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Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-18
ISBN : 9780080559353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines in the Brain

Cytokines in the Brain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Cytokines in the Brain book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cytokines and Mental Health

Cytokines and Mental Health Book
Author : Ziad Kronfol
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 146150323X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines and Mental Health explores the relationship between cytokines, neural circuitry and mental health. It is interdisciplinary and "translational", bringing together information that spans the spectrum from the molecular and cellular levels to the patient and the clinic. Content includes chapters that discuss cytokine pathways in the brain, the neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of cytokines, and the behavioral effects of cytokines including sickness behavior. These chapters in basic research are followed by a more clinical section that discusses the role of cytokines in neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The book offers different things to different people. It should be of great interest to neuroscientists and immunologists working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. It would also greatly benefit mental health professionals including psychiatrists, psychologists and clinicians of diverse background who are interested in mind-body medicine.

Cytokines in the Nervous System

Cytokines in the Nervous System Book
Author : Nancy J. Rothwell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 1461596955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Cytokines in the Nervous System book written by Nancy J. Rothwell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain Book
Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-08
ISBN : 3034887493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines Book
Author : Armen A. Galoyan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1441988939
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines: Immune Response and Neuronal Survival summarizes the biological and chemical data of signal molecules of the brain neuroendocrine immune system, mainly proline-rich peptides, which play an important role in the regulation of immune response, neuronal survival, hematopoiesis, and adaptation. The author also describes the role of PRPs for the protection of neurons against neurodegenerative disturbances and diseases. Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines: Immune Response and Neuronal Survival will be of great aid to the researchers and students in various areas of neurobiological profile (neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neurophysiology, and endocrinology).

Cytokines in the Brain

Cytokines in the Brain Book
Author : European meeting on glial cell function in health and disease. Satellite symposium
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Cytokines in the Brain book written by European meeting on glial cell function in health and disease. Satellite symposium, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neurobiology of Cytokines

Neurobiology of Cytokines Book
Author : Errol B. De Souza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483217558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurobiology of Cytokines, Part A provides an overview of the effects of cytokines in the brain and in the endocrine system. The book discusses the general aspects of cytokines, including the endogenous agonists and antagonists, their receptors, their second messengers, and transport mechanisms for cytokines across the blood-brain barrier. The text also describes the anatomical localization of cytokines, cytokine receptors, and their respective mRNA in brain and in endocrine tissues. The methods for evaluating the in vivo as well as in vitro actions of cytokines on hormone secretion are also considered. The book further tackles the synthesis and release of cytokines and their central nervous system actions; and the methodology for studying the role of cytokines in human neuropathological conditions.

Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain Book
Author : S. M. McCann,James M. Lipton,David Saphier
Publisher : S Karger Ag
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9783805567664
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special issue details the most recent developments from research on the roles of CNS cytokines, related soluble mediators and their antagonists. Originating from the first international meeting to focus exclusively on immune-to-brain signaling, the main topics covered include CNS actions of cytokines, cytokines and the neuropathology of stroke, cytokines and HIV neuropathology and behavioral actions of cytokines. This publication is highly recommended to all neuroimmunomodulation researchers as it provides a comprehensive summary of the latest advances in this exciting field. These excellent state-of-the-art treatise are appropriate for all neuroscientists, immunologists and behaviorists.

Neurobiology of Cytokines

Neurobiology of Cytokines Book
Author : Errol B. De Souza
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neurobiology of Cytokines book written by Errol B. De Souza, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Immune System and the Developing Brain

The Immune System and the Developing Brain Book
Author : Jaclyn M. Schwarz,Staci D. Bilbo
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2011-10
ISBN : 1615043519
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The developing brain is exquisitely sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous signals which direct or significantly alter the developmental trajectory of cells, neural circuits, and associated behavioral outcomes for the life of the individual. Contrary to initial dogma that the brain is one of the few organs within the body that is immune-privileged, evidence indicates that the immune system has a critical role in brain function during development as well as during sickness and health in adulthood. Microglia are the primary immune cells within the brain, and they are in constant communication with the peripheral immune system and surrounding cell types within the brain. We describe the important role of the immune system, including microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. Growing evidence indicates that there is a strong link between many neuropsychiatric disorders and immune dysfunction, with a distinct etiology in neurodevelopment. Thus, understanding the role of the immune system and immune activation during the critical period of brain development is a necessary step toward understanding the potential origins of these devastating disorders. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Immune Response / Brain-Immune Communication / Microglia Are Immune Cells of the Brain / The Functional Role of Microglia and Immune Molecules in Neurodevelopment / Early-Life Programming of Brain and Behavior: A Critical Role for the Immune System / Commonly Used Models of Early Life Immune Activation in the Rodent / Early Life Immune Activation and Cognitive Impairment in Adulthood / Mechanisms Underlying the Enduring Changes in Neuroimmune Function Caused by Early Life Infection / Toll-Like Receptors and Immune Activation During Early Brain Development / Environmental Triggers of TLR Activation: Long-Term Programming of Brain and Behavior / Future Directions to Understanding Immune Function and Brain Development / References

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Acute Brain Injury

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Acute Brain Injury Book
Author : Arthur Liesz,Christoph Kleinschnitz
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-11-13
ISBN : 2889196917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain Book
Author : Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-03-18
ISBN : 2889197689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines Book
Author : Armen A Galoyan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004-04-30
ISBN : 9781441988942
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines book written by Armen A Galoyan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cytokines Stress and Depression

Cytokines  Stress  and Depression Book
Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-23
ISBN : 9781475786101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

Dairy Calves and Heifers

Dairy Calves and Heifers Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Natural Resource Agriculture and Engineering Service (Nraes)
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Cytokines and the CNS

Cytokines and the CNS Book
Author : Richard M. Ransohoff,Etty N. Benveniste
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-10-31
ISBN : 1420039849
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides Insight into How Cytokine Action Impacts the Physiology and Pathology of the CNS. As with the first edition of Cytokines and the CNS, this completely updated and revised edition introduces neurobiologists to cytokine biology and immunologists to the unique functions of cytokines in CNS physiology. The dramatically accelerating interest in cytokines and cytokine/chemokine signaling over the past several years has encouraged an explosion of literature on cytokines. The similarity between factors involved in inflammation or immunity, and those implicated in neural development, physiology, and repair has become so apparent that familiarity with cytokines must now be considered an essential element in the neurobiologist’s cognitive tool-kit. Conversely, for immunobiologists, the concepts elaborated by neurobiologists to understand developmental patterning and networked organ function continue to evolve in such a way that comprehension of cytokine action in the CNS can only enhance a further understanding of immune system function. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition is patterned after the first edition; however, the wealth of knowledge now available adds a tremendous amount of insight and new implications. To guarantee a fresh perspective, the editors made a conscious choice to utilize an entirely new set of contributors, all experts in various aspects of cytokine research. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition starts with a chapter on the CNS, focusing on pathological reactions to insult. Next, come three chapters on cytokine biology, followed by four chapters that integrate cytokine biology into basic CNS processes (development; inflammation; immunity; degeneration/repair), after which five chapters apply this body of knowledge to disease or pathology. The book closes with a look at the application of cytokine biology to the treatment of disease, a brand new area of research.

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders Book
Author : Allan Siegel,Steven S. Zalcman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-11-09
ISBN : 0387848517
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For many years, the immune and central nervous systems were thought to function independently with little or no interaction between the two. This view has und- gone dramatic changes over the past three decades. Indeed, we now know that there exists various feedback loops between the brain and immune systems that impact signi cantly upon different behavioral processes, including normal behavior and mental disorders. Pioneering efforts in generating this change were initiated by a number of early investigators. Included were those whose efforts were directed at establishing neuroimmune connections as well as others whose research focused upon the relationship between immunity, cytokines, and behavior. This book brings together outstanding scientists and clinicians who have made major contributions to the rapidly developing eld investigating the relationship between immunity and behavior. The book is divided into three parts. The rst part describes pathways by which the brain and immune systems communicate and int- act with each other. In the chapter “Cytokines and the Blood–Brain Barrier” p- vides insight into interactions between the blood–brain barrier and cytokines. Such interactions underlie basic communication between the immune system and brain that are present in normal as well as in disease conditions. In the chapter “Neu- chemical and Endocrine Responses to Immune Activation: The Role of Cytokines,” the neurochemical and endocrine consequences of immune challenge and cytokine administration on central neurotransmitter activity are discussed.

Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration in Mouse Brain

Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration in Mouse Brain Book
Author : Zhiguo Chen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9789173498739
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration in Mouse Brain book written by Zhiguo Chen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.