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Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues Book
Author : Maria Foti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-01
ISBN : 9780128042144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues discusses the cytokines networks in the context of the specific-tissue environment. It is an up-to-date collection of articles that addresses the specific issue of how the cytokines are able to condition tissue specific homeostasis. The book is unique in many ways, currently filling a gap in literature. First, it describes the cytokines detected and regulated in different tissues such as the Brain, Lungs, Spleen, Liver, Pancreas and Intestine. Protection and detrimental activity are also described in health and disease in these tissues. Second the issue of timing in a specific cell types is discussed emphasizing how the fine-tuning of the protein may determine the final outcome on tissue-specific target cells. The book helps the reader to understand how cytokines network works inside the tissues and highlights whether tissue-protection or exacerbation will be finally controlled. Categorizes the cytokines primarily based on Tissue and Target cells Emphasizes different role and outcome observed when released during the innate and the Adaptive response Represents a rapid guide to cytokines in health and disease in tissue and organ context Presents a different view on how "old" known mediators may work if analyzed on a different perspective, determining the final outcome on tissue-specific target cells

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues Book
Author : Maria Foti,Massimo Locati
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-17
ISBN : 0128042192
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokine Effector Functions in Tissues discusses the cytokines networks in the context of the specific-tissue environment. It is an up-to-date collection of articles that addresses the specific issue of how the cytokines are able to condition tissue specific homeostasis. The book helps the reader understand how cytokines network inside the tissues and highlights whether tissue-protection or exacerbation will be finally controlled. It describes the cytokines detected and regulated in different tissues, such as the brain, lungs, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine, also addressing the issue of timing in specific cell types. Categorizes the cytokines based primarily on tissue and target cells Emphasizes different roles and outcomes observed during innate and adaptive response Represents a rapid guide to cytokines in health and disease in tissue and organ context Presents a different view on how known mediators may work if analyzed in a different perspective, determining the final outcome on tissue-specific target cells

Differentiation Tissue Adaptation and Function of Memory T Cells

Differentiation  Tissue Adaptation and Function of Memory T Cells Book
Author : Weiguo Cui,Carmen Gerlach,Klaas Van Gisbergen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-06-16
ISBN : 2889637956
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Upon antigen encounter, naïve T cells differentiate into (i) effectors that combat infected or malignant cells, and at later time points, into (ii) memory cells that provide long-lasting immunity. This differentiation process allows some T cells to leave the confines of secondary lymphoid organs and to enter peripheral tissues in search of pathogens or tumor cells. These different environments pose specific challenges for effector and memory T cells to maintain homeostasis. T cells directed into the lungs are likely to encounter higher levels of oxygen, but lower amounts of nutrients than those directed into the intestinal epithelium. In addition to oxygen tension and nutrient concentrations, other key factors, such as the commensal flora and stromal components, create unique conditions that require tissue-specific adaptations of T cells. These steady state conditions can dramatically change during infection when inflammatory mediators and T cell growth factors are released, requiring the immediate response of T cells. The gradual changes imposed by growing tumors can also be challenging for T cells due to competition with rapidly cycling tumor cells that deplete essential resources of oxygen and glucose. The strategies that T cells employ to respond to the diverse cues from their surroundings are the focus of current research. It appears that next to circulating memory T cells that are confined to the circulation and those that survey all of the peripheral tissues, dedicated populations of resident memory T cells exist that can optimally adapt to the local circumstances within each tissue. Restrictions on the metabolic requirements of T cells residing in tumor tissue have been found to directly impact on effector functions such as cytokine production. The fundamental principles of how the machinery of T cells can translate local cues into tissue-specific differentiation processes are fascinating and warrant further investigation.

CD4 Effector T Cell Interactions with the Extracellular Matrix at Sites of Inflammation

CD4  Effector T Cell Interactions with the Extracellular Matrix at Sites of Inflammation Book
Author : Ninoshka Rochelle Judith Fernandes
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"CD4+ T helper cells are an important part of the adaptive immune response that is responsible for clearing pathogens, fighting infections, and eradicating tumors. In order to locate foci of infection or tissue damage, CD4+ T cells need to navigate through inflamed tissues. Their interstitial motility is important for normal tissue surveillance, interaction with APCs and exertion of their effector functions, such as the production of cytokines. Dysregulated T cell accumulation and function often result in excessive tissue damage. Drugs currently in the clinic often target trafficking of T cells into tissues, but these agents lead to global immune suppression and can often have adverse side-effects and increase susceptibility to other infections. Hence, more specific therapeutics are needed to alleviate T-cell mediated diseases. There is very little known about the mechanisms that drive T cell interstitial migration at sites of inflammation. It is thought that the ECM can provide physical and biochemical guidance cues that may dictate the mode of motility utilized by T cells to migrate through inflamed tissues. Here we have demonstrated that different types of inflammation, specifically CFA and ALUM, induce different changes in the ECM. We have found that physical cues, such as tissue architecture, density, and stiffness, of the ECM significantly differ between the two inflammatory environments. These mechanical differences in the ECM might contribute to the integrin-dependent mode of motility in the CFA-inflamed dermis versus the integrin-independent mode of migration in the ALUMinflamed dermis utilized by CD4+ effector Th1 cells. Understanding the interaction between T cells and their environment might help provide mechanistic insight to design better therapeutic strategies to regulate T cell function at sites of tissue damage. CD4+ effector Th1 and Th2 cells utilize [alpha]v[beta]3 integrins and RGD-containing ligands for their migration in the CFA-inflamed dermis. We have manipulated the level of [alpha]v[beta]3 integrin expression on T cells and found that these changes impacted T cell tissue scanning behavior and the scope of tissue that they explored. This indicates that altering T cell internal programming may regulate T cell migratory behavior at sites of inflammation. We have also shown that fibronectin is upregulated with inflammation in both inflamed environments. In Chapter 4, we investigated whether blocking fibronectin matrix assembly impacts T cell migration and function. Using a peptide called pUR4 that is known to block fibronectin deposition, we demonstrated that T cell migration is drastically reduced with pUR4 treatment in the CFA-inflamed dermis. Unexpectedly, and contrary to published works, we found a striking accumulation of T cells with an exacerbated level of IFN? production in the pUR4-treated CFA-inflamed dermis. Interestingly, we revealed a local decrease in fibronectin expression within the CFA-inflamed skin at the site of pUR4 injection. Whether limited ligand availability or pUR4-induced conformational changes in fibronectin impacted T cell interstitial motility still needs to be determined. Overall, our studies have highlighted that while fibronectin blockade mediated by pUR4 has been an effective therapeutic in models of fibrosis, it could cause serious damage in other T-cell mediated diseases but may be beneficial in augmenting immune responses in tumors"--Pages xii-xiii.

Patterns of cytokine gene expression in lymphoid tissues of normal and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV infected rhesus macaques

Patterns of cytokine gene expression in lymphoid tissues of normal and simian immunodeficiency virus  SIV  infected rhesus macaques Book
Author : Michelle Alegria-Hartman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Patterns of cytokine gene expression in lymphoid tissues of normal and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV infected rhesus macaques book written by Michelle Alegria-Hartman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease

The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease Book
Author : William C. Gause,David Artis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-08
ISBN : 1493929119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The type 2 immune response that develops during infectious disease has undergone major paradigm shifts in the last several years as new cell types and pathways have been identified. It is now clear that the type 2 immune response, characterized by elevations in specific cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, is associated with helminth infections in both humans and mice. This response is complex and includes effector functions that mediate resistance, contributing to expulsion and in some cases destruction, of the parasite. But just as importantly, the type 2 immune response can also mediate tolerance mechanisms, which can mitigate tissue injury as these large multicellular parasites transit through vital organs. The tolerance mechanisms include both tissue repair and immune regulatory effects. These latter aspects of the helminth-induced type 2 immune response are increasingly recognized as a potential resource that can be mined for the development of novel immunotherapies that may enhance wound healing, control of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In this book, leading researchers in this exciting and dynamic field discuss the latest findings and emerging concepts, providing an intellectual framework that can be used as a basis for new discoveries and potentially new treatments for diseases associated with inflammation.

Mucosal associated Invariant T MAIT Cell Contributions to Mucosal Immunity

Mucosal associated Invariant T  MAIT  Cell Contributions to Mucosal Immunity Book
Author : Chloe Knights Slichter
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a semi-invariant T cell subset that are located in blood, liver and mucosal tissues. When activated MAIT cells display potent effector functions including secretion of secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-[gamma] (IFN[gamma]) and tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]) and lysis of bacterially-infected cells through granzyme B. MAIT cells recognize bacterial-derived metabolites, from commensal and pathogenic bacteria, via their semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) in the context of the MHC class I related molecule MR1. How MAIT cells distinguish between commensal and pathogenic bacteria is unknown. MAIT cell frequency and function is decreased in the blood in the chronic phase of HIV, HCV, and tuberculosis infection and during these infections MAIT cells express inhibitory receptors. Whether MAIT cells are activated during the acute stage of infection and how MAIT cell responses are turned off is unclear. Here, we address basic questions regarding MAIT cell activation and function during inflammatory disease states: 1) how MAIT cells distinguish between pathogenic and commensal antigen, 2) MAIT functional responses during acute viral infection and 3) how the MAIT cell response is turned off. We demonstrate that a TCR signal alone is not sufficient for sustained MAIT cell effector function, but rather a TCR + cytokine signal is necessary for MAIT cell activation. We propose that this unique control of effector function allows MAIT cells to respond to the same TCR signal (commensal or pathogen derived) in a dichotomous and situation-specific manner. Using an SIV model of infection, we demonstrate that MAIT cells at mucosal sites undergo rapid activation, and acquire effector functions such as expression of tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]) and granzyme B. In contrast, MAIT cells in the periphery display an early loss of cytokines important for barrier immunity, such as IL-17 and IL-22. These data suggest that MAIT cells become activated early in the mucosa after infection and may play an important role in mucosal homeostasis. Lastly, we interrogate MAIT cell function and transcriptional profiles in inflamed mucosal tissue to address how the MAIT cell response is turned off. We find distinct patterns of inhibitory transcripts by MAIT cells within the inflamed mucosa, including high expression of the inhibitory receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and that cytokine signals alone are sufficient for expression of CTLA-4. Together, our data highlight MAIT cells as important effector cells located at the site of pathogen entry, and begin to elucidate the mechanisms of MAIT cell regulation during inflammatory disease states.

The Journal of Immunology

The Journal of Immunology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008-12
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Journal of Immunology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Generation and Effector Functions of Regulatory Lymphocytes

Generation and Effector Functions of Regulatory Lymphocytes Book
Author : Gregory R. Bock,Jamie A. Goode
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2004-01-19
ISBN : 047087161X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last several years, immunologists have re-discovered the importance of regulatory lymphocytes, formerly termed 'suppressor cells'. Many recent reports have documented their existence, effector functions and potential therapeutic benefits in autoimmunity and transplantation. However, even though modern techniques have allowed us to get a much more detailed picture of these cells, they are still highly controversial. Several unresolved issues responsible for this dilemma are discussed in this book: it is difficult to grow and clone such cells, their phenotypes and effector functions are diverse and can sometimes easily be lost, and it is not well understood how they interact with antigen-presenting cells. This book contains contributions from leading investigators from around the world, including lively discussion of the current state of the art in studies of regulatory lymphocytes. Topics featured are the physiological control of autoimmunity, the role of antigen-specific cells in various diseases and disease models and effector mechanisms. Therapeutic applications are considered, particularly for type 1 diabetes, tissue transplantation and the control of viral infection. This important and groundbreaking book should be of interest to all immunologists. Related Novartis Foundation symposia: 254 Immunoinformatics: bioinformatic strategies for better understanding of immune function Chair: Hans-Georg Rammensee 256 Cancer and inflammation Chair: Siamon Gordon

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-04-27
ISBN : 0080921523
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology provides the largest integrated source of immunological knowledge currently available. It consists of broad ranging, validated summaries on all of the major topics in the field as written by a team of leading experts. The large number of topics covered is relevant to a wide range of scientists working on experimental and clinical immunology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, veterinary science, physiology, and hematology. The book is built in thematic sections that allow readers to rapidly navigate around related content. Specific sections focus on basic, applied, and clinical immunology. The structure of each section helps readers from a range of backgrounds gain important understanding of the subject. Contains tables, pictures, and multimedia features that enhance the learning process In-depth coverage allows readers from a range of backgrounds to benefit from the material Provides handy cross-referencing between articles to improve readability, including easy access from portable devices

Cellular and Molecular Immunology E Book

Cellular and Molecular Immunology E Book Book
Author : Abul K. Abbas,Andrew H. Lichtman,Shiv Pillai
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-03-10
ISBN : 0323523234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The top required and recommended immunology text worldwide, Cellular and Molecular Immunology by Drs. Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, and Shiv Pillai, is a clear, well-written, and superbly illustrated introduction to the field. The 9th Edition retains a practical, clinical focus while updating and revising all content to ensure clarity and comprehension, bringing readers fully up to date with new and emerging information in this challenging area. Highlights the implications of immunologic science for the management of human disease, emphasizing clinical relevance throughout. Provides a highly visual, full-color description of the key immunologic and molecular processes with a fully updated, comprehensive, and consistent art program. Helps readers grasp the details of experimental observations that form the basis for the science of immunology at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels and draw the appropriate conclusions. Includes summary boxes that assist with rapid review and mastery of key material. Features updates from cover to cover, including tumor immunity (tumor antigens, cancer immunotherapy), immune checkpoints, cytosolic sensors for DNA, non-canonical inflammasomes, prionization as a signaling mechanism, monogenic defects in immunity, and more.

Continued Learning of Tissue specific Immunity from the Immuno Pathological Spectrum of Leprosy

Continued Learning of Tissue specific Immunity from the Immuno Pathological Spectrum of Leprosy Book
Author : Pranab Kumar Das,Vânia Nieto Brito De Souza,Annemieke Geluk
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-17
ISBN : 2889634205
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded debilitating diseases affecting mankind, the immunopathology of which is characterized by fluctuating granulomatous inflammation that targets mainly skin and peripheral nerve. The disease is caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae, a slow growing obligatory intracellular and non-cultivatable organism. The disease is manifested with diverse pathology due to varied immune (both innate and adaptive) responses of the hosts as a result of cognate interaction with the organism. Of note, leprosy can be regarded as a unique model to elucidate the complexity of host immunity at both skin and systemic levels.

T Cell Differentiation and Function in Tissue Inflammation

T Cell Differentiation and Function in Tissue Inflammation Book
Author : Amit Awasthi,Ritobrata Goswami
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-03-11
ISBN : 2889636143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download T Cell Differentiation and Function in Tissue Inflammation book written by Amit Awasthi,Ritobrata Goswami, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The IL 17 Cytokine Family in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease

The IL 17 Cytokine Family in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease Book
Author : Nicola Ivan Lorè,Kong Chen,Katarzyna Bulek
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-04-05
ISBN : 288966662X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The IL 17 Cytokine Family in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease book written by Nicola Ivan Lorè,Kong Chen,Katarzyna Bulek, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Secretion of Cytokines and Chemokines by Innate Immune Cells

Secretion of Cytokines and Chemokines by Innate Immune Cells Book
Author : Paige Lacy
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-05-19
ISBN : 2889195503
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The release of cytokines, chemokines, and other immune-modulating mediators released from innate immune cells, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, and epithelial cells, is an important event in immunity. Cytokine synthesis and transportation occurs through the canonical protein trafficking pathway associated with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. How cytokines are released upon their exit from the trans-Golgi network varies enormously between cell types, and in many cells this has not yet been characterized. This issue delves into the plethora of cytokines released by innate immune cells, and where possible, shines light on specific mechanisms that regulate trafficking and release of Golgi-derived vesicles. Each cell type also shows varying degrees of dependency on microtubule organization and actin cytoskeleton remodeling for cytokine secretion. Understanding the mechanisms of cytokine secretion will reveal the inner workings of individual innate immune cell types, and allow identification of critical regulatory steps in cytokine release.

Cellular and Molecular Immunology Updated Edition

Cellular and Molecular Immunology  Updated Edition Book
Author : Abul K. Abbas,Andrew H. H. Lichtman,Shiv Pillai
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 1994-05-03
ISBN : 1437718965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular and Molecular Immunology, by Abul K. Abbas, MBBS, Andrew H. Lichtman, MD, PhD and Shiv Pillai, MD, offers an exceptionally lucid guide to the latest immunology concepts! Readers worldwide have appreciated the book's in-depth yet straightforward, richly illustrated approach to this complex subject. Now, sweeping updates incorporate the latest discoveries about innate immunity, the organization of lymphoid organs, and many other cutting-edge topics. Plus, online access via Student Consult makes this an even more powerful learning resource! Clearly explains the experimental observations that form the basis for the science of immunology at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism levels-and the conclusions that can be drawn from those observations. Highlights the implications of immunologic science for the management of human disease, emphasizing the clinical relevance of the material. Offers access to the complete contents of the book online at www.studentconsult.com to help students prepare for coursework and exams. Innate immunity chapter has been increased and moved to the beginning of the book to reflect how this area is newly recognized as a critical part of immunology. New material has been added on: recognition of microbial products by cytoplasmic and membrane sensors intricate organization of lymphoid tissues functional heterogeneity of subsets of dendritic cells and lymphocytes roles of regulatory cells and inhibitory pathways in immune regulation. Provides a wealth of excellent full-color photographs and illustrations that enable you to visualize immunologic processes quickly. Includes highlighted "take-home messages" that make it easy to review key information. Features instructor resources such including an Image Collection and new 250 question Test Bank on Evolve

Cytokines

Cytokines Book
Author : Victor R. Preedy,Ross Hunter
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2011-06-24
ISBN : 1439876207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines are a group of peptides secreted by cells of the immune system such as macrophages, lymphocytes, and T cells. They can be divided into functional families and have-wide ranging impacts that affect cells and molecular pathways to the whole individual. Written by distinguished scholars and experts, this book is a holistic reference to enable scientists and doctors to understand cytokines in specific or broad detail. The book is divided into sections that cover general and cellular aspects, lifestyle factors, immunology and infections, cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and organs and tissue systems.

Nijkamp and Parnham s Principles of Immunopharmacology

Nijkamp and Parnham s Principles of Immunopharmacology Book
Author : Michael J. Parnham,Frans P. Nijkamp,Adriano G. Rossi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-11
ISBN : 3030108112
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Principles of Immunopharmacology provides a unique source of essential knowledge on the immune response, its diagnosis and its modification by drugs and chemicals. The 4th edition of this internationally recognized textbook has been revised to include recent developments, but continues the established format, dealing with four related fields in a single volume, thus obviating the need to refer to several different textbooks. The first section of the book, providing a basic introduction to immunology and its relevance for human disease, has been updated to accommodate new immunological concepts, particularly the role of epigenetics and the latest understanding of cancer immunology. The second section on immunodiagnostics offers a topical description of widely used molecular techniques and a new chapter on imaging techniques. This is followed by a systematic coverage of drugs affecting the immune system, including natural products. This third section contains 15 updated chapters, covering classical immunopharmacological topics such as anti-asthmatic, anti-rheumatic and immunosuppressive drugs, but also deals with antibiotics, plant-derived and dietary agents, with new chapters on monoclonal antibodies, immunotherapy in sepsis and infection, drugs for soft-tissue autoimmunity and cell therapy. The book concludes with a chapter on immunotoxicology and drug safety tests. Aids to the reader include a two-column format, glossaries of technical terms and appendix reference tables. The emphasis on illustrations is maintained from the first three editions. The book is a valuable single reference for undergraduate and graduate medical and biomedical students, postgraduate chemistry and pharmacy students, researchers in chemistry, biochemistry and the pharmaceutical industry and researchers lacking basic immunological knowledge, who want to understand the actions of drugs on the immune system.

Clinical Neuroimmunology

Clinical Neuroimmunology Book
Author : Jack P. Antel
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0198510683
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides broad and comprehensive coverage of the interaction between the nervous and immune systems in both normal and diseased states. Understanding this interaction is fundamental to developing therapeutic approaches to disease and injury of the nervous system that are currently only marginally amenable to therapy. Neuroimmunology is a well-recognised and growing specialty world wide, both at the basic science and clinical level. Chapters are dedicated to the role of the immune system in disorders affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems, including important neurodegenerative diseases (such as multiple sclerosis and HIV-related neural degeneration) which cause life-long disability. Extensive coverage is given to a whole array of immune-directed therapies.

Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Tissue Engineering book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.