Skip to main content

Developing Costimulatory Molecules For Immunotherapy Of Diseases

In Order to Read Online or Download Developing Costimulatory Molecules For Immunotherapy Of Diseases Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-05-25
ISBN : 0128026758
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy using either humanized antibodies against CD80, CD86, and other costimulatory molecules or CD28 fusinogenic proteins in the treatment of diseases, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus nephritis, severe psoriasis, vulgaris tuberculosis, thopoid, transplantation therapeutic, cancer, and inflammation. The text aims to provide the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families, with the hope that targeting these families will yield new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases. Highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy Provides the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families Targets new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases

Costimulation Immunotherapy for Autoimmunity Transplantation and Lymphomas

Costimulation Immunotherapy for Autoimmunity  Transplantation and Lymphomas Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir,Raid S. Al Baradie,Abdul Rahman Obaid Alharbi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9781629482132
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Cancer is one of the most prominent causes of mortality in children and adults causing about 9 million deaths annually, is a major health problem worldwide. The transformation of normal cells to cancer cells may arise due to dysregulation of oncogenes, tumor suppressors and/or stability genes. These transformed cells are sensed by the cells of the immune system, especially T cells, through specific receptors for an effective immune response. But unfortunately even after the interaction with T cells, an effective immune response is not generated. Considering the importance of costimulation in the regulation of immune responses against relapsed cancer, the manipulation of this pathway to increase immunity, regress the growth, augment the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules and induce the apoptosis of lymphomas represents a potential therapeutic approach. This novel strategy of costimuilation activation/inhibition can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy either using humanized antibodies against CD80, CD86 and CD40 or CD28 fusogenic proteins for the treatment of intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis, HIV, L. donovani, T. cruzi, etc. This strategy can also be used as an alternative strategy or in combination with the drugs. Since this approach is based on modulating the immune system of the hosts rather than targeting the pathogen; hence it significantly diminishes chance of emergence of drug resistant strains of pathogens and if applied properly, may overcome the rising menace of infectious diseases. The potent role of costimulatory molecules is aptly established in the optimum activation of T cells and APCs; the cells that play a cardinal role in curbing the infections. Hence, immunotherapy involving costimulatory molecules can be a breakthrough strategy to treat various diseases, minimizing side effects inflicted by drug therapies and in restricting the emergence of drug resistance.

Human Pathogenic Microbes

Human Pathogenic Microbes Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-03-16
ISBN : 032395426X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Considering the global emerging human pathogenic microbial diseases and trends, Human Pathogenic Microbes is framed to provide deep insights into the epidemic and emerging bacterial and fungal infections and diseases in humans. It presents novel, up-to-date, and cutting-edge knowledge regarding various human pathogenic microbes, their associated drug resistance mechanisms, and different diseases caused by them. Human Pathogenic Microbes reflects the current research and development on the evolution of bacterial and fungal drug resistance: different bacterial and fungal antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms along with their biological and molecular aspects. In a nutshell, Human Pathogenic Microbes describes a various bacterial and fungal diseases caused by different human pathogenic microbes employing different drug resistance mechanisms and processes. It also highlights the novel emerging approaches (Immunological and combinatorial) that will aid to fight against such bacterial and fungal pathogens. Provides a brief but thorough and recent knowledge of various human pathogenic microbes, their associated drug resistance mechanisms, and different diseases caused by them Describes the different aspects of fungal, bacterial and antimicrobial resistance Addresses novel antimicrobial agents and approaches

Reverse Costimulation in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

Reverse Costimulation in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2014-01-26
ISBN : 9781628085198
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Cancer is one of the most prominent causes of mortality in children and adults causing about 9 million deaths annually, is a major health problem world-wide. The transformation of normal cells to cancer cells may arise due to dysregulation of oncogenes, tumour suppressers and/or stability genes. These transformed cells are sensed by the cells of the immune system, especially T cells, through specific receptors for an effective immune response. But unfortunately even after the interaction with T cells, an effective immune response is not generated. Considering the importance of costimulation in the regulation of immune responses against relapsed cancer, the manipulation of this pathway to increase immunity, regress the growth, augment the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules and induce the apoptosis of lymphomas represents a potential therapeutic approach. This novel strategy of costimuilation activation/inhibition can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy either using humanised antibodies against CD80, CD86 and CD40 or CD28 fusogenic proteins for the treatment of intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis, HIV, L donovani, T cruzi, etc. This strategy can also be used as an alternative strategy or in combination with the drugs. Since this approach is based on modulating the immune system of the hosts rather than targeting the pathogen; hence it significantly diminishes chance of emergence of drug resistant strains of pathogens and if applied properly, may overcome the rising menace of infectious diseases. The potent role of costimulatory molecules is aptly established in the optimum activation of T cells and APCs; the cells that play a cardinal role in curbing the infections. Hence, immunotherapy involving costimulatory molecules can be a breakthrough strategy to treat various diseases, minimising side effects inflicted by drug therapies and in restricting the emergence of drug resistance.

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment Book
Author : Sarwar Beg,Mahfoozur Rahman,Hani Choudhry,Eliana B. Souto,Farhan J. Ahmad
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-11-20
ISBN : 0128210966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment provides an up-to-date review on current developments and regulatory and clinical challenges in the field of nanopharmaceuticals and the effective treatment of diverse varieties of cancer. This important reference source is ideal for biomaterials scientists and pharmaceutical scientists working in the area of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Due to the high cost of traditional cancer treatment types, researchers have increasingly looked for new ways to augment the therapeutic performance of existing drug candidates. The use of nanotechnology-based approaches have gained significant momentum, thus leading to the launch of a series of new drug products. As nanopharmaceuticals improve the therapeutic performance of cancer therapy drugs, but also provide opportunities for site-specific drug targeting in tumors, this work is a welcomed resource on the topics discussed. Highlights the application of nanoformulations, including liposomes, nanoparticles and nanobiomaterials for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells Explores recent advances made using novel nanoformulations containing herbal drugs and biotechnology based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment Assesses the regulatory hurdles that are necessary for the successful clinical translation of nanomedicines from the laboratory into the market

Immunogenetics A Molecular and Clinical Overview

Immunogenetics  A Molecular and Clinical Overview Book
Author : Muneeb U. Rehman,Azher Arafah,Md. Niamat Ali,Shafat Ali
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-11-30
ISBN : 0323903355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

A Molecular Approach to Immunogenetics, Immunogenetics: A Molecular and Clinical Overview, Volume One provides readers with an exclusive, updated overview on the scientific knowledge, achievements and findings in the field of immunogenetics. The book presents readily available, updated information on the molecular and clinical aspects of immunogenetics, from origin and development to clinical applications and future prospects. The breadth of information goes from basics to developments, clinical applications and future prospects. The book's most attractive attribute is its academic and clinical amalgamation that covers both the theoretical and practical aspects of immunogenetics. An additional feature of the book is a special chapter on viral genetics that covers COVID-19. Above all, the book contains chapters that discuss immunogenetics in relation to pharmaco-genomics and immune-toxicology. Contains exclusive information about research on immunogenetics from around the globe Includes minute and recent details that will be the prerequisite requirement for any researcher who wants to work on immunogenetics and its applications Comes fully-equipped with pictures, illustrations and tables that deliver information in a meticulous manner

Biomarkers in Leishmaniasis

Biomarkers in Leishmaniasis Book
Author : Javier Moreno,Eugenia Carrillo
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-15
ISBN : 288963339X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Biomarkers in Leishmaniasis book written by Javier Moreno,Eugenia Carrillo, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Combinational Therapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Combinational Therapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Book
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-05-12
ISBN : 0323961371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Combinational Therapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer discusses TNBC at the molecular level with a holistic approach, focusing on combinational strategies targeting various pathways involved in this specific cancer type. Using a monotherapy for the treatment of cancer, especially high-grade tumors like TNBC, is mostly worthless due to the inherent genetic instability of tumor cells to develop intrinsic and acquired resistance; combination therapy presents more, or at least the same, effectiveness with lower doses of every single agent and decreases the likelihood of chemoresistance, making essential to understand more about multiple therapies options. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students, and members of biomedical field who are interested in the potential of combinational therapies to treat triple negative breast cancer. Presents up to date and cutting-edge knowledge of Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) biology, clinical aspects, and treatment options Discusses novel targets and pathways involved in TNBC Provides insights and approaches for future research on TNBC

Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints

Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints Book
Author : Jie Xu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-17
ISBN : 9811532664
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book systematically reviews the most important findings on cancer immune checkpoints, sharing essential insights into this rapidly evolving yet largely unexplored research topic. The past decade has seen major advances in cancer immune checkpoint therapy, which has demonstrated impressive clinical benefits. The family of checkpoints for mediating cancer immune evasion now includes CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, CD27/CD70, FGL-1/LAG-3, Siglec-15, VISTA (PD-1L)/VSIG3, CD47/SIRPA, APOE/LILRB4, TIGIT, and many others. Despite these strides, most patients do not show lasting remission, and some cancers have been completely resistant to the therapy. The potentially lethal adverse effects of checkpoint blockade represent another major challenge, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. Compared to the cancer signaling pathways, such as p53 and Ras, mechanistic studies on immune checkpoint pathways are still in their infancy. To improve the responses to checkpoint blockade therapy and limit the adverse effects, it is essential to understand the molecular regulation of checkpoint molecules in both malignant and healthy cells/tissues. This book begins with an introduction to immune checkpoint therapy and its challenges, and subsequently describes the regulation of checkpoints at different levels. In closing, it discusses recent therapeutic developments based on mechanistic findings, and outlines goals for future translational studies. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers in the cancer immunotherapy field, helping to form a roadmap for checkpoint regulation and develop safer and more effective immunotherapies.

Immuno Oncology Crosstalk and Metabolism

Immuno Oncology Crosstalk and Metabolism Book
Author : Muzafar Ahmad Macha,Ajaz Ahmad Bhat,Nissar Ahmad Wani
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-06-17
ISBN : 9811662266
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book discusses the novel metabolic cross-talk between immune and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment that promotes their growth and progression. It also describes deregulated metabolism in cancer cells that promotes suppressive and cancer cell-favourable microenvironment. Further, the book provides novel insights on the metabolic changes in immune cells that promote tumor cell growth and survival. In turn, it also reviews the involvement of immuno-onco metabolic cross-talk in the development of resistance to chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) in tumor cells. Lastly, it also explores the potential of immuno-oncology metabolism as a therapeutic approach against tumor cells.

T Cell Costimulation in Anti tumor Immunity and Autoimmunity

T Cell Costimulation in Anti tumor Immunity and Autoimmunity Book
Author : Kenneth F. May
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Abstract: Costimulatory molecules, including 4-1BB, CTLA-4, and B7, play a critical role in the activation, sustenance, and regulation of T cell immune responses. Manipulation of these pathways holds promise for the development of therapies for cancer and autoimmunity. Anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been demonstrated to boost anti-tumor immunity in animal models. Using a model of tumor-specific CD8 T cell adoptive immunotherapy, we demonstrate that anti-4-1BB mAb can mediate the rejection of large established tumors in the absence of CD4 T cell help. Anti-4-1BB mAb increases populations of tumor-specific CD8 T cells in peripheral blood by reduction of activation-induced cell death, but not increased T cell proliferation. The use of anti-CTLA-4 mAb has also been shown to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Here we employ two novel "humanized" mouse models to screen anti-human CTLA-4 mAb for translation to human cancer therapy. Using the hu-PBL-SCID model of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disease, we show that anti-human CTLA-4 mAb promotes the in vivo expansion of human CD8 and CD4 T cells, and the generation of antigen specific CD8 T cell responses to EBV lymphoma. This correlates with reduced levels of the oncogenic EBV protein LMP-1, and increased survival in these mice. We also characterize the creation of a knock-in mouse model in which mouse T cells express the human CTLA-4 molecule. Preliminary testing in this mouse model supports the use of this model to screen anti-human CTLA-4 mAb for clinical use. Understanding the role of B7/CD28/CTLA-4 interaction in immune activation and tolerance in autoimmune disease is fundamental to successful intervention targeted at costimulatory molecules. We describe the spontaneous development of whole-body alopecia, lymphadenopathy, and skin disease in mice lacking B7 molecules. This disease is mediated by autoimmune CD4 T cells, which induce multi-organ inflammation when transferred to mice expressing B7 molecules. This disease may result from impaired development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in B7-deficient mice. Since provision of Treg can abrogate the multi-organ inflammation despite lack of B7 molecules on the auto-pathogenic T cells, interaction between CTLA-4 on Treg and B7-1/2 on effector T cells is not essential for Treg function.

Translating Gene Therapy to the Clinic

Translating Gene Therapy to the Clinic Book
Author : Jeffrey Laurence,Michael Franklin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-14
ISBN : 0128005645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Translating Gene Therapy to the Clinic, edited by Dr. Jeffrey Laurence and Michael Franklin, follows the recent, much-lauded special issue of Translational Research in emphasizing clinical milestones and critical barriers to further progress in the clinic. This comprehensive text provides a background for understanding the techniques involved in human gene therapy trials, and expands upon the disease-specific situations in which these new approaches currently have the greatest therapeutic application or potential, and those areas most in need of future research. It emphasizes methods, tools, and experimental approaches used by leaders in the field of translational gene therapy. The book promotes cross-disciplinary communication between the sub-specialties of medicine, and remains unified in theme. Presents impactful and widely supported research across the spectrum of science, method, implementation and clinical application Offers disease-based coverage from expert clinician-scientists, covering everything from arthritis to congestive heart failure, as it details specific progress and barriers for current translational use Provides key background information from immune response through genome engineering and gene transfer, relevant information for practicing clinicians contemplating enrolling patients in gene therapy trials

Cancer Immunotherapy Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity Engineering Immune Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials

Cancer Immunotherapy  Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity  Engineering Immune  Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials Book
Author : Jianxun Song
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2015-04-16
ISBN : 1681080486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Clinicians, patients and scientists, alike, have been battling cancer for over several decades; however, patient outcomes have not significantly improved over the years with conventional therapies. In recent years, this has caused researchers to look for a change in the status quo, and, the awareness of the human immune system, which has an intrinsic mechanism to control microbial pathogens and dysfunctional self-tissues, has triggered scientists to look for new modes of cancer therapy. Cancer Immunotherapy has become a major research field as a result of these efforts, gaining some recognition for notable breakthroughs in cancer patient prognosis. Frontiers in Cancer Immunology collectively presents the methods which have been studied and used in cancer immunotherapy based on the different components of human immune system. The series will give clinicians and immunologists a roadmap of current trends in all branches of cancer immunology. This volume lists the major immune system components (such as T cells and NK cells and associated antigens/antibodies) which have been demonstrated to limit the growth of or kill tumor cells. Relevant applications in cancer therapy are also included in addition to a general introduction to engineered as well as targeted cancer immunotherapies (cancer vaccines).

Neuromuscular Disorders E Book

Neuromuscular Disorders E Book Book
Author : Tulio E. Bertorini
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2021-06-29
ISBN : 0323720935
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Offering an authoritative, multidisciplinary approach to the complex issues associated with neuromuscular disease, Neuromuscular Disorders, 2nd Edition, provides the latest tools and strategies for minimizing disability and maximizing quality of life. Dr. Tulio Bertorini, an expert in clinical neuromuscular care, and a team of world-renowned contributors cover all management and therapeutic considerations regarding the full range of neuromuscular disorders and resulting complications. Provides comprehensive coverage of evaluation and diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes, including the latest management tools and targeted therapeutic strategies. Includes the latest updates in the field: genetic causes of hereditary disease, new autoimmune diseases, promising new therapies such as antisense oligonucleotides and gene therapies, and more. Features numerous drug tables, treatment algorithms, and clinical images throughout to aid in diagnosis and treatment.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Cumulated Index Medicus book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

T Cell Subsets in Infectious and Autoimmune Diseases

T Cell Subsets in Infectious and Autoimmune Diseases Book
Author : Derek J. Chadwick,Gail Cardew
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-30
ISBN : 047051485X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

T cells are a specialized population of immune cells that aid the immune system in combating various types of invading pathogens. This book presents up-to-the-minute data on the role of T cells in autoimmune diseases.

Melanoma Development

Melanoma Development Book
Author : Anja Bosserhoff
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-24
ISBN : 3709103711
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The book provides comprehensive insights into molecular changes in malignant melanoma. The general mechanisms of melanoma growth and development are described, as well as new research findings. Our current knowledge on the molecules involved in cell transformation and tumor progression will soon lead to sophisticated, targeted therapies. Recent studies with targeted b-RAF inhibitors have given us grounds to hope that these therapies will be successful. Melanoma Development- Molecular Biology, Genetics and Clinical Application aims to contribute to this knowledge. Summarizing the newest data and presenting upcoming research areas in the field, the book will be of great interest to basic researchers and physicians working in the important fields of melanoma, cancer research, therapy and dermatology.

Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development

Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development Book
Author : Susanna Wu-Pong
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1999-04-01
ISBN : 159259705X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

New discoveries in biology are occurring at an incredible rate, and with these discoveries arise nearly unimaginable opportunities in every area of human existence. Imagine the excitement surround ing the "penicillin project" and the subsequent rapid development of anti-infective agents that took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Fast for ward to the world today and our ability to treat life-threatening infec tions. This is but one small piece in the present kaleidoscope of new therapeutic agents. In fact, the world of science, biology, and medi cine is changing so quickly that it is difficult for scientists and medi cal practitioners to stay abreast of their fields and confidently anticipate that their education and training will sustain them over a three- to four-decade career without considerable continuing educa tion and training. For the pharmaceutical scientist responsible for the discovery and development of therapeutic agents based on advances in biotechnology, it is imperative to quickly come up to speed and stay at the forefront of developments, which is no easy task for those not specifically trained in this area. Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development, edited by Susanna Wu-Pong and Yongyut Rojanasakul, cuts a potentially wide swath in terms of its intended audience. It clearly is a primer for those not trained in the area, or for those who wish to be brought into the mainstream of drug discovery and development in the world of bio technology.

Translational Autoimmunity

Translational Autoimmunity Book
Author : Nima Rezaei
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-04-15
ISBN : 0323854168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Translational Autoimmunity: Autoimmune Diseases in Different Clinical Settings addresses autoimmunity and associated conditions, such as aging, infectious diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, psychological disorders, fertility, inflammatory vascular diseases, and interstitial lung diseases. The book addresses sufficiently basic questions on how the immune system is designed to distinguish self from no self and behave such that it's able to maintain self-tolerance, how does it work in infections, and how it elicits an auto-reactive state and develops self-antigens seen in autoimmune conditions. This is followed by an overview on the genetic and clinical aspects of the spectrum of autoimmune diseases which are broadly categorized into two types of organ specific autoimmune diseases and non-organ specific autoimmune diseases (also known as systemic autoimmune diseases). Covers clinical aspects of autoimmunity and translational immunology studies in autoimmunity in different clinical settings Meets the needs of basic scientists, clinicians, translational scientists and industry partners Supported by a systematic appraisal of the most recent evidence

Neuromuscular Disorders Management and Treatment E Book

Neuromuscular Disorders  Management and Treatment E Book Book
Author : Tulio E. Bertorini
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2010-09-08
ISBN : 1437736408
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Neuromuscular Disorders presents a multi-disciplinary approach to the management and therapeutic treatment of the full range of neuromuscular disorders and resulting complications. Dr. Tulio Bertorini and a contributing team of the world’s leading authorities in the field provide the latest tools and strategies for minimizing disability and maximizing quality of life. Effectively treat your patients using the latest management tools and targeted therapeutic strategies. Manage all neuromuscular disorders as well as resulting complications through comprehensive coverage of diagnosis and evaluations, treatments, and outcomes. Apply the multi-disciplinary approach of an expert in clinical neuromuscular care and a team of world-renown contributors. Easily refer to tools for diagnosis, treatment algorithms, and drug tables included throughout the text.