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Cytokines And The Brain

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Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-18
ISBN : 9780080559353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain Book
Author : Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-03-18
ISBN : 2889197689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 9535134515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Advances in Dementia Research

Advances in Dementia Research Book
Author : Kurt A. Jellinger,Reinhold Schmidt,Manfred Windisch
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-07
ISBN : 3709167817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dementia is a major health problem that becomes increasingly common with advancing age. Despite recent progress in neurobiology and molecular genetics, the aetiology and pathogenesis of most dementia disorders are still poorly understood, and early exact diagnosis as a prerequisite of effective treatment needs to be improved. The present volume includes the contributions of renowned experts in the field of neurodegeneration presented at the International Symposium "Ageing and Dementia 1999”, September 24–26, 1999 at Graz. It focusses on genetics, epidemiology, new neuroimaging techniques, and the role of vascular, immunological and other mechanisms including oxidative stress and estrogens in the development of neurodegeneration and dementia. Recent developments in diagnosis and therapy of Alzheimer disease and related disorders are reviewed and future therapeutic approaches are discussed. Thus, this volume provides a timely overview of most recent developments in dementia research and treatment strategies of dementia disorders.

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain Book
Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2012-10-29
ISBN : 9783034897563
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Cytokines and the CNS

Cytokines and the CNS Book
Author : Richard M. Ransohoff,Etty N. Benveniste
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-10-31
ISBN : 1420039849
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides Insight into How Cytokine Action Impacts the Physiology and Pathology of the CNS. As with the first edition of Cytokines and the CNS, this completely updated and revised edition introduces neurobiologists to cytokine biology and immunologists to the unique functions of cytokines in CNS physiology. The dramatically accelerating interest in cytokines and cytokine/chemokine signaling over the past several years has encouraged an explosion of literature on cytokines. The similarity between factors involved in inflammation or immunity, and those implicated in neural development, physiology, and repair has become so apparent that familiarity with cytokines must now be considered an essential element in the neurobiologist’s cognitive tool-kit. Conversely, for immunobiologists, the concepts elaborated by neurobiologists to understand developmental patterning and networked organ function continue to evolve in such a way that comprehension of cytokine action in the CNS can only enhance a further understanding of immune system function. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition is patterned after the first edition; however, the wealth of knowledge now available adds a tremendous amount of insight and new implications. To guarantee a fresh perspective, the editors made a conscious choice to utilize an entirely new set of contributors, all experts in various aspects of cytokine research. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition starts with a chapter on the CNS, focusing on pathological reactions to insult. Next, come three chapters on cytokine biology, followed by four chapters that integrate cytokine biology into basic CNS processes (development; inflammation; immunity; degeneration/repair), after which five chapters apply this body of knowledge to disease or pathology. The book closes with a look at the application of cytokine biology to the treatment of disease, a brand new area of research.

Cytokines Stress and Depression

Cytokines  Stress  and Depression Book
Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-23
ISBN : 058537970X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology Book
Author : Istvan Berczi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-05-27
ISBN : 9780123846921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New Insights to Neuroimmune Biology investigates the mechanisms that and functions of the Neuroimmune Regulatory Supersystem. Covering molecular regulation of cytokines in brain astrocytes, immunoregulation by the sympathetic nervous system, circadian regulation of immune reactions, antigen recognition by the CNS, the modulation of the immune response by head injury, neurogenic inflammation, the role of tachykinins in asthma and allergic disease, defence and defeat reactions, cytokines, behavior and affective disorders, increased activity of type 1 helper T cell functions after reward stimulation. This book has relevance to the entire scientific community in Biology, Medicine and Veterinary medicine as it discusses molecular, cellular, organic and systemic aspects as well as the physological, pathophysiological and behavioral mechnisms which are involved in Neuroimmiune Biology.

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders

The Neuroimmunological Basis of Behavior and Mental Disorders Book
Author : Allan Siegel,Steven S. Zalcman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-11-09
ISBN : 0387848517
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For many years, the immune and central nervous systems were thought to function independently with little or no interaction between the two. This view has und- gone dramatic changes over the past three decades. Indeed, we now know that there exists various feedback loops between the brain and immune systems that impact signi cantly upon different behavioral processes, including normal behavior and mental disorders. Pioneering efforts in generating this change were initiated by a number of early investigators. Included were those whose efforts were directed at establishing neuroimmune connections as well as others whose research focused upon the relationship between immunity, cytokines, and behavior. This book brings together outstanding scientists and clinicians who have made major contributions to the rapidly developing eld investigating the relationship between immunity and behavior. The book is divided into three parts. The rst part describes pathways by which the brain and immune systems communicate and int- act with each other. In the chapter “Cytokines and the Blood–Brain Barrier” p- vides insight into interactions between the blood–brain barrier and cytokines. Such interactions underlie basic communication between the immune system and brain that are present in normal as well as in disease conditions. In the chapter “Neu- chemical and Endocrine Responses to Immune Activation: The Role of Cytokines,” the neurochemical and endocrine consequences of immune challenge and cytokine administration on central neurotransmitter activity are discussed.

The Inflamed Mind

The Inflamed Mind Book
Author : Edward Bullmore
Publisher : Picador
Release : 2018-12-31
ISBN : 1250318157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As seen on "CBS This Morning" Worldwide, depression will be the single biggest cause of disability in the next twenty years. But treatment for it has not changed much in the last three decades. In the world of psychiatry, time has apparently stood still...until now with Edward Bullmore's The Inflamed Mind: A Radical New Approach to Depression. A Sunday Times (London) Top Ten Bestseller In this game-changing book, University of Cambridge profressor of psychiatry Edward Bullmore reveals the breakthrough new science on the link between depression and inflammation of the body and brain. He explains how and why we now know that mental disorders can have their root cause in the immune system, and outlines a future revolution in which treatments could be specifically targeted to break the vicious cycles of stress, inflammation, and depression. The Inflamed Mind goes far beyond the clinic and the lab, representing a whole new way of looking at how mind, brain, and body all work together in a sometimes misguided effort to help us survive in a hostile world. It offers insights into how we could start getting to grips with depression and other mental disorders much more effectively in the future.

Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain Book
Author : Christopher Phelps,Elena Andreevna Korneva
Publisher : Elsevier Science
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9780444530417
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book opens a new page of neuroimmunebiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of central nervous system cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. * Opens a new page of neuroimmunebiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease * Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of central nervous system cells during health and disease * Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data * Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain Book
Author : L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-03-08
ISBN : 3034887493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Damage

Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Damage Book
Author : A. Baethmann,K. G. Go,A. Unterberg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 1468452037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A distinction between primary and secondary brain damage of vari ous origin, particularly in acute lesions, such as head injury and ische mia is not entirely new. The concept is of practical significance, be cause it is the foremost intention of all clinical efforts to prevent, or at least attenuate the development of secondary sequelae. Primary dam age to nervous elements usually cannot be influenced by treatment. Its prevention is the objective of prophylactic measures. The current volume gathered prominent scientists and clinicians from various fields to pro vide a competent introduction and survey of the various aspects involved in secondary brain damage. It was attempted to provide criteria for the distinction between the primary and secondary phenomena on a morpho logical and functional level, on the basis of the kinetics involved and, most importantly, regarding the different specific manifestations, such as disturbances of microcirculation, aspects of the blood-brain barrier, and of cellular structure and function at a molecular level. Although it was not expected that a grand unifying hypothesis will be reached recon cilable with the many, occasionally opposing views on such a complex subject, nevertheless, the present volume attains an appropriate result. It can best be described as a mosaic of many different pieces which only as an ensemble reflect the current state of the art.

An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology

An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology Book
Author : Richard Brown,Richard E. Brown
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1994-01-27
ISBN : 9780521426657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is an introductory text in neuroendocrinology for undergraduate students.

The Dentate Gyrus A Comprehensive Guide to Structure Function and Clinical Implications

The Dentate Gyrus  A Comprehensive Guide to Structure  Function  and Clinical Implications Book
Author : Helen E. Scharfman
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-09-22
ISBN : 9780080551753
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dentate gyrus is a part of the brain that has been a topic of intense interest since the beginning of neuroscience, and pioneering studies from the distant and recent past attest to this. One of the reasons for such interest is that this structure provides some of the most remarkable examples of plasticity within the nervous system. In addition, it is critical to normal cognitive function, although exactly how and when is still a question that eludes answers. Furthermore, abnormalities within the dentate gyrus appear to play a role in diverse clinical conditions, from depression to epilepsy and traumatic brain injury. The primary goal of this book is to provide a context, or background, upon which the detailed knowledge of the current era can be appreciated. A series of overviews are provided to clarify essentials related to structural organization and development, cellular components, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, plasticity, and clinical relevance. * Covers the topic comprehensively from anatomy to cellular and systems perspectives * Includes basic research and addresses translational implications, so it will be useful to both researchers in the laboratory and clinicians who conduct experiments in humans * Chapters provide fundamentals, but also details and ample references for further review of the topic

Parkinson s Disease and Related Disorders

Parkinson s Disease and Related Disorders Book
Author : Peter Riederer,Heinz Reichmann,Moussa B. H. Youdim,Manfred Gerlach
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-11-23
ISBN : 3211452958
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book gives a comprehensive overview on current clinical and basic research issues related to Parkinson’s disease and its related disorders. The book is the result of the 16th International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Related disorders congress 2005. Its contents are suitable for neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, basic researchers, geneticians and patients as well as their relatives.

The Brain and Host Defense

The Brain and Host Defense Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-12-24
ISBN : 9780444535450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now well recognized that the brain, and especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the regulation of immune reactions and inflammation. This book aims to review our current state of knowledge of this important field. Key historical findings are presented, and the reciprocal interactions between the brain and the immune system are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on inflammation, a critical host defense reaction that serves as an effector response for both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Mechanisms implicated in brain defense, as well as in more general host defense, are discussed. The regulatory influences of the brain on inflammatory responses are included with particular reference to the role of the hypothalamus, which is also the main director the hormonal regulation of immune/inflammatory. Gender-related differences in immune responsiveness, circadian modulator of immune responses, and evidence that behavioral conditioning (e.g. reward) of immune responses is possible are used as examples to reinforce the notion that the neuroendocrine system exerts a fundamental and complex regulatory influence on the immune system. * Presents timely issues such as immunological aspects of the blood-brain-barrier and the role of inflammatory mediators in the evolution of strokes and degenerative diseases * Includes analysis of the role of the brain in the adaptive responses to disease * Evaluates the argument that further knowledge of the influence of the brain on the immune system will provide new insights to the pathophysiology infectious and autoimmune diseases

Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation

Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-03-16
ISBN : 0309463653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroinflammation is a burgeoning area of interest in academia and biopharma, with a broadly acknowledged role in many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, there is little agreement on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the manifestations of neuroinflammation in the CNS compartment and how neuroinflammation operates as a driver and also as a consequence of disease in the brain. Moreover, another unclear area is how to translate increased understanding of the mechanisms that underlie neuroinflammation and its manifestations in the CNS to therapeutics. To address these gaps in understanding mechanisms and how to translate that understanding into therapeutics, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 20-21, 2017, bringing together key leaders in the field from industry, academia, and governmental agencies to explore the role and mechanisms of neuroinflammation in a variety of CNS diseases. The workshop also considered strategies to advance the identification and validation of biomarkers of neuroinflammation that could accelerate development of therapies, bringing much-needed treatments to patients with disorders ranging from neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Neurobiology of Cytokines

Neurobiology of Cytokines Book
Author : Errol B. De Souza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483217558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurobiology of Cytokines, Part A provides an overview of the effects of cytokines in the brain and in the endocrine system. The book discusses the general aspects of cytokines, including the endogenous agonists and antagonists, their receptors, their second messengers, and transport mechanisms for cytokines across the blood-brain barrier. The text also describes the anatomical localization of cytokines, cytokine receptors, and their respective mRNA in brain and in endocrine tissues. The methods for evaluating the in vivo as well as in vitro actions of cytokines on hormone secretion are also considered. The book further tackles the synthesis and release of cytokines and their central nervous system actions; and the methodology for studying the role of cytokines in human neuropathological conditions.

Current Progress in the Understanding of Secondary Brain Damage from Trauma and Ischemia

Current Progress in the Understanding of Secondary Brain Damage from Trauma and Ischemia Book
Author : A. Baethmann,Nikolaus Plesnila,Florian Ringel,J. Eriskat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1999-08-19
ISBN : 9783211833131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Information is provided from the basic and clinical sciences on the mechanisms damaging the brain from trauma or ischemia. New aspects involve the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial failure, pathobiology of axonal injury, molecular signals activating glial elements, or the emerging therapeutical role of neurotrophins. Experimental issues involve a better analysis of the ischemic penumbra, the salvagable tissue. Therapeutic contributions reach from the environmental influence to gene expression, including neuroprotection, such as hibernation – mother nature's experiment – or hypothermia which is reported to induce cell swelling. Treatment issues deal also with thrombolysis and combination therapies, or with the clearance of adverse blood components – LDL/fibrinogen – by a novel procedure using heparin. Other highlights are discussing the specificities of pediatric vs. adult brain trauma, or the evolving role of the Apolipoprotein-E e4 gene in severe head injury. An update is also provided on an online assessment of the patient management during the pre- and early hospital phase in Southern Bavaria. The empirical observation of neuroworsening is analyzed in further details, whether this is a specificity autonomously driving the posttraumatic course. Finally, the unsolved question why drug trials in severe head injury have failed so far in view of the promising evidence from the laboratory is subjected to an expert analysis.