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Diabetes And The Nervous System

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Diabetes and the Nervous System

Diabetes and the Nervous System Book
Author : Douglas W. Zochodne,Rayaz A. Malik
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-11-05
ISBN : 0444635416
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a unique compilation, by experts worldwide, addressing how diabetes impacts the nervous system. For example, diabetic polyneuropathy, a disorder more common than MS, Parkinson’s disease, and ALS combined, is a major source of disability to diabetic persons worldwide. This book addresses diabetic polyneuropathy and how diabetes alters other parts of the nervous system. Offers a unique emphasis on the neurological manifestations of diabetes Provides thorough coverage of the clinical, experimental, mechanistic, therapeutic, peripheral, and central aspects of diabetic neuropathy Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System Book
Author : Aaron I. Vinik,Tomris Erbas
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 0128079967
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. “Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!” It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90%. CAN may be present at diagnosis, and prevalence increases with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor glycemic control. CAN also cosegregates with distal symmetric polyneuropathy, microangiopathy, and macroangiopathy. It now appears that autonomic imbalance may precede the development of the inflammatory cascade in type 2 diabetes and there is a role for central loss of dopaminergic restraint on sympathetic overactivity. Restoration of dopaminergic tone suppresses the sympathetic dominance and reduces cardiovascular events and mortality by close to 50%. Cinderella’s slipper can now be worn!

Prevent Diabetes Problems

Prevent Diabetes Problems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Prevent Diabetes Problems book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System Book
Author : Philip E. Cryer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 0128079975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The concept of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) in diabetes posits that recent antecedent hypoglycemia, as well as sleep or prior exercise, causes both defective glucose counterregulation (by attenuating the adrenomedullary epinephrine response, in the setting of absent insulin and glucagon responses) and hypoglycemia unawareness (by attenuating the sympathoadrenal, largely the sympathetic neural, response) and thus a vicious cycle of recurrent hypoglycemia. Albeit with different time courses, the pathophysiology of defense against hypoglycemia – no decrease in therapeutic insulin, no increase in glucagon and an attenuated increase in sympathoadrenal activity – is the same in type 1 diabetes and advanced type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia unawareness is reversible by 2–3 weeks of scrupulous avoidance of hypoglycemia in most affected patients. The pathophysiology of HAAF in diabetes explains why the incidence of hypoglycemia increases as patients approach the absolute endogenous insulin deficient end of the disease, provides a comprehensive set of risk factors including those indicative of HAAF, and leads logically to the practice of hypoglycemia risk factor reduction. Because of the risk of hypoglycemic mortality, presumably from cardiac arrhythmias, glycemic goals in diabetes should be individualized, based in part on the risk of hypoglycemia. By practicing hypoglycemia risk reduction – addressing the issue, applying the principles of aggressive glycemic therapy and considering both the conventional risk factors and those indicative of HAAF – it is possible to both improve glycemic control and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in many patients with diabetes.

Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Diabetes Mellitus

Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Diabetes Mellitus Book
Author : Petra Jeannette Maria van Gurp
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9789090223124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Diabetes Mellitus book written by Petra Jeannette Maria van Gurp, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-05-01
ISBN : 0123918715
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume in the Methods in Enzymology series comprehensively covers Cancer, Cardiovascular and the central nervous system of Nanomedicine. With an international board of authors, this volume is split into sections that cover subjects such as Diabetes and nanotechnology as potential therapy, Nanomedicines for inflammatory diseases, and Development and use of ceramide nanoliposomes in cancer. Comprehensively covers cancer and the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of nanomedicine An international board of authors Split into sections that cover subjects such as diabetes and nanotechnology as potential therapy, nanomedicines for inflammatory diseases, and the development and use of ceramide nanoliposomes in cancer

Nervous system abnormalities in diabetes

Nervous system abnormalities in diabetes Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Diabetic Neuropathy and Encephalopathy

Diabetic Neuropathy and Encephalopathy Book
Author : Kanwaljit Chopra,Anurag Kuhad
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2011-02
ISBN : 9783844307283
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Diabetes mellitus produces numerous neurophysiological & structural changes in the central and peripheral nervous system and it further leads to development of neuropathic pain & moderate cognitive deficits in diabetics. The etiology of diabetes associated neuropathic pain & cognitive decline is multifactorial and involves an underlying phenomenon of metabolic memory. The concept of "metabolic memory," that is of diabetic vascular stresses persisting even after stringent glucose control, has been supported both in the laboratory and in the clinic in both type 1 & type 2 diabetes. Therefore, "switching off" the metabolic memory, could be an important strategy for the prevention of diabetic neurological complications. Insulin alone reverses the hyperglycemia but partially reversed neuropathic pain and memory deficits in diabetic rats. However, insulin in combination with tocotrienol, lycopene and sesamol not only attenuates the diabetic condition but also reverses neuropathic pain and memory loss by switching off various components of metabolic memory phenomenon. Thus, these interventions may find clinical application in therapeutic armamentarium of diabetics.

Taurine 8

Taurine 8 Book
Author : Abdeslem El Idrissi,William J. L'Amoreaux
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-02-11
ISBN : 1461461308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Taurine 8 represents the combined efforts of investigators on the roles of the amino acid taurine on human health and disease. The chapters covered in this book are directly derived from presentations of the contributors at the 18th International Taurine Meeting held in Marrakech, Morocco in April 2012. The purpose of this book is to disseminate current findings on taurine's contribution in several organ systems. This book covers the following topics: Taurine in the Nervous System, Taurine in the Immune System, Taurine and Diabetes, and Taurine and the Cardiovascular System. Dr. Abdeslem El Idrissi, College of Staten Island and Dr. William L’Amoreaux, College of Staten Island, were co-chairs of the Organizing Committee for the meeting. Data presented at this meeting provided compelling evidence that taurine is not only cytoprotective in cardiomyocytes, but also is a potent GABA agonist, whereby it can facilitate vasodilation of conducting arteries. Taurine conjugates, such as taurine chloramine, may protect cells from oxidative stress via increased HO-1 expression. In adult rodents, taurine has a potent effect on plasma glucose levels, likely through the release of insulin in pancreatic beta cells. As a potential neurotransmitter, taurine is known to work via the GABAergic system, but current research presented at this meeting suggest that taurine may interact with glutamate and serotonin receptors as well. Data are also presented to demonstrate the protective roles of taurine on neurons in neuroblastoma. Perhaps the most important and exciting presentation is the role of taurine and alcohol: the combination may be lethal. Data are also presented at this meeting of the potential role taurine may have as an adjuvant treatment with cisplatin in chemotherapy.

Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System

Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System Book
Author : David Robertson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0125897626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ppresents, in a readable and accessible format, key information about how the autonomic nervous system controls the body, particularly in response to stress. Especially suitable for students, scientists and physicians seeking key information about all aspects of autonomic physiology and pathology in one convenient source, this bood provides up-to-date knowledge about basic and clinical autonomic neuroscience in a format designed to make learning easy.

Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Book
Author : J.K. Radder,H.H.P.J. Lemkes,H.M.J. Krans
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400943016
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book on diabetes mellitus both the pathogenesis and treat ment of the disease will be discussed. Pathogenetic studies have led to the distinction between type I and type II diabetes. In type I hyperglycaemia is due predominantly to insulin deficiency; in type II insulin resistance is more important. Three pathogenetic factors are thought to play a role in the etiol ogy of type I diabetes: heredity, viral infections and immunity. There may be a relationship between these three aspects since genetic pre disposition changes the susceptibility to viral infections and/or the immunological defence against these infections. Insulitis ensues. Auto immune processes initiated by this chain of events may contribute to the destruction of the B cells in the islets of Langerhans and diabetes -may eventually follow. This means that at the time of the sudden out break of the disease, the destructive process has already been active for years.

Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy

Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy Book
Author : F. Arnold Gries
Publisher : Thieme
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9781588900050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy book written by F. Arnold Gries, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

An Investigation Into Central Nervous System Involvement in Distal Symmetrical Diabetic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

An Investigation Into Central Nervous System Involvement in Distal Symmetrical Diabetic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Investigation Into Central Nervous System Involvement in Distal Symmetrical Diabetic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Spinally mediated Hyperalgesia in Experimental Diabetes

Spinally mediated Hyperalgesia in Experimental Diabetes Book
Author : Khara M. Ramos
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9781109966596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A proportion of diabetic patients experience chronic pain that is frequently refractory to treatment with conventional analgesics. Experimentally diabetic animals exhibit a range of behavioral abnormalities indicative of pain, and can be used to model human painful diabetic neuropathy. Studies suggest that pain during diabetes is not associated with structural damage to the peripheral nerves, and biochemical amplification of nociceptive processing may be of importance.

The Autonomic Nervous System and Glucose Metabolism with Reference to Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

The Autonomic Nervous System and Glucose Metabolism with Reference to Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Book
Author : David George Bruce
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Autonomic Nervous System and Glucose Metabolism with Reference to Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus book written by David George Bruce, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System

Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System Book
Author : Ralph A. Nixon,Aidong Yuan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-02-04
ISBN : 1441967877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph begins with a general description of the cytoskeleton in axonal development and pathology and then moves to more detailed descriptions of particular components, including microtubules and associated proteins, neurofilaments and interacting proteins, actin and its binding proteins, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The later chapters focus on the functional significance of the neuronal cytoskeleton in axonal transport and its regulation in health and disease states. The Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System will encourage further development of unifying principles and stimulate new conceptual and technical approaches toward a better understanding of cytoskeleton functions in health and disease.

Affection of the Nervous System in Diabetes Mellitus

Affection of the Nervous System in Diabetes Mellitus Book
Author : V. M. Prikhozhan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 9780828507509
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Affection of the Nervous System in Diabetes Mellitus book written by V. M. Prikhozhan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System Book
Author : Ruud M. Buijs,Dick F. Swaab
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 044453492X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Autonomic Nervous System provides an introduction to the latest science and detailed chapters on advances in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of autonomic system disorders. The autonomic nervous system controls all involuntary actions within the human nervous system. Core body functions regulated by the autonomic system include breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, perspiration, and bowel, bladder and sexual function. Our understanding of the neurotransmitters associated with the autonomic nervous system has expanded over the past 15 years associated with current research efforts and are now impacting the diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders by clinical neurologists. This volume is a valuable companion for neuroscience and clinical neurology researchers and practitioners. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology International list of contributors, including the leading workers in the field Describes the advances that have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences and their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Metabolism in the Nervous System

Metabolism in the Nervous System Book
Author : Abel Lajtha
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 1468443674
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is concerned with metabolic reactions occurring in the nervous system. Some time ago, it was thought that since most of the intermediary metabolism that can be observed in the brain is not specific to this organ, there is little justification in studying neural metabolism as such. Later it was realized that for an understanding of neural functions, the understanding of metabolism in the brain and its alterations is essential. All aspects of the metabolism of a substrate in brain, or all metabolic reactions of the nervous system, could not be included in this volume; some will be dealt with in other volumes (such as the ones covering metabolic turn over, alterations of metabolism, or pathology). Review of the aspects covered here clearly shows that the study of metabolic reactions in the nervous system is a very active field, producing important results. As in so many areas of research, as we learn more, new aspects become known, new questions emerge, and we see that in solving some problems we open areas with many additional problems to solve. But the accomplishments to date are impressive and indicate further important advances in the future. Brain metabolism is more active, more plastic, and more comprehensive than previously estimated. It is an essential part of brain function, and with its alteration, brain function will be altered. This shows the importance of more knowledge in this area. It is hoped that this volume will be of assistance in such further studies.