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Designing And Conducting Translational Research

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Clinical and Translational Science

Clinical and Translational Science Book
Author : David Robertson,Gordon H. Williams
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-11-25
ISBN : 012802111X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinical and Translational Science: Principles of Human Research, Second Edition, is the most authoritative and timely resource for the broad range of investigators taking on the challenge of clinical and translational science, a field that is devoted to investigating human health and disease, interventions, and outcomes for the purposes of developing new treatment approaches, devices, and modalities to improve health. This updated second edition has been prepared with an international perspective, beginning with fundamental principles, experimental design, epidemiology, traditional and new biostatistical approaches, and investigative tools. It presents complete instruction and guidance from fundamental principles, approaches, and infrastructure, especially for human genetics and genomics, human pharmacology, research in special populations, the societal context of human research, and the future of human research. The book moves on to discuss legal, social, and ethical issues, and concludes with a discussion of future prospects, providing readers with a comprehensive view of this rapidly developing area of science. Introduces novel physiological and therapeutic strategies for engaging the fastest growing scientific field in both the private sector and academic medicine Brings insights from international leaders into the discipline of clinical and translational science Addresses drug discovery, drug repurposing and development, innovative and improved approaches to go/no-go decisions in drug development, and traditional and innovative clinical trial designs

Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research

Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research Book
Author : John W. Creswell,Vicki L. Plano Clark
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2017-08-31
ISBN : 1506394671
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Combining the latest thinking in the field with practical, step-by-step guidance, the Third Edition of John W. Creswell and Vicki L. Plano Clark’s Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research now includes seven mixed methods designs with accompanying journal articles illustrating each design. The authors walk readers through the entire research process and present updated examples from published mixed methods studies drawn from multiple disciplines. In addition, this new edition includes information about the dynamic and evolving nature of the field of mixed methods research, four additional methodological approaches, and coverage of new directions in mixed methods.

The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants

The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants Book
Author : R. Barker Bausell
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2015-01-29
ISBN : 0199385254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Designing and conducting experiments involving human participants requires a skillset different from that needed for statistically analyzing the resulting data. The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants combines an introduction to scientific culture and ethical mores with specific experimental design and procedural content. Author R. Barker Bausell assumes no statistical background on the part of the reader, resulting in a highly accessible text. Clear instructions are provided on topics ranging from the selection of a societally important outcome variable to potentially efficacious interventions to the conduct of the experiment itself. Early chapters introduce the concept of experimental design in an intuitive manner involving both hypothetical and real-life examples of how people make causal inferences. The fundamentals of formal experimentation, randomization, and the use of control groups are introduced in the same manner, followed by the presentation and explanation of common (and later, more advanced) designs. Replete with synopses of examples from the journal literature and supplemented by 25 experimental principles, this book is designed to serve as an interdisciplinary supplementary text for research-methods courses in the educational, psychological, behavioral, social, and health sciences. It also serves as an excellent primary text for methods seminar courses.

Designing Clinical Research

Designing Clinical Research Book
Author : Stephen B. Hulley,Steven R. Cummings,Warren S. Browner,Deborah G. Grady,Thomas B. Newman
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 2011-11-30
ISBN : 1451165854
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Designing Clinical Research sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This edition incorporates current research methodology—including molecular and genetic clinical research—and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop. Emphasis is on common sense as the main ingredient of good science. The book explains how to choose well-focused research questions and details the steps through all the elements of study design, data collection, quality assurance, and basic grant-writing. All chapters have been thoroughly revised, updated, and made more user-friendly.

Translational and Experimental Clinical Research

Translational and Experimental Clinical Research Book
Author : Daniel P. Schuster,William J. Powers (MD.)
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9780781755658
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is a comprehensive textbook for investigators entering the rapidly growing field of translational and experimental clinical research. The book offers detailed guidelines for designing and conducting a study and analyzing and reporting results and discusses key ethical and regulatory issues. Chapters address specific types of studies such as clinical experiments in small numbers of patients, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and gene therapy and pharmacogenomic studies. A major section describes modern techniques of translational clinical research, including gene expression, identifying mutations and polymorphisms, cloning, transcriptional profiling, proteomics, cell and tissue imaging, tissue banking, evaluating substrate metabolism, and in vivo imaging.

Clinical and Translational Science

Clinical and Translational Science Book
Author : David Robertson,Gordon H. Williams
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-03-02
ISBN : 9780080920191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinical or translational science is the field of study devoted to investigating human health and disease, interventions and outcomes for the purposes of developing new treatment approaches, devices, and modalities to improve health. New molecular tools and diagnostic technologies based on clinical and translational research have lead to a better understanding of human disease and the application of new therapeutics for enhanced health. Clinical and Translational Science is designed as the most authoritative and modern resource for the broad range of investigators in various medical specialties taking on the challenge of clinical research. Prepared with an international perspective, this resource begins with experimental design and investigative tools to set the scene for readers. It then moves on to human genetics and pharmacology with a focus on statistics, epidemiology, genomic information, drug discovery and development, and clinical trials. Finally, it turns to legal, social, and ethical issues of clinical research concluding with a discussion of future prospects to provide readers with a comprehensive view of the this developing area of science. Clinical research is one of the fastest growing fields in private practice and academic medicine with practical biological, physiological, cellular, and therapeutic applications Contributions from international leaders provide insight into background and future understanding for clinical and translational science Provides the structure for complete instruction and guidance on the subject from fundamental principles, approaches and infrastructure to human genetics, human pharmacology, research in special populations, the societal context of human research, and the future of human research

Departments of Labor Health and Human Services Education and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2006 National Institutes of Health

Departments of Labor  Health and Human Services  Education  and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2006  National Institutes of Health Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Departments of Labor Health and Human Services Education and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2006 National Institutes of Health book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Design and Development of Smart Surgical Assistant Technologies

Design and Development of Smart Surgical Assistant Technologies Book
Author : Jeff J.H. Kim,Richard Um,Rajiv R. Iyer,Nicholas Theodore,Amir Manbachi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-06-23
ISBN : 1000685551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Are Amazon Alexa and Google Home limited to our bedrooms, or can they be used in hospitals? Do you envision a future where physicians work hand-in-hand with voice AI to revolutionize healthcare delivery? In the near future, clinical smart assistants will be able to automate many manual hospital tasks—and this will be only the beginning of the changes to come. Voice AI is the future of physician-machine interaction and this Focus book provides invaluable insight on its next frontier. It begins with a brief history and current implementations of voice-activated assistants and illustrates why clinical voice AI is at its inflection point. Next, it describes how the authors built the world’s first smart surgical assistant using an off-the-shelf smart home device, outlining the implementation process in the operating room. From quantitative metrics to surgeons’ feedback, the authors discuss the feasibility of this technology in the surgical setting. The book then provides an in-depth development guideline for engineers and clinicians desiring to develop their own smart surgical assistants. Lastly, the authors delve into their experiences in translating voice AI into the clinical setting and reflect on the challenges and merits of this pursuit. The world’s first smart surgical assistant has not only reduced surgical time but eliminated major touch points in the operating room, resulting in positive, significant implications for patient outcomes and surgery costs. From clinicians eager for insight on the next digital health revolution to developers interested in building the next clinical voice AI, this book offers a guide for both audiences.

The State of the Science in Universal Design

The State of the Science in Universal Design Book
Author : Jordana L. Maisel
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2010-08-03
ISBN : 1608050637
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Emerging Research and Developments - The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Universal Design and the Built Environment (RERC-UD), a federally funded research center located in The University at Buffalo, hosted a series of State of the Science ("

Translational Surgery

Translational Surgery Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2023-02-01
ISBN : 9780323903004
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Translational Surgery is a surgery-specific instructional guide to translational medical research that serves as a practical, step-by-step roadmap for taking a biomedical device, potential therapeutic agent, or research question from idea through demonstrated clinical benefit. Fundamentally, the volume bridges the gap between current research and practice. Written by a team of expert medical, biomedical engineering, and clinical research experts in general surgery, this book provides a clear process for understanding, designing, executing and analyzing clinical and translational research within the field.

Design and Living Well

Design and Living Well Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 1789381479
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Using Frameworks to Cross Interdisciplinary Boundaries: Addressing Wellness • Traci Rose Rider Increasing interest is seen at the intersection of architecture and health. The built environment has become associated with a number of negative health outcomes including obesity, cancers and diabetes. Engaging design students in these inquiries surrounding health is integral in preparing them for future practice. This paper reviews the conceptual development and tested implementation of an interdisciplinary course focusing on the well-being and overall health of the occupant, using primary and secondary framework structures in the vein of Groat and Wang’s logical argumentation. The reviewed course engages interdisciplinary teams composed of students from the School of Architecture, the College of Engineering and the College of Natural Resources, with private practice. The course puts forth an effort to break out of the conventional pedagogical structure found in architectural education, primarily the studio and large lecture spaces. The course has been specifically designed to: (1) establish a framework for common content relating to health in the built environment across disciplinary boundaries; (2) build meaningful partnerships between interdisciplinary student groups; and (3) establish a common vocabulary between architectural education and aligned disciplines regarding health and the built environment. The course structure, activities and assessments are reviewed, proposing a solid framework for including integrated design and themes of health in architectural education. Qualities of Public Health: Toward an Analysis of Aesthetic Features of Public Policies • Sébastien Proulx, Philippe Gauthier, Yaprak Hamarat Design is gaining popularity as a way to address complex social problems in various fields of practices. Strangely, public health which, by nature, is concerned by such kinds of problems, remains foreign to this way of thinking. Building on the increasing popularity of design in policy-making, we stress that public health could also benefit from this conceptual yet pragmatic framework. To open a critical perspective about the potential of design for public health, we examine four design projects that address social determinants of health and whose outcomes promote healthy living habits. Finally, we argue that the interest of design for public health lies on its concern for the users’ aesthetic experience emerging of its encounter with the touchpoints that embody health policies. This contribution ought to act as a stepping stone to open a debate about design as offering a critical perspective for the practice and study of public health. Participatory Design for Behavior Change: An Integrative Approach to Healthcare Quality Improvement • Fernando Carvalho, Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Val Mitchell Behavior insights have been extensively applied to public policy and service design. The potential for an expanded use of behavior change to healthcare quality improvement has been underlined in the England’s National Health Service Five-Year Forward View report, in which staff behavior is connected to the quality of care delivered to patients and better clinical practice. Improving the quality of healthcare service delivery involves adopting improvement cycles that are conducted by multiple agents through systematic processes of change and evaluation. Despite the recognition that some of the recurring challenges to improve healthcare services are behavioral in essence, there is insufficient evidence about how behavioral insights can be successfully applied to quality improvement in healthcare. Simultaneously, the discussion on how to better engage participants in intervention design, and how to better enable participation are not seen as fundamental components of behavior change frameworks. This paper presents an integrative approach, stemming from comprehensive literature review and an ongoing case study, in which participatory design is used as the conduit to activate stakeholder engagement in the application of a behavior change framework, aiming to improve the processes of diagnosing and managing urinary tract infection in the emergency department of a hospital in England. Preliminary findings show positive results regarding the combined use of participatory design and behavior change tools in the development of a shared-vision of the challenges in question, and the collaborative establishment of priorities of action, potential solution routes and evaluation strategies. Development of a Design Competence Model for Learners of Human-Centered Design • Christi Zuber Learning a new competence and attempting to perform it within an organization not only takes time, but it is heavily influenced by the real-world context of day-to-day work culture and individual perceptions. The little-understood world of learning Human-Centered Design (HCD) within an organization is studied over 1 year in inside of a group of healthcare organizations through a training and mentoring program called the “Innovation Catalyst Program.” Deep insights and personal narratives are gathered by studying learners and their coaches in real-time observations and conversations. A dynamic story unfolds as those who are learning creative approaches for organizational innovation are coached by those with many years of experience on the topic. These same participants provide feedback on the frameworks generated. The result of this Longitudinal Grounded Theory field study is a new actionable model for understanding experiences and approaches to learning HCD within the context of an organization, a novel approach to assessing development, and ultimately, a way to empower individuals with the mindsets and skillsets of HCD for real-world challenges. Health Education that Breaks through Language Barriers: Prototyping and Evaluation of Child Care-Related ICT Self-Learning Resource • Toshinori Anzai, Kazuyo Matsuura, Takanobu Yakubo, Tomoko Mikami, Kouta Uemura This paper explores the findings of a study into the telecommunications environment in Mongolia. It

Design and Digital Interaction

Design and Digital Interaction Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 1789381436
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. From Software Engineering to Information Design • Yvette Shen Most academic methodologies are developed from a prescribed methodological process that is limited to a specific area of study. However, the disciplinary landscape in which the knowledge is established is being rapidly reconfigured. Given the vast varieties of practices and knowledge base required from information designers, it is even more crucial for them to look outside of the traditional visual design fields and seek diversities for better research and creation methods. The two disciplines, software engineering and information design, are often perceived as one provides technical solutions to the other. This essay intends to move beyond the common perception, and identify relevant issues in software engineering design that resonate with the information design process. The issues include the multi-component planning approach; the human-oriented agile method; design concepts such as abstraction, decomposition, component modularity, hierarchical relationship and extensibility. The perspectives from software engineering design and information design is examined through units of analysis, terminology explanations and forms of communications. The collective design methods and principles provide a systematic framework to the methodological thinking in information design. The discussion serves the purpose of encouraging more conceptual-based conversations between information design and other disciplines, especially in the fields of science and technology. Designing Information for Artificial Intelligence: Path Recommendation and User Acceptance in a Virtual Space • Jong Myoung Lee, Kyung Hoon Hyun In this study, the authors propose two information layout strategies (informative layout and decisive layout) that influence the user acceptance rate on recommended information. The informative layout is the degree of descriptions in the recommendation process. The decisive layout is the degree of choices in recommendations. Thus, the objective of the paper is to discover how users’ acceptance of a recommendation changes when the recommendation is displayed in different degrees of informative and decisive layouts. To this end, we have conducted the following tasks: (1) sophisticated software was created with JavaScript to conduct experiments with users online; (2) experiment subjects (N=247) with various education and demographic levels were recruited; (3) user acceptance rate depending on the information layout strategy was collected; (4) the relationships between information layout strategy and user acceptance of the recommended information were computationally analyzed. The results of the study indicate that the information layout strategy proposed in this research significantly influences user acceptance of the recommended information. Also, this research identified effective combinations of informative and decisive layouts to maximize the user acceptance. The Research on Design Framework for Citizen Science • Zhiyong Fu, Jia Lin, Lu Wang Citizen science is a process in which ordinary citizens contribute to scientific research. How to create citizen science design framework to achieve better awareness, initiative and action is our research focus. This paper will explore citizen science design in the context of smart city, on the basis of activity theory and by means of digital social innovation. “Smart City” concept provides new elements including social communication, collaborative design and innovative community to citizen science. With the rapid development of science and information and communication technologies (ICTs) and with the arrival of Web 2.0, social innovation is endowed with digital factors so as to be evolved to digital social innovation (DSI) which gives various design perspectives on citizen science and also plays an important part in establishing citizen science evaluation model. In this paper, a citizen science design framework consisting of citizen science content model, design model and evaluation model is proposed by discussing related theories, models and citizen science cases. It acts as not only design lead to inspire two citizen science case practices, but also an evaluation term in the view of citizen science. The framework and models developed in this research will hopefully be leveraged and refined to support citizen science design in the future. Finding the Expectations of Smart Home and Designing the Meaningful Technology for Delivering Customers’ Satisfaction • Yaliang Chuang, Lin-Lin Chen, Yu-Shan Athena Chen Smart home is becoming a focus in both literature and product development practices. The current study employed a human-centered design approach to understand users’ desires and expectations from their living context. Six critical themes were developed via in-deep interviews, field observations and data analysis. They are housed as a supportive friend, atmosphere generator, theme songs for every moment, coordinator and reminder, life memory collector and routine builder for young generations. Those concepts were partially integrated to define the value proposition for the target user group of parents with young children. This guides the design ideation and video prototyping to illustrator the user experiences. Through a focus group discussion, the design concepts were validated with six potential customers. The results also show that the design concept has the potential to motivate children’s behaviors, help to build their routine, and has the flexibility to fulfill different needs toward the changes of the family’s life cycle. Using Frame Analysis to Organize Designers’ Experience on the Cloud • Julija Naskova This paper demonstrates how Goffman’s frame analysis is applied in a research on designers’ experience with Cloud-based digital tools. At the base of Goffman’s structure is the “primary frame” – in this case designers’ experience with computer-based digital tools. These tools’ transition to the Cloud initiated by business are called “fabrications.” Goffman’s “structural issues in fabrication” such as “retransformations” and the “

Teaching and Learning Design

Teaching and Learning Design Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 1789381371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ust as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the 2017 International Association of Societies of Design Research conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Opening a Design Education Pipeline from University to K-12 and Back • Peter Scupelli, Doris Wells-Papanek, Judy Brooks, Arnold Wasserman To prepare students to imagine desirable futures amidst current planetary-level challenges, design educators must think and act in new ways. In this paper, we describe a pilot study that illustrates how educators might teach K-12 students and university design students to situate their making within transitional times in a volatile and exponentially changing world. We describe how to best situate students to align design thinking and learning with future foresight. Here we present a pilot test and evaluate how a university-level Design Futures course content, approach, and scaffolded instructional materials – can be adapted for use in K-12 Design Learning Challenges. We describe the K-12 design-based learning challenges/experiences developed and implemented by the Design Learning Network (DLN). The Design Futures course we describe in this paper is a required course for third-year undergraduate students in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. The “x” signifies a different type of design that aligns short-term action with long-term goals. The course integrates design thinking and learning with long-horizon future scenario foresight. Broadly speaking, we ask how might portions of a design course be taught and experienced by teachers and students of two different demographics: within the university (Design Undergraduates) and in K-12 (via DLN). This pilot study is descriptive in nature; in future work, we seek to assess learning outcomes across university and K-12 courses. We believe the approach described is relevant for lifelong learners (e.g., post-graduate-level, career development, transitional adult education). Re-Clarifying Design Problems Through Questions for Secondary School Children: An Example Based on Design Problem Identification in Singapore Pre-Tertiary Design Education • Wei Leong, Leon Loh, Hwee Mui, Grace Kwek, Wei Leong Lee It is believed that secondary school students often define design problems in the design coursework superficially due to various reasons such as lack of exposure, inexperience and the lack of research skills. Questioning techniques have long been associated with the development of critical thinking. Based on this context and assumption, the current study aimed to explore the use of questioning techniques to enable pre-tertiary students to improve their understanding of design problems by using questions to critique their thinking and decision-making processes and in turn, generate more effective design solutions. A qualitative approach is adopted in this study to identify the trajectories of students during design problem identification and clarification process. Using student design journals as a form of record for action and thoughts, they are analyzed and supplemented by hearing survey with the teacher-in-charge. From the study, the following points can be concluded: (1) questions can be a useful tool to facilitate a better understanding of the design problem. (2) The process of identification and clarification of design problem is important in the development of critical thinking skills and social-emotional skills of the students. (3) It is important that students are given time and opportunity to find out the problems by themselves. (4) Teachers can be important role models as students may pick up questioning techniques from teacher–student discussions. (5) Departmental reviews and built-in professional development time for weekly reviews on teaching and learning strategies are necessary for the continual improvement D&T education. Surveying Stakeholders: Research Informing Design Curriculum • Andrea Quam Fundamental to design education is the creation and structure of curriculum. Neither the creation of design curriculum, nor the revaluation of existing curriculum is well documented. With no clear documentation of precedent, best practices are left open to debate. This paper and presentation will discuss the use of a survey as a research tool to assess existing curriculum at Iowa State University in the United States. This tool allowed the needs and perspectives of the program’s diverse stakeholders to be better understood. Utilizing survey methods, research revealed the convergence and divergence of stakeholders’ philosophies, theories and needs in relation to design curriculum. Accreditation and professional licensing provide base level of guidelines for design curriculum in the United States. However, each program’s curricular structure beyond these guidelines is a complicated balance of resources, facilities, faculty and the type of institution in which it is housed. Once established, a program’s curriculum is rarely reassessed as a whole, but instead updated with the hasty addition of classes upon an existing curricular structure. Curriculum is infrequently re-addressed, and when it is, it is typically based on the experience and opinions of a select group of faculty. This paper presents how a survey was developed to collect data to inform curricular decision-making, enabling the reduction of faculty bias and speculation in the process. Lessons learned from the development of this research tool will be shared so it might be replicated at other institutions, and be efficiently repeated periodically to ensure currency of a program’s curriculum. New Challenges when Teaching UX Students to Sketch and Prototype • Joep Frens, Jodi Forlizzi, John Zimmerman In this paper we report on new challenges when teaching User Experience (UX) students how to sketch and prototype their designs. We argue that UX students sketch and prototype differently than other design students, and we discuss how changes in the field necessitate a response in education. We describe sketching and prototyping as a

Philosophical Frameworks and Design Processes

Philosophical Frameworks and Design Processes Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 178938138X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Two Blind Spots in Design Thinking Estelle Berger From the 1980s, design thinking has emerged in companies as a method for practical and creative problem solving, based on designers’ way of thinking, integrated into a rational and iterative model to accompany the process. In companies, design thinking helped valuing creative teamwork, though not necessarily professional designers’ expertise. By pointing out two blind spots in design thinking models, as currently understood and implemented, this paper aims at shedding light on two rarely described traits of designers’ self. The first relies in problem framing, a breaking point that deeply escapes determinism. The second blind spot questions the post project process. We thus seek to portray designers’ singularity, in order to stimulate critical reflection and encourage the opening-up to design culture. Companies and organizations willing to make the most of designers’ expertise would gain acknowledging their critical heteronomy to foster innovation based on strong and disruptive visions, beyond an out-of-date problem-solving approach to design. Creating Different Modes of Existence: Toward an Ontological Ethics of Design Jamie Brassett This paper will address some design concerns relating to philosopher Étienne Souriau’s work Les différents modes d’existence (2009). This has important bearings upon design because, first, this philosophical attitude thinks of designing not as an act of forming objects with identity and meaning, but rather as a process of delivering things that allow for a multiplicity of creative remodulation of our very existences. Secondly, Souriau unpicks the concept of a being existing as a unified identity and redefines existence as a creative act of nonstop production of a variety of modes of existence. In doing this he not only moves ontological considerations to the fore of philosophical discussions away from epistemological ones, but does so in such a way as to align with attitudes to ethics that relate it to ontology – notably the work of Spinoza. (This places Souriau in a philosophical lineage that leads back, for example, to Nietzsche and Whitehead, and forward [from his era] to Deleuze and Guattari.) In thinking both ontology and ethics together, this paper will introduce a different approach to the ethics of design. Investigating Ideation Flexibility through Incremental to Radical Heuristics Ian Baker, Daniel Sevier, Seda McKilligan, Kathryn W. Jablokow, Shanna R. Daly, Eli M. Silk The concept of design thinking has received increasing attention during recent years, particularly from managers around the world. However, despite being the subject of a vast number of articles and books stating its importance, the effectiveness of this approach is unclear, as the claims about the concept are not grounded on empirical studies or evaluations. In this study, we investigated the perceptions of six design thinking methods of 21 managers in the agriculture industry as they explored employee- and business-related problems and solutions using these tools in a 6-hour workshop. The results from pre and post-survey responses suggest that the managers agreed on the value design thinking could bring to their own domains and were able to articulate on how they can use them in solving problems. We conclude by proposing directions for research to further explore adaptation of design thinking for the management practice context. Design Research and Innovation Model Using Layered Clusters of Displaced Prototypes - Juan de la Rosa, Stan Ruecker The ability of design to recognize the wicked problems inside complex systems and find possible ways to modify them, has led other disciplines to try to understand the design process and apply it to many areas of knowledge not traditionally associated with design. In additional, design’s creative solutions and ability to innovate have made designers a valuable resource in the contemporary economy. Nevertheless, there is still an unnecessarily constraining polemic about the meaning and model of the process of academic research in the field of design, the ways in which design research should be conducted and the specific knowledge that is produced with the design research process. This paper tries to broaden the discourse by describing the prototype as a basic element of the process of design, since it is connected to a specific type of knowledge and based on the working skills of the designer; it also proposes a model of the use of prototypes as a research tool based on four different theoretical concepts whose importance in the field of design has been strongly established by different academic communities around the world. These are embodied knowledge, displacement, complexity and that we learn about the world through transforming it. Pursuing these models, we develop a process to intentionally produce designerly knowledge of complex dynamic systems, using layered clusters of displaced prototypes. Solution-Generation Design Profiles: Reflection on “Reflection in Action” - Shoshi Bar-Eli Solution-generation design behavior in general, and “reflection-in-action” in particular, can serve to differentiate designers, recognizing their personal reflecting when designing. In psychology, reflection is found a more robust tool to enhance task performance after feedback from a personal “device” that generates the process itself while interacting with visual representation. Differences among students’ interior design processes appear in their solution-generation design behavior. A “think aloud” experiment identified solution generation behavior profiles. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies showed how design characteristics unite, forming patterns of design behavior. A comprehensive picture of designers’ differences emerged. The research aimed: to identify

Design Discourse on Business and Industry

Design Discourse on Business and Industry Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 1789381428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Interaction Between Client and Design Consultant: The Stance of Client to Design Consultant and Its Influence on Design Process Haebin Lee, Muhammad Tufail, Myungjin Kim, KwanMyung Kim Design is essential in product development but several small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) relatively capable of manufacturing are suffered from lack of in-house design ability. For new product design, these SMEs typically employ external designers. In this client–designer interaction, designers propose design solution alternatives to their clients, which clients may accept or reject. In some cases, clients provide designers further design requirements. A study on how interactions are performed and what effects these interactions have on the results of product development is essential to determine what is needed to achieve successful collaborative relationships. Thus, this study analyzed three design development cases that were previously performed to understand how interactions work between clients and designers and its effect on the outcomes. In all cases, the design team developed designs for the clients based on their technological requirements. This study focused on the effect of client stance on the process and deliverables. Clients usually take various actions that accept or reject design solutions or give additional demands. This is because clients take initiative in decision making. Clients’ stance was divided into receptive and expressive stances. As a result, a receptive stance ensured the design capabilities of design consultants, whereas expressive stance confined design capabilities to some extent but a new design direction may be proposed based on a client’s knowledge, information and judgment. Speed Dating with Design Thinking: An Empirical Study of Managers Solving Business Problems with Design Seda McKilligan, Tejas Dhadphale, David Ringholz The concept of design thinking has received increasing attention during recent years, particularly from managers around the world. However, despite being the subject of a vast number of articles and books stating its importance, the effectiveness of this approach is unclear, as the claims about the concept are not grounded on empirical studies or evaluations. In this study, we investigated the perceptions of six design thinking methods of 21 managers in the agriculture industry as they explored employee and business-related problems and solutions using these tools in a 6-hour workshop. The results from pre and post-survey responses suggest that the managers agreed on the value design thinking could bring to their own domains and were able to articulate on how they can use them in solving problems. We conclude by proposing directions for research to further explore adaptation of design thinking for the management practice context. Product Design Briefs as Knowledge-Based Artifacts of Cross-Functional Collaboration in New Product Development Ian Parkman Contemporary research in business strategy, new product development and design management has suggested that cross-functional collaboration within team-based environments is critical to successful product development processes. However, scholars have also demonstrated that the mere presence of inter-functional structures does not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Indeed, the very differences which cause cross-disciplinary teams to result in improved design processes may also lead to friction as team members’ backgrounds, orientations and training often cause them to have different perspectives on what information is important to the product design process and to solve development-related problems. Improved understanding how to integrate information from differing functional areas is a clear emphasis of research, yet very few empirical studies have precisely defined the units of knowledge flowing through NPD projects, differences in importance of information elements by functional area or the structures which may facilitate the sharing of information within NPD. This study presents an investigation of product design briefs as knowledge-based artifacts of cross-functional collaboration within NPD. Drawing on a proprietary sample of 68 briefs analyzed through an expert rating procedure alongside survey questionnaire of 153 product development managers our results define 51 information elements commonly shared between functional areas during an NPD project. We organize these information elements as eight factors, categorize the “importance” of each element to NPD success and describe differences in evaluation from across three primary functional domains of NPD: (a) Design, (b) Marketing and (c) Engineering/ R&D/ Development. Entrepreneurial Universities Meet Their Private Partners: Toward a Better Embedding of the Outcomes of Cross-Sector Collaborations Baldini Luca, Calabretta Giulia, De Lille Christine In the past decades, universities’ involvement in socio-economic development, which goes along with their teaching and researching activities, has defined a new role for them in society’s ecosystem. This new role is often referred with the term of “entrepreneurial” university, whose objectives are positive societal, economic and environmental impacts. In order to fulfill such objectives, entrepreneurial universities might engage in cross-sector collaborations with external organizations. Despite the great contributions that cross-sector collaboration can give to the partners involved, the outcome is mostly unfocused and rarely embedded. This paper explores the outcome embedding in the cross-sector collaboration between entrepreneurial universities and the private sector. To this end, we provide the case of the collaboration between a Dutch airline company and four Dutch entrepreneurial research and teaching institutions. We aim to uncover hindering and enabling factors to the outcome embedding in order to design an interaction platform, design it together. This platform will be a tool to encourage the outcome embedding, moving from being inspired by to the actual implementation of the cross-sector collaboration. In order to fulfill this goal, this study

Design Discourse on Culture and Society

Design Discourse on Culture and Society Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 178938141X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Cultura: A Communication Toolkit for Designers to Gain Empathic Insights Across Cultural Boundaries - Chen Hao, Annemiek van Boeijen, Pieter Jan Stappers Designing successful products and services that people like requires an understanding of the context and the aspirations of those people. Over the past decade, a range of methods has been developed to help designers gain such empathy. These have worked well when designer and target user share a cultural context. However, designers often find it difficult to empathize with the user insights of individuals from a culture beyond their first-hand experience. To help designers step beyond this limitation, those user insights need to be placed in a larger understanding of the cultural context. In this paper, we present Cultura: a toolkit that uses nine cultural aspects based on cultural models, informing designers about user insights in a broader cultural context. The toolkit was evaluated in design sessions with four design teams. The findings indicate that Cultura provides inspiration and motivation for designers to gain empathic insights into users beyond their own cultural boundaries and to make effective designs for people. Graphic Designers as Cultural Innovators: Case Studies of Henry Steiner and Kan Tai Keung • Tian Yao, Ilpo Koskinen It is common to see graphic design copies of foreign models or other Chinese designers. These designers are apathetic toward the work and neglect its ongoing challenges, including the need for constant innovation. In contrast, there are masters who use Chinese culture in creative ways and achieve outstanding reputations all over the world. The reasons design masters choose Chinese culture as a theme for their graphic work and the unique ways in which they symbolize cultural resources and knowledge are explored and explained in this study. This study also illustrates how traditional culture can become a potential innovative strategy by applying a systematic and culture-based methodology. The case studies presented concern the first generation of graphic designers in Hong Kong: Henry Steiner and Kan Tai Keung. The preliminary results of the two case studies show very positive outcomes for cultural interpretation becoming a new innovative stream of graphic design. Cultural Differences in Aesthetic Preferences: Does Product-to-Context Match Matter? • Tseng-Ping Chiu, Carolyn Yoon, Shinobu Kitayama, Colleen Seifert Western cultures focus on salient objects and use categorization for purposes of organizing the environment (an analytic view), whereas, East Asians cultures focus more holistically on relationships and similarities among objects when organizing the environment (a holistic view). Previous research has shown that cognitive approaches differ between cultures: European Americans prefer an analytic style, and East Asians tend to use a holistic style. However, little is known about how cultural differences in cognition relate to aesthetic preferences. In this paper, we explored whether cultural differences arise in preferences for products set in matching vs. mismatching contexts. Participants in a laboratory experiment included European Americans and East Asians. Individually, they viewed images of a variety of furniture products (chairs, coffee tables and floor lamps) and rated their aesthetic appeal. Each product type appeared in three different contexts: matching (target product shown in its usual in-home context); mismatched (target product shown in an unusual in-home context) and neutral (the target product shown on a white background). For both cultural groups, products were judged to be more aesthetically pleasing in the matching than in the mismatched context. However, ratings for products in mismatching contexts were significantly higher among East Asians. Our findings suggest that those with holistic views (East Asians) are more tolerant of mismatches than are those with more analytic views (European Americans). The implications for product and marketing design include greater attention to context presentation. Discourses on Japanese Lifestyle in Early Modern Design: A Turning Point from Westernization to Modern Design • Yoshimune Ishikawa Low-seated chairs for tatami mats that are characteristic of Japanese-style interior appeared after late 1940s. This article focuses on the ambivalence between Western lifestyles and Japanese lifestyles by tracing the comments of designers, critics, magazines and so forth to clarify a background of them. The introduction of chairs in Japan was actually involved, by definition, in a dichotomy between sitting on the floor and in chairs, which therefore was far from the domestic practicality of lifestyles among the public. Then we have to observe the two points for the introduction of chairs to break through this rigid situation: (1) how did the public establish definition of chairs outside the Westernization? This article grasps the fact that the artisans and early designers accumulated their experience of producing chairs from scratch, through trial and error. (2) How did the relation between sitting on the floor and in chairs break out of the dichotomy, through ambivalence? This article focuses on the fact that the public enjoyed the physical relaxation offered by the mix of sitting on the floor and in chairs. This constituted the domestic practicality of chairs for the Japanese. Therefore, such experiences of making and using chairs can be summarized as the awakening of a universe in the distance between the floor and the seat-height of Western chairs. It was a new frontier for Japanese designers, and low-seated chairs were born in this space. This article concludes that it marked the transition from Westernization to Japanese modern design. Using Practice-Led Industrial/Product Design Research to Explore Opportunities

Design and the Creation of Social Value

Design and the Creation of Social Value Book
Author : Gjoko Muratovski,Craig Vogel
Publisher : Intellect Books
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 1789381398
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Just as the term design has been going through change, growth and expansion of meaning, and interpretation in practice and education – the same can be said for design research. The traditional boundaries of design are dissolving and connections are being established with other fields at an exponential rate. Based on the proceedings from the IASDR 2017 Conference, Re:Research is an edited collection that showcases a curated selection of 83 papers – just over half of the works presented at the conference. With topics ranging from the introduction of design in the primary education sector to designing information for Artificial Intelligence systems, this book collection demonstrates the diverse perspectives of design and design research. Divided into seven thematic volumes, this collection maps out where the field of design research is now. Understanding Everyday Design • Soyoung Kim, Kwangmin Cho, Chajoong Kim The more society gets complicated and developed, the more demand for various products. As a result, we are living in a flood of various products. However, considering how people consume and use products in their daily life, it is not difficult to find people transforming, changing the original purpose or adding value to existing products instead of buying new ones. This phenomenon has been defined as everyday design. In a sense that everyday design provides a better understanding of actual uses in real context, it deserves to be studied. Therefore, this paper attempts to figure out an underlying mechanism of everyday design. For this, a conceptual framework was developed, whose focus was on what triggers everyday design, what goals are set and how a product is transformed. The conceptual framework was validated with a photographic inventory of users’ everyday design in our daily life. The conceptual framework could provide a better understanding of everyday design in a systematic way. If it is considered in the product development process, it could contribute to an increase of use satisfaction as well as sustainable design. The limitations and a further study are discussed at the end of the paper. Social Value Creation through Multidisciplinary Design Education • Steven Kyffin, Mersha Aftab, Nicholas Spencer The paper proposes that design with a multidisciplinary student cohort as active partners can play the role of bringing the four different stakeholder groupings, namely, government, industry, society and academia together within the creative consortia, and create innovation for the greater good of the society. By studying a selection of social innovation projects undertaken by multidisciplinary student teams as connector-integrators, which engaged with companies, government bodies and community groups, we have examined a combination of “four” different activities across different economic and cultural (human experience) contexts to assess their different degrees of appropriateness in creating future value. We apply these methods to establish “creative consortia,” which has enabled us to reframe the context of the problem space. We believe that the creative consortia has the potential to create more relevance in the solution space, greater engagement in realizing the proposition into the future and a higher opportunity for integration of such future principles into emerging government policy, and national innovation agendas. Taking Aim at “wicked problems”: A Practical Philosophy for Educating Designers in the Making of Wise Decisions • Paul Emmerson, Robert Young Today’s design pedagogies lack the characteristics for redressing the nature of the “wicked problems” they attempt to solve, such as sustainability. We argue it is not fair for future generations to suffer the systemic effects of our unsustainable consumer culture, partly resulting from today’s design professionals’ decisions, which ensue because design is an amoral discipline lacking a systemic perspective. To rectify design’s characteristic failings, as part of a PhD study, we report a new pedagogical architecture founded as the synthesis of the practices of design and civics, forming the relationship design-as-civics (DaC): a practical philosophy. We position DaC as a reflexive, systemic radical political praxis for every citizen, possessing the explicit teleological goal to achieve the “good life” for all. DaC takes a transdisciplinary approach. It integrates the discoveries of cognitive science and linguistics to expose how we construct our understanding of the world interpreting metaphors and frames, which we utilize to “aim” DaC. Alongside shared social practice theory (SSP) and insights from developmental psychology that reveal the distinctly human capacity of “shared intentionality” engendering humankind’s willingness for cooperation and empathy for fairness. That living in a fairer society is desired by people from rival political perspectives, with egalitarian societies reporting lower environmental impact lifestyles and more willingness for transitioning toward sustainment. Thus, it is humankind’s cooperative behavior and aligning values that provides the foundational rationale of DaC’s SSP goal to achieve the “good life” through the ongoing critical examination of its “aim” of resolving “fairness between citizens.” Developing a Matrix for “Designerly Way of Creating Shared Value” (DCSV): Four Examples of CSV via Perspectives of Design • Kyulee Kim Today, while profit maximization is still the bedrock of the capitalist model, people have embraced the idea of social contribution as a useful strategy in businesses. In this recent movement, Creating Shared Value (CSV) strives for a win-win solution that creates both social and business value. While in its early stage, CSV is showing promise and potential; society is witnessing a paradigm shift from practices of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) to CSV which is more sustainable and effective approach. Since Porter and Kramer originally introduced the concept in 2011, CSV’s application has expanded to many areas of business management, but it has not been discussed comprehensively in design research as of yet. The title of this paper, “Designerly Way of Creating Shared Value” (DCSV) is inspired by Nigel Cross’s famous book, Designerly way of knowing (2006). “Designerly” is an adjective describing “how” designers think and behave that is different from professionals in scientific disciplines. The aim of this paper is to propose a new matrix illustrating the link between creating shared value and design, and to systemically describe the existing examples of DCSV. The paper will begin with an introduction to the concept of CSV followed by

Biomedical Research

Biomedical Research Book
Author : G. Jagadeesh
Publisher : Wolters kluwer india Pvt Ltd
Release : 2019-01-01
ISBN : 8184732007
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Specially designed for aspiring researchers, this book presents a systematic exposition of the basic principles and methodologies involved in biomedical research. The book covers the entire research process from the conception of an idea, its development, investigation and execution and finally to its publication. Various research methodologies including study design and statistical approaches to data analysis are also discussed in detail. The importance of ethics and integrity in research is highlighted extensively. In addition, the book discusses relevant issues relating to the commercialization of research innovations and outlines the steps necessary for successful entrepreneurship.

Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation

Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation Book
Author : Professor and Chair Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy University of Houston College of Pharmacy Houston Texas Rajender R Aparasu, Ed.,Rajender R. Aparasu,John P. Bentley
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Release : 2014-03-01
ISBN : 1449691315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is a unique resource that provides a balanced approach covering critical elements of clinical research, biostatistical principles, and scientific literature evaluation techniques for evidence-based medicine. This accessible text provides comprehensive course content that meets and exceeds the curriculum standards set by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Written by expert authors specializing in pharmacy practice and research, this valuable text will provide pharmacy students and practitioners with a thorough understanding of the principles and practices of drug literature evaluation with a strong grounding in research and biostatistical principles. Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is an ideal foundation for professional pharmacy students and a key resource for pharmacy residents, research fellows, practitioners, and clinical researchers. FEATURES * Chapter Pedagogy: Learning Objectives, Review Questions, References, and Online Resources * Instructor Resources: PowerPoint Presentations, Test Bank, and an Answer Key * Student Resources: a Navigate Companion Website, including Crossword Puzzles, Interactive Flash Cards, Interactive Glossary, Matching Questions, and Web Links From the Foreword: "This book was designed to provide and encourage practitioner s development and use of critical drug information evaluation skills through a deeper understanding of the foundational principles of study design and statistical methods. Because guidance on how a study s limited findings should not be used is rare, practitioners must understand and evaluate for themselves the veracity and implications of the inherently limited primary literature findings they use as sources of drug information to make evidence-based decisions together with their patients. The editors organized the book into three supporting sections to meet their pedagogical goals and address practitioners needs in translating research into practice. Thanks to the editors, authors, and content of this book, you can now be more prepared than ever before for translating research into practice." L. Douglas Ried, PhD, FAPhA Editor-in-Chief Emeritus, Journal of the American Pharmacists Association Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, Texas"

Fundamentals of Evidence Based Health Care and Translational Science

Fundamentals of Evidence Based Health Care and Translational Science Book
Author : Francesco Chiappelli
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-03-18
ISBN : 3642418570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comparative effectiveness research – the conduct and synthesis of systematic research in order to compare the benefits and harms of alternative treatment options – is of critical importance in enabling informed health care decisions to be made. This user-friendly, practical handbook examines in depth how best to perform such comparative effectiveness research. A wide range of topics and methods are discussed, including research synthesis, sampling analysis, assessment of evidence design, systematic evaluation of statistical analysis, and meta-analysis. The discussion extends well beyond the fundamentals by encompassing “complex” systematic reviews, “cumulative” meta-analyses, and logic-based versus utility-based decision making. Health care providers, researchers, instructors, and students will all find this to be an invaluable reference on the compelling current issues and important analytical tools in comparative effectiveness research.