only thermodynamics, plays a key role for the ability of a polymeric material to self-assemble into a perfect, defect-free ordered state. Perfection, in this context, implies not more than one defect, with characteristic dimensions on the order of 5 nm, over a sample area as large as 100 cm2. In this work, we identify the key pathways and the corresponding free-energy barriers for eliminating defects, and we demonstrate that an extraordinarily large thermodynamic driving force is not necessarily sufficient for their removal. By adopting a concerted computational and experimental approach, we explain the molecular origins of these barriers, how they depend on material characteristics, and we propose strategies designed to over-come them. The validity of our conclusions for industrially-relevant patterning processes is established by relying on instruments and assembly lines that are only available at state-of-the-art fabrication facilities and, through this confluence of fundamental and applied research, we are able to discern the evolution of morphology at the smallest relevant length scales - a handful of nanometers -, and present a view of defect annihilation in directed self-assembly at an unprecedented level of detail.

Self assembly of Block Copolymers for the Fabrication of Functional Nanomaterials

Self assembly of Block Copolymers for the Fabrication of Functional Nanomaterials Book
Author : Li Yao
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation explores the use of block copolymers which can self-assemble into different morphologies as templates to fabricate nanostructured materials. The first section (Chapters 2-4) reports the formation of mesoporous silica films with spherical, cylindrical and bicontinuous pores up to 40 nm in diameter through replicating the morphologies of the solid block copolymer (BCP) templates, polystyrene-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA), via phase selective condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate in supercritical CO2. Next, directed self-assembly was used to control the orientation of cylindrical domains in PS-b-PtBA templates. Large-area aligned mesochannels in silica films with diameters tunable between 5 and 30 nm were achieved through the replication of oriented templates via scCO2 infusion. The long-range alignment of mesochannels was confirmed through GISAXS with sample stage azimuthal rotation. In the second section (Chapters 5-6), enantiopure tartaric acid was used as an additive to dramatically improve ordering in poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray scattering were used to study the phase behavior and morphologies within both bulk and thin films. With the addition of a photo acid generator, photo-induced disorder in the PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid composite system was achieved upon UV exposure which deprotected the PtBA block to yield poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which is phase-miscible with PEO. Area-selective UV exposure using a photo-mask was applied with the assistance of trace amounts of base quencher to achieve high-resolution hierarchical patterns. Helical superstructures were observed by TEM in this BCP/chiral additive system with 3D handedness confirmed by TEM tomography. In the last section (Chapter 7), ultra-high loadings of nanoparticles into target domains of block copolymer composites were achieved by blending the block copolymer hosts with small molecule additives that exhibit strong interactions with one of the polymer chain segments and with the nanoparticle ligands via hydrogen bonding. The addition of 40 wt% D-tartaric acid to poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) enabled the loading of up to 150 wt% of 4-hydroxythiophenol functionalized Au nanoparticles relative to the mass of the target hydrophilic domain. This was equivalent to over 40% Au by mass of the resulting well ordered composite as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis.

Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymers with Functional Materials

Directed Self assembly of Block Copolymers with Functional Materials Book
Author : Yi Ding (Ph.D.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Block copolymers (BCPs) are a class of soft materials consisting of two (or more) different chains joint together by covalent bond. This special chemical structure leads to microphase separation and consequently a variety of highly controllable self-assembly patterns. Directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs has therefore emerged as one of the most promising technologies to fabricate functional nanostructures and is able to produce patterns with ultra-small resolution (sub-10 nm) while maintaining high throughput and order. However, existing DSA methods depend mostly on carbon or silicon-based BCPs, thus lack functionality for sophisticated applications. This work aims at expanding the capability of DSA techniques by exploring new ways of incorporating functional materials into the BCP matrix and by imposing non-native symmetries on the BCP patterns. First, we focused on constructing nanocomposite thin films composed of BCPs and various types of functional materials (i.e., inorganic ions, inorganic-organic complex, organic compounds and nanoparticles). Based upon this methodology, we developed novel ways of fabricating mesoporous thin film structures with rectangular, triangular and quasicrystalline symmetries by means of graphoepitaxial post array templates. On the other hand, we also examined the limits of DSA by introducing artificial noise to mimic fabrication errors and studied the corresponding responses from BCP. This study demonstrates the potential of DSA of BCP in building thin film nanostructure of unconventional symmetries with functional components.

Guiding the Self assembly of Block Copolymers in 2D and 3D with Minimal Patterning

Guiding the Self assembly of Block Copolymers in 2D and 3D with Minimal Patterning Book
Author : Jaewon Choi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) based on topographic patterns is one of the most promising strategies for overcoming resolution limitations in the current lithographic process and fabricating the next generation data storage devices. While the DSA of BCPs with deep topographic patterning has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically over the past two decades, less attention has been paid to the development of the DSA process using minimal topographic patterning. This dissertation focuses on understanding the effect of minimal topographic patterning on guiding the self-assembly of BCPs in 2D and 3D. We demonstrate that minimal trench patterns can be used to achieve highly ordered hexagonal arrays or unidirectionally aligned line patterns over large areas. By preparing BCP thin films on a series of minimal single trench with different dimensions, we study the minimum amount of topographic patterning necessary to successfully guide the self-assembly of BCPs. This approach provides insight into the minimum pitch of the trench necessary to fully order BCP microdomains. We develop a simple and robust method for the generation of macroscopically ordered xi hexagonal arrays from the DSA of BCPs based on minimal trench patterns with solvent vapor annealing. The use of minimal trench patterns allows us to elucidate the morphological characteristics and lateral ordering of hexagonal array using grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Moreover, using minimal trench patterns, we describe the generation of BCP line patterns oriented orthogonal to the trench direction over arbitrarily macroscopic distances. Beyond 2D BCP nanostructures, we explore the fabrication of 3D BCP architectures over large areas using simple woodpile structures as 3D guiding templates. We can also produce 3D networks of metallic nanostructures within the woodpile structures using a metal salt infiltration technique. In the last part, we conclude this dissertation and propose an outlook.

Inorganic Nanoarchitectures by Organic Self Assembly

Inorganic Nanoarchitectures by Organic Self Assembly Book
Author : Stefan Guldin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 3319003127
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Macromolecular self-assembly - driven by weak, non-covalent, intermolecular forces - is a common principle of structure formation in natural and synthetic organic materials. The variability in material arrangement on the nanometre length scale makes this an ideal way of matching the structure-function demands of photonic and optoelectronic devices. However, suitable soft matter systems typically lack the appropriate photoactivity, conductivity or chemically stability. This thesis explores the implementation of soft matter design principles for inorganic thin film nanoarchitectures. Sacrificial block copolymers and colloids are employed as structure-directing agents for the co-assembly of solution-based inorganic materials, such as TiO_2 and SiO_2. Novel fabrication and characterization methods allow unprecedented control of material formation on the 10 – 500 nm length scale, allowing the design of material architectures with interesting photonic and optoelectronic properties.

Unconventional Nanopatterning Techniques and Applications

Unconventional Nanopatterning Techniques and Applications Book
Author : John A. Rogers,Hong H. Lee
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Patterning or lithography is at the core of modern science and technology and cuts across all disciplines. With the emergence of nanotechnology, conventional methods based on electron beam lithography and extreme ultraviolet photolithography have become prohibitively expensive. As a result, a number of simple and unconventional methods have been introduced, beginning first with research demonstrations in the mid 1990s. This book focuses on these unconventional patterning techniques and their applications to optics, organic devices, electronic devices, biological devices, and fluidics.

Template based Control for Bottom up Nanostructures Multilayer Block Copolymer Graphoepitaxy and Masked ZnO Nanowire Growth

Template based Control for Bottom up Nanostructures   Multilayer Block Copolymer Graphoepitaxy and Masked ZnO Nanowire Growth Book
Author : Samuel Mospens Nicaise
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Directed self-assembly (DSA) mutually benefits both bottom-up growth and top-down nanofabrication. This thesis investigates templated control over the alignment and morphology of two bottom-up nanostructures, ZnO nanowires (NWs) and cylinder-forming block copolymers (BCPs). Despite material differences, we highlight their analogous nature by applying similar engineering principles to both – structure and spatial design, systematic energy manipulation, and process-specific functionality. These engineering principles were fundamental to the thesis research, and could be applicable other directed self-assembly systems. Also, bottom-up growth provides a parallel process for fabricating high-resolution, functional nanostructures which are otherwise difficult or too time-consuming to produce with top-down fabrication. The DSA of BCPs in this thesis used cylinder-forming poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS), which forms in-plane cylinders of an PDMS after annealing and etching. The final line arrays can be high-resolution and well-defined, though they may suffer from poor long-range order. Many previous topographical templating methods have left behind unwanted patterning features and only oriented BCPs in the same direction as the template. This thesis aimed to overcome those limitation. The orthogonal self-assembly method used a bottom layer line array template to direct the orthogonal alignment of top-layer BCP cylinders, providing sub-10-nm nanomeshes with local control and over large areas. The other method, shear alignment by mismatch in the thermal coefficient of expansion, oriented BCP cylinders based on cracks in a top layer of silicon dioxide due to shear stress in the BCP film. The templated growth of ZnO nanowires in this thesis emphasized controlling the placement, morphology, and alignment of the NWs for solar cell applications. Single crystal, semiconducting ZnO NWs can be grown in a parallel, hydrothermal process, though the placement, density, morphology, and alignment can be difficult to control without templating. Electron-beam lithography-fabricated masks of holes and gratings, on different substrates, were investigated by varying templating hole diameter and other experimental parameters. We engineered the placement, alignment, branching, and length of the NWs with this DSA approach. The lithographic fabrication was expanded to square-mm-areas to investigate local charge collection and internal quantum efficiency for NW pitches of 100-1000 nm in research-scale solar cell devices.

Self assembled Patterns of Block Copolymer homopolymer Blends

Self assembled Patterns of Block Copolymer homopolymer Blends Book
Author : Dongsik Park
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many researchers have studied the orientation behavior of block copolymers (BCPs) with the most recent works directed towards nanotechnologies. Self-assembly of block copolymers is very relevant in controlling periodic nanostructures for nanotechnological applications. Nanotechnological applications of BCPs are possible due to their physical properties related to mass and energy transport, as well as mechanical, electrical, and optical properties. These properties provide substantial benefits in nanostructure membranes, nanotemplates, photonic crystals, and high-density information storage media. In many applications, such nanopatterns need to be achieved as ordered and tunable structures. Consequently, the control of orientation of such structures with defect-free ordering on larger length scales still remain as major research challenge in many cases. In addition to their pure block forms, blends of copolymers with other polymers offer productive research areas in relation to nanostructural self-assembly. We prepared well-aligned nanocylinders into block copolymer over the enhanced sample area and scale of height without any external field applications or modification of interaction between the sample and the substrate. Self-assembled 3-dimensional perpendicular cylinder orientation was achieved mainly by blending of minority homopolymer into the blockcopolymer. Thus, this study investigated a spontaneous and simple method for the orientation of perpendicular cylinders in BCP/homopolymer mixtures on a preferential substrate, by increasing the interaction force between the homologous polymer pair at a fixed composition of minority block component. Since the thermodynamical changes have been simply accomplished by the control of incompatibility between the block components, the intrinsic advantages of block copolymer nanopatterning, such as fast and spontaneous 3-dimensional nanopatterning with a high thermodynamic stability and reproducibility, have been completely preserved in this fabrication strategy. By exploiting thermodynamical changes using temperature variation and by blending a homopolymer with well controlled molecular weight, we illustrated that redistribution of homopolymer resulted in a shift of phase boundaries and in the stabilization of well-ordered structures to create new opportunities for nanotechnologies.