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Sustainability and Evolution or why life becomes increasingly complex The Interaction Theory

Sustainability and Evolution  or why life becomes increasingly complex  The Interaction Theory Book
Author : Michael J. Ruf
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-12-14
ISBN : 3868881336
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thanks to new, improving experimental techniques, modern biology is discovering a steadily growing body of new facts and data about the living nature. A good example of this advancement is the decryption of the complete genome of a rapidly increasing number of organisms, including humans. Regardless of these impressive results, however, there are still no satisfying answers to very basic questions of biology, such as "What is life?" and "Why does matter organize into biological forms that become more complex in the course of evolution?". The Interaction Theory by Michael J. Ruf assumes that this unsatisfying situation is not simply the consequence that certain experimental data are still missing. The lack of explanation of what life is actually and why simple molecules evolve into complex organisms rather reflects an existing conceptual problem that can only be solved with a radically new conceptual approach. Interaction Theory is the result of such a radically new approach to life and evolution. In contrast to conventional evolutionary theory, the generation sequences of living forms are considered to be the decisive quality of life. By clarifying how the continuation of these generation sequences can be sustainable over billions of years, new fundamental principles become obvious and the phenomenon of an increasing biological complexity understandable. As a result, a law-like process of biological complexity increase can be derived as immanent part of the evolution of life. This allows Interaction Theory to provide new answers to key questions such as why sexual reproduction, what species are and what life is. The theory is, however, not limited to cells and organisms and their evolution. It addresses the self-organization to higher complexity of all kinds of structures that are subject to an evolution through multiplication processes. This means that Interaction Theory also provides an understanding of why and how molecular networks, social communities and even societies become more complex over time.

Performance prediction of a future SiGe HBT technology using a heterogeneous set of simulation tools and approaches

Performance prediction of a future SiGe HBT technology using a heterogeneous set of simulation tools and approaches Book
Author : Tommy Rosenbaum
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-03-10
ISBN : 3743134268
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (BiCMOS) processes can be considered as the most general solution for RF products, as they combine the mature manufacturing tools of CMOS with the speed and drive capabilities of silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). HBTs in turn are major contenders for partially filling the terahertz gap, which describes the range in which the frequencies generated by transistors and lasers do not overlap (approximately 0.3 THz to 30 THz). To evaluate the capabilities of such future devices, a reliable prediction methodology is desirable. Using a heterogeneous set of simulation tools and approaches allows to achieve this goal successively and is beneficial for troubleshooting. Various scientific fields are combined, such as technology computer-aided design (TCAD), compact modeling and parameter extraction. To create a foundation for the simulation environment and to ensure reproducibility, the used material models of the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion approaches are introduced in the beginning of this thesis. The physical models are mainly based on literature data of Monte Carlo (MC) or deterministic simulations of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). However, the TCAD deck must be calibrated on measurement data too for a reliable performance prediction of HBTs. The corresponding calibration approach is based on measurements of an advanced SiGe HBT technology for which a technology-specific parameter set of the HICUM/L2 compact model is extracted for the high-speed, medium-voltage and high-voltage transistor versions. With the help of the results, one-dimensional transistor characteristics are generated that serve as reference for the doping profile and model calibration. By performing elaborate comparisons between measurement-based reference data and simulations, the thesis advances the state-of-the-art of TCAD-based predictions and proofs the feasibility of the approach. Finally, the performance of a future technology in 28 nm is predicted by applying the heterogeneous methodology. On the basis of the TCAD results, bottlenecks of the technology are identified.

System Zoo 1 Simulation Models

System Zoo 1 Simulation Models Book
Author : Hartmut Bossel
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2007
ISBN : 3833484225
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

About the book: Mathematical modeling and computer simulation make it possible to understand and control the dynamic processes taking place in complex systems. Simulation provides insights into the often surprising diversity of possible behaviors, and allows identifying possibilities for intervention and options for alternative development. About one hundred simulation models from all areas of life are fully documented in the three volumes of the 'System Zoo'. They can be quickly implemented and easily operated using freely available system dynamics software. Volume 1 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of elementary processes, and of complex systems from physics and engineering, among them: exponential and logistic growth, oscillations, delays, and storage; phenomena of infection, transition, and overload; complex systems with limit cycles, multiple equilibrium points and chaotic attractors; and applications from control engineering, flight dynamics, fluid flow and heat conduction. The System Zoo collection of simulation models is particularly well-suited for teaching, training, and research projects at all levels from high school to university, and for individual study. Volume 2 of the System Zoo contains simulation models related to climate, vegetation, ecosystems and resources. Volume 3 deals with systems and processes found in economy and society, and with long-term global development. About the author: Hartmut Bossel is Professor Emeritus of environmental systems analysis. He taught for many years at the University of California in Santa Barbara and the University of Kassel, Germany, where he was director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research until his retirement. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University of Darmstadt, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley. With a background in engineering, systems science, and mathematical modeling, he has led many research projects and future studies in different countries, developing computer simulation models and decision support systems in the areas of energy supply policy, global dynamics, orientation of behavior, agricultural policy, and forest dynamics and management. He has written numerous books on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems, social change and future paths, and has published widely in the scientific literature in several fields.

Transnational Conflicts and International Law

Transnational Conflicts and International Law Book
Author : Constantin von der Groeben
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2014-11-06
ISBN : 3735759262
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ever since 9/11 the legal classification of transnational conflicts between states and non-state armed groups, such as Al Qaeda, has become a highly debated topic. While repeatedly referred to as the War on Terror, the legal qualification of the conflict between the US and Al Qaeda remains controversial: US military operations in Afghanistan against Al Qaeda and the use of drones against alleged terrorists in Pakistan, Yemen and other states pose the question as to whether this conflict truly qualifies as one single global war. Similarly, transnational conflicts such as the Colombian operation against a FARC base in Ecuador, Israel’s fight against Hezbollah in Lebanon, and Turkish operations against the PKK in northern Iraq pose difficulties as they transcend individual nations˙ political systems and geographical borders. Whether the law of war (i.e. humanitarian law) is applicable to such conflicts and to what extent human rights law binds the states involved is debated. This work aims to provide structure to the current debate and analyzes the applicability of both humanitarian law and human rights law. Furthermore, it examines and explores approaches to enhance and develop the existing legal framework, including proposed new legal regimes for transnational conflicts. The author argues against the strict separation of international humanitarian law and human rights law and instead borrows from Colombian authorities’ experience in their struggle with the FARC to develop an alternate solution, combining both legal regimes in an integrated approach.

Victims in Trials of Mass Crimes

Victims in Trials of Mass Crimes Book
Author : Elisa Hoven,Mareike Feiler,Saskia Scheibel
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-10-11
ISBN : 3732270629
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Cologne Occasional Papers on International Peace and Security Law cover essays, studies and expert's reports on current public international law issues. The series is edited by Claus Kreß.

System Zoo 3 Simulation Models

System Zoo 3 Simulation Models Book
Author : Hartmut Bossel
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2007
ISBN : 3833484241
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

About the book: Mathematical modeling and computer simulation make it possible to understand and control the dynamic processes taking place in complex systems. Simulation provides insights into the often surprising diversity of possible behaviors, and allows identifying possibilities for intervention and options for alternative development. About one hundred simulation models from all areas of life are fully documented in the three volumes of the 'System Zoo'. They can be quickly implemented and easily operated using freely available system dynamics software. Volume 3 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of economic and social systems and global development, among them: production, stocks and orders, marketing and consumption, competition, life planning, employment, ecotax, escalation, dependence, aggression, population and community development, debt crisis, globalization, the world models of the Club of Rome (by Forrester and the Meadows group) and examples of nonnumerical knowledge processing applied to impact assessment and decision processes. The System Zoo collection of simulation models is particularly well-suited for teaching, training, and research projects at all levels from high school to university, and for individual study. Volume 1 of the System Zoo contains simulation models of elementary systems, and of systems from the fields of physics and engineering. Volume 2 of the System Zoo presents simulation models related to climate, vegetation, ecosystems and resources. About the author: Hartmut Bossel is Professor Emeritus of environmental systems analysis. He taught for many years at the University of California in Santa Barbara and the University of Kassel, Germany, where he was director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research until his retirement. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University of Darmstadt, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley. With a background in engineering, systems science, and mathematical modeling, he has led many research projects and future studies in different countries, developing computer simulation models and decision support systems in the areas of energy supply policy, global dynamics, orientation of behavior, agricultural policy, and forest dynamics and management. He has written numerous books on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems, social change and future paths, and has published widely in the scientific literature in several fields.

Bibliographic Control in the Digital Ecosystem

Bibliographic Control in the Digital Ecosystem Book
Author : Giovanni Bergamin,Mauro Guerrini
Publisher : Firenze University Press
Release : 2022-05-12
ISBN : 885518542X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the contributions of international experts, the book aims to explore the new boundaries of universal bibliographic control. Bibliographic control is radically changing because the bibliographic universe is radically changing: resources, agents, technologies, standards and practices. Among the main topics addressed: library cooperation networks; legal deposit; national bibliographies; new tools and standards (IFLA LRM, RDA, BIBFRAME); authority control and new alliances (Wikidata, Wikibase, Identifiers); new ways of indexing resources (artificial intelligence); institutional repositories; new book supply chain; “discoverability” in the IIIF digital ecosystem; role of thesauri and ontologies in the digital ecosystem; bibliographic control and search engines.

A Tract for the Buryats

A Tract for the Buryats Book
Author : Charles R. Bawden,Isaak Jakob Schmidt
Publisher : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9783447059909
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

F. Babinger, biographer of Isaak Jakob Schmidt (1779-1847), the founder of Mongolian Studies, lists "Two Little Christian Tracts" among his early publications in Mongolian; no later Mongolist apparently ever saw or described this booklet published in 1818. A probably unique copy came to light in the Library of the German Oriental Society and was transcribed and translated by Charles Bawden who is known for his careful studies of Christian missions among the Mongols. The printed text is given in facsimile. A detailed commentary analyzes the text and traces the inconsistent Christian terminology which was apparently still in an experimental stage. Schmidt's Mongolian assistants, Badma and Nomtu, were probably mainly responsible for the translation. A preface informs about the versatile printer N. Grec while an appendix gives mission reports and a related Mongolian correspondence in contemporary German paraphrase.

Israel and Europe

Israel and Europe Book
Author : Klaus Boehnke
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3322812626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume - a collaborative effort between The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Saxonian universities - is a source book for students and researchers of European Studies. Its scope is interdisciplinary and incorporates contributions from social psychology, international relations, economics, political science, and sociology.

Open ing Spaces

Open ing  Spaces Book
Author : Hans Loidl,Stefan Bernard
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2014-02-24
ISBN : 3038212237
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“What does the landscape architect actually do as a design?” The authors investigate this seemingly simple question. What resources are available for designing open spaces? What part is played by conditions deriving from nature? How are locations and spaces created in the open air, how are paths routed and boundaries set, how are hard and soft materials used? Drawing on practical and theoretical experience, this introduction, often used as a textbook, reveals the central components of design and the intellectual paths followed in the design process. “The book is not so much for reading but for doing. It plays with shapes, imagining how people feel in these shapes and seeing how shapes create a different experience of landscape. Vegetation can make the relief of a hill clearer, less clear, indistinct or hidden. The authors show this by sketches illustrating the text ... As an example of the way Loidl and Bernard set their readers thinking for themselves, I quote what they regard as good design: ‘The paradox of a good design solution: more uniformity needs more variety.’Food for thought. Or read Open(ing) Spaces.” (Martin Woestenburg in 'scape, 2006)

Autopsia

Autopsia Book
Author : Marius Timmann Mjaaland
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2008-08-27
ISBN : 3110205238
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Kierkegaard and Derrida are two of the most influential thinkers of late modernity. Without reducing the difference between philosophy and religion, they both analyze the fundamental questions of human existence: How a human being relates to itself, to death, and to God. In Autopsia, the Norwegian scholar Marius Timmann Mjaaland has analyzed texts by Kierkegaard and Derrida, focusing on their rationality as well as on their content. The result is a far-reaching analysis of how philosophy may approach religious topics without reducing their inherent logos to the supposed universality of human reason.

Community Based Urban Violence Prevention

Community Based Urban Violence Prevention Book
Author : Kosta Mathéy,Silvia Matuk
Publisher : transcript Verlag
Release : 2014-10-31
ISBN : 3839429900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urban violence has become a major threat in big cities of the world. Where the orthodox protection through the police and individual target hardening remain inefficient, the population must organize itself. This book contains first-hand accounts on a selection of the most innovative experiences in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Arab region and is of interest likewise for academics and urban practitioners, policy makers, international cooperation experts or travelers preparing a visit of one of the affected countries. With a preface by Caroline Moser.

Litt ratures Canadiennes Et Identit s Postcoloniales

Litt  ratures Canadiennes Et Identit  s Postcoloniales Book
Author : Université libre de Bruxelles. Centre d'études canadiennes
Publisher : Peter Lang
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9789052011097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume offers challenging assessments of the reconfigurations that have shaped Anglophone and Francophone Canadian literatures in the last decades of the twentieth century. Focusing on the pursuit of an ever-elusive «Canadianness» in literary texts, it documents the astonishing range of Canadian diasporic identities that have recently emerged in the Canadian literary landscape. The contributors to this volume boldly transgress the widely held critical assumptions of postcolonialism in their examination of the literary representations of contemporary Canada's many «Others». Ce volume rassemble nombre d'analyses innovatrices des reconfigurations qui ont caractérisé les littératures canadiennes anglophones et francophones durant les dernières décennies du vingtième siècle. Tout en se concentrant sur la quête de l'insaisissable «Canadianité» en littérature, l'ouvrage démontre l'étonnante diversité des identités diasporiques qui ont récemment émergé dans le paysage littéraire canadien. Les contributeurs de ce volume transgressent audacieusement les certitudes généralement acquises du postcolonialisme afin de mieux décrire les représentations littéraires des nombreux «Autres» du Canada actuel.

Le son en perspective

Le son en perspective Book
Author : Dominique Nasta,Didier Huvelle
Publisher : Peter Lang
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9789052012087
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Selected papers from the Archimedia conference held Oct. 2000, Brussels.

IFLA Guidelines for Online Public Access Catalogue OPAC Displays

IFLA Guidelines for Online Public Access Catalogue  OPAC  Displays Book
Author : Task Force on Guidelines for OPAC Displays
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2005-01-01
ISBN : 3598440316
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Existing Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs) demonstrate differences in the range and complexity of their functional features, terminology, and help facilities. While many libraries already have OPACs, there is a need to bring together, in the form of guidelines or recommendations, a corpus of good practice to assist libraries in designing or re-designing the displays for their OPACs, taking into consideration the needs of users. The audience for these guidelines is librarians charged with customizing OPAC software and vendors and producers of this software. The guidelines are mainly designed for general libraries with collections of resources in the humanities, the social sciences, and the pure and applied sciences. The guidelines are intended to apply to any type of catalogue, independently of the kind of interface and technology used.

Hispanisation

Hispanisation Book
Author : Thomas Stolz,Dik Bakker,Rosa Salas Palomo
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2008-08-27
ISBN : 3110207230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Literally hundreds of languages world-wide have experienced direct or indirect Hispanisation during the heyday of the Spanish colonial empire. The number of languages which continue to borrow from Spanish on a daily basis is considerable especially in Latin America. This volume gives the reader a better idea of the range of contact constellations in which Spanish functions as the donor language. Moreover, the contributions to this collection of articles demonstrate that it is not only possible to compare the contact-induced processes in the (Hispanised) languages of Austronesia and the Americas. It is emphasized that one can draw far-reaching conclusions from the presented borrowing facts for the theory of language contact in general. The volume is divided into two sections according to geographical principles: section I is devoted to contacts of Spanish in Latin America. Two contributions look at the Hispanisation of varieties of Nahuatl (Classical Nahuatl studied by Anne Jensen and modern varieties studied by José Antonio Flores Farfán). Martina Schrader-Kniffki discusses Spanish-Zapotec contacts and their relations to language mixing and purism. Luciano Giannelli and Raoul Zamponi address the issue of Hispanisms in Kuna, a language from Panama. For South America, Jorge Gómez-Rendón discusses whether or not there are constraints on lexical borrowing from Spanish into Imbabura Quichua. Suzanne Dikker studies the intertwined language Media Lengua in her attempt at redefining the notion of relexification. Section II focuses on the impact of Spanish on the languages of Austronesia and South-East Asia. Steven Roger Fischer shows that the heavy Hispanisation of Rapanui is currently being reverted. Steve Pagel compares Hispanisation processes and their results in the Mariana Islands and on Rapa Nui. The second comparative study is by Patrick O. Steinkrüger who reviews a variety of Philippinian languages and their degrees of Hispanisation. The attitudes of native speakers of Chamorro as to Hispanisms is the topic of the study by Rosa Salas Palomo and Thomas Stolz. The volume is especially interesting for students of language contact. But also scholars with a background in Romance linguistics or Hispanic philology will find the assembled articles very useful, as well as Austronesianists and Amerindianists.

8e conf rence internationale des diteurs de documents diplomatiques

8e conf  rence internationale des   diteurs de documents diplomatiques Book
Author : Gabriel Robin,France. Ministère des affaires étrangères. Direction des archives
Publisher : Peter Lang
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9789052013893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Créée informellement en 1989, la conférence des pays éditeurs de documents diplomatiques a réuni à Paris en octobre 2005, à l'occasion de sa 8e session, une trentaine de délégations qui ont travaillé tant sur des questions de méthodologie que sur un thème historique, celui de la naissance et de l'évolution de l'Organisation des Nations unies. L'ensemble de leurs contributions est réuni dans ce volume, dont la direction des Archives du ministère français des Affaires étrangères, organisatrice de la réunion, a choisi de confier la publication aux éditions Peter Lang, qui publie déjà les Documents diplomatiques français. Le lecteur y trouvera les secrets de fabrication de cette collection et de ses homologues les plus anciennes, et en découvrira d'autres, plus récentes, voire en cours de création. Established unofficially in 1989, the International Conference of Editors of Diplomatic Documents brought together in Paris in October 2005, on the occasion of its 8th meeting, more than thirty delegations. The conference concentrated on the methodology of editing and publishing and chose to focus on the historical theme of the birth and development of the United Nations Organization. Reports and papers presented by the participants are gathered in the present proceedings, the publishing of which was entrusted by the Archives of the ministère des Affaires étrangères to Peter Lang Publishing Group, which is currently responsible for publishing the Documents diplomatiques français. The reader will find in this publication the trade secrets of the French series and of the earliest analogous series of diplomatic documents, as well as discover other more recent collections or even some in the process of being created.

Lean Retail Can lean production help retailers to address global challenges

Lean Retail  Can lean production help retailers to address global challenges  Book
Author : Simon G Fauser
Publisher : ibidem-Verlag / ibidem Press
Release : 2012-02-27
ISBN : 383825810X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Saturated markets, a decreasing valuation of fashion by a part of consumers paired with missing impulses by some companies has brought along a crisis in retail, especially in Europe. Changing consumer demand, customer sophistication, customer empowerment via the internet and rapid industry change are just a few challenges global retailers are facing today. The consequence is big pressure on prices and margins and a need for process excellence. As in the 1990s the American and European automotive industry struggled with similar challenges, a concept named lean production was imported from Japan. It helped some Western automotive companies, like Porsche, and big parts of industry to find their way back on the path of success. Is the route to success via lean production exclusive to industry? Or might retailers today benefit from lean production philosophy? In this book Simon Fauser approaches these questions by analysing lean production philosophy, extracting lean principles and applying these to retail and its challenges.

The Living and the Dead in Islam Epitaphs as texts

The Living and the Dead in Islam  Epitaphs as texts Book
Author : Werner Diem,Marco Schöller
Publisher : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9783447050838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Living and the Dead in Islam Epitaphs as texts book written by Werner Diem,Marco Schöller, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.