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Crystallization and Crystallizers

Crystallization and Crystallizers Book
Author : Jean-Paul Duroudier
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-12-01
ISBN : 0081017758
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization and Crystallizers, part of the Industrial Equipment for Chemical Engineering set, defines how to perform the selection and calculation of equipment needed in the basic operations of process engineering, offering reliable and simple methods, with this volume providing a comprehensive focus on crystallization and crystallizers. Throughout these concise and easy-to-use books, the author uses his vast practical experience and precision knowledge of global research to present an in-depth study of a variety of aspects within the field of chemical engineering. The formation of crystals (or nucleation) is studied in its theoretical and practical details The author also provides methods needed for understanding the equipment used in applied thermodynamics The chapters are complemented with appendices which provide additional information as well as any associated references

Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control

Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control Book
Author : Angelo Chianese,Herman J. Kramer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-04-06
ISBN : 3527645179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization is an important technique for separation and purification of substances as well as for product design in chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological process industries. This ready reference and handbook draws on research work and industrial practice of a large group of experts in the various areas of industrial crystallization processes, capturing the essence of current trends, the markets, design tools and technologies in this key field. Along the way, it outlines trouble free production, provides laboratory controls, analyses case studies and discusses new challenges. First the instrumentation and techniques used to measure the crystal size distribution, the nucleation and solubility points, and the chemical composition of the solid and liquid phase are outlined. Then the main techniques adopted to control industrial crystallizers, starting from fundamental approaches to the most advanced ones, including the multivariable predictive control are described. An overview of the main crystallizer types is given with details of the main control schemes adopted in industry as well as the more suitable sensors and actuators.

Design of Crystallizers

Design of Crystallizers Book
Author : Jaroslav Nyvlt
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1992-08-11
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Design of Crystallizers provides a survey of design methods for specific types of crystallizers. The book begins by presenting a simplified description of the kinetics of crystallization, which includes the basic rules for modellng and design of crystallizers. The remainder of the book is dedicated to providing design methods illustrated by practical examples. These design methods have been verified in the laboratory, pilot plant, and in some cases, production scale. Crystallizers discussed include agitated crystallizers, chamber crystallizers, classifying crystallizers, and others. Design of Crystallizers will be a tremendous asset to all engineers and scientists working in the field of industrial crystallization.

Industrial Crystallization

Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : Narayan S. Tavare
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 1489902333
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Incorporating all recent developments and applications of crystallization technology, this volume offers a clear account of the field's underlying principles, reviews of past and current research, and provides guidelines for equipment and process design. The book takes a balanced functional approach in its critical survey of research literature, and includes several problems based on real practical situations that illustrate theoretical development. Several new concepts and techniques used in process simulation and identification analysis are featured.

Crystallization Process Systems

Crystallization Process Systems Book
Author : Alan G. Jones
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0750655208
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization Process Systems gives a clear, concise, balanced and up to date presentation of crystallization and solid-liquid separation of the crystalline product. The information is presented in a coherent, concise and logical sequence based on the fundamentals of particulate crystallization processes as systems. By emphasising the analysis, design and operation of particulate crystallization processes as systems, the reader will be able to make a better judgement about the best, cheapest and most effective production method to use. Crystallization Process Systems gives a wider view and an overview of the subject of crystallization as a whole. It provides an ideal lead-in to more specialized works such as Crystallization and Solid-Liquid Separation - also published by BH. Presents a coherent, concise and logical sequence based on the fundamentals of particulate crystallization processes as systemsEmphasis on the design and optimization of the crystallization processing system

Industrial Crystallization

Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : J. Mullin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461572584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Industrial Crystallization Symposia have been organized by the Crystallization Research Group at the Czechoslovak Research Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Usti nad Labem, since 1960. Over the years, the increasing popularity of the unit operation of crystallization has been clearly demonstrated by the steady increase in numbers of both the papers presented and the attendances at the meetings. The 6th Symposium (1-3 September 1975) was organized jointly with the European Federation of Chemical Engineering Working Party on Crystallization, and the 44 papers presented were arranged into four sessions - A: Secondary Nucleation, B: Crystal Growth Kinetics, C: Crystal Habit Modification, D: Crystallizer Design, E: Indus trial Crystallizer Operation and Case Studies. The same groupings are preserved in this edited version of the proceedings. This is the first time that the Industrial Crystallization Symposium papers have appeared in one volume. After the 5th (1972) Symposium, authors we.re encouraged to submit their papers to an international journal specializing in crystallization. However, the results were not altogether satisfactory in that less than one third of the papers presented at the meeting were offered for consideration. This time, therefore, the organizing committee decided to attempt to keep the papers together by making arrangements for their pUblication by Plenum Press.

Crystallization Technology Handbook

Crystallization Technology Handbook Book
Author : A. Mersmann
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-05-08
ISBN : 0824745116
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This handbook seeks to facilitate the selection, design and operation of large-scale industrial crystallizers that process crystals with the proper size distribution, shape and purity sought. This second edition offers results on direct-contact cooling crystallization.

Industrial Crystallization

Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : Alison Lewis,Marcelo Seckler,Herman Kramer,Gerda van Rosmalen
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-07-02
ISBN : 1107052157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive overview of industrial crystallization, its theory and practice, including recent advances, real world case studies, and worked examples.

Study of Nucleation Mechanisms and Rational Design of Small scale Continuous Crystallizers

Study of Nucleation Mechanisms and Rational Design of Small scale Continuous Crystallizers Book
Author : Yuqing Cui (Ph. D.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization is a separation process widely used in several important industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals, where crystallization serves as the final step of purification and isolation. Crystallization is a two-step process: nucleation (birth of crystals) and crystal growth. Nucleation can occur via several mechanisms, and the most industrially relevant ones are heterogeneous nucleation (nucleation on a foreign surface), and contact secondary nucleation (nucleation from an existing crystal due to a contact force). Despite the importance of the nucleation process and decades of research, nucleation mechanisms remain enigmatic. This thesis advanced the understanding of the mechanisms of two types of nucleation: contact secondary nucleation, and contact-induced heterogeneous nucleation. By taking advantage of the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of glycine system, it is concluded that contact secondary nuclei could originate from both the semi-ordered solute molecules at the interface layer on the surface of existing crystals and directly from parent crystals themselves via the mechanism of micro-attrition depending on the magnitude of the contact force. The contact experiments on functionalized gold plates further confirmed that micro-attrition is not the exclusive mechanism for contact secondary nucleation-contact can induce nucleation even in the presence of only appropriate functional groups. For contact-induced heterogeneous nucleation, by relating nucleation frequency and polymorph with the strength and type of interactions between solute molecules and the templates, it is concluded that contact-induced heterogeneous nucleation share similarities with undisturbed heterogeneous nucleation in terms of attracting and stabilizing pre-nucleation clusters, but they are also fundamentally different in that crystals generated by the former are not chemically interacting with the templates. This thesis also describes the rational design of two small-scale continuous crystallizers, which are taking on increasingly important roles in the next-generation pharmaceutical manufacturing. The first design is a tubular crystallizer that generates crystals of narrow sizes through contact secondary nucleation. The second design is a multi-stage mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) system with a small footprint that works robustly at suspension handling. When optimizing this design with antisolvent crystallization, it was discovered that crystallization kinetic parameters are affected by antisolvent composition independent from supersaturation levels. This thesis highlights, for the first time, that optimizing continuous antisolvent crystallization in MSMPR crystallizers must take into account the effects of antisolvent composition on crystallization kinetics.

Crystallization

Crystallization Book
Author : Wolfgang Beckmann
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-01-14
ISBN : 3527650342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization is a natural occurring process but also a process abundantly used in the industry. Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). Crystals distinguish themself from liquids, gases and amorphous substances by the long-range order of its building blocks that entail the crystals to be formed of well-defined faces, and give rise to a large number of properties of the solid. Crystallization is used at some stage in nearly all process industries as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. Crystallization is practiced on all scales: from the isolation of the first milligrams of a newly synthesized substance in the research laboratory to isolating products on the mulit-million tonne scale in industry. The book describes the breadth of crystallization operations, from isolation from a reaction broth to purification and finally to tailoring product properties. In the first section of the book, the basic mechanisms - nucleation, growth, attrition and agglomeration are introduced. It ensures an understanding of supersaturation, the driving force of crystallization. Furthermore, the solubility of the substance and its dependences on process conditions and the various techniques of crystallization and their possibilities and limitations are discussed. Last but not least, the first part includes an intensive treatment of polymorphism . The second part builds on the basics, exploring how crystallization processes can be developed, either batch-wise or continuous, from solution or from the melt. A discussion of the purification during crystallization serves as a link between the two sections, where practical aspects and an insight using theoretical concepts are combined. Mixing and its influence on the crystallization as well as the mutual interference of down-stream processes with the crystallization are also treated. Finally, techniques to characterize the crop are discussed. The third part of the book is dedicated to accounts of actual developments and of carried-out crystallizations. Typical pitfalls and strategies to avoid these as well as the design of robust processes are presented.

Industrial Crystallization

Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : S.J. Jancic,P.A.M. Grootscholten
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1984-05-31
ISBN : 9789027717719
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Industrial Crystallization book written by S.J. Jancic,P.A.M. Grootscholten, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

From Molecules to Crystallizers

From Molecules to Crystallizers Book
Author : R. Davey,John Garside
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780198504894
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work examines crystallisation, one of the oldest separation processes used in the chemical industry and still one of the most important.

Pharmaceutical Crystallization Design Using Micromixers Multiphase Flow and Controlled Dynamic Operations

Pharmaceutical Crystallization Design Using Micromixers  Multiphase Flow  and Controlled Dynamic Operations Book
Author : Mo Jiang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crystallization is a key unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. Control of crystallization processes can be challenging when undesirable phenomena such as particle attrition and breakage occur. This thesis describes the controlled crystallization of pharmaceuticals and amino acids for more efficient manufacturing processes and better efficacy of products. Crystallization equipment is designed so that (1) the undesirable phenomena do not occur at all, and/or (2) the phenomena that do occur are carefully controlled. One key strategy is to exploit dual-impinging jets and multiphase flow to decouple nucleation and growth so that they can be individually controlled. Various configurations of micromixers were designed to provide controlled nucleation. Based on the dual-impinging-jet (DIJ) configuration, a physical explanation was provided for the discovery that a cooling micromixer can generate small crystals of uniform size and shape. An alternative design replaces the micromixing with the application of ultrasonication to decouple nucleation and flow rates. Based on these nucleation methods, a novel continuous crystallizer is designed where the slurry flow is combined with an air flow to induce a multiphase hydrodynamic instability that spontaneously generates slugs where the crystals continue to grow. These slugs are well-mixed without having the mixing blades in traditional crystallizer designs that induce undesirable uncontrolled crystallization phenomena. Another key strategy is to increase the degrees of freedom in the dynamic operation of the crystallizers. In the slug-flow continuous crystallizer, extra degrees of freedom for control of the crystal growth are created by spatially varying the temperature profile along the tube. In a semi-continuous crystallizer configuration, continuous seeding using a DIJ mixer is combined with growth rate control in a stirred tank to experimentally demonstrate the manufacture of uniform-sized crystals. In addition, temperature-cycling experiments are designed in batch crystallizers to substantially change crystal shape with only a small number of cycles. Experimental validation confirms that the proposed crystallizer designs reduce production time and equipment cost by orders of magnitude while suppressing secondary nucleation, attrition, and aggregation/agglomeration-dominant but undesired phenomena that worsen the ability to control the properties of crystals produced by most existing crystallizer designs.

Advances in Industrial Crystallization

Advances in Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : J. Garside,R. Davey,A. G. Jones
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A treatment of crystallization as a separation and purification technique in the chemical industry, reflecting its application to new metallic, ceramic, and polymer materials; fine and specialty chemicals; and medical, biochemical, and biotechnological products. The 15 papers, from a meeting of unspecified date and location, discuss precipitation and nucleation, crystallization kinetics, habit modification, and crystallizer design and operation. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Crystallization of Organic Compounds

Crystallization of Organic Compounds Book
Author : Hsien-Hsin Tung,Edward L. Paul,Michael Midler,James A. McCauley
Publisher : Wiley-AIChE
Release : 2009-06-17
ISBN : 0470447788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Filled with industrial examples emphasizing the practical applications of crystallization methodologies Based on the authors' hands-on experiences as process engineers at Merck, Crystallization of Organic Compounds guides readers through the practical aspects of crystallization. It uses plenty of case studies and examples of crystallization processes, ranging from development through manufacturing scale-up. The book not only emphasizes strategies that have been proven successful, it also helps readers avoid common pitfalls that can render standard procedures unsuccessful. The goal of this text is twofold: Build a deeper understanding of the fundamental properties of crystallization as well as the impact of these properties on crystallization process development. Improve readers' problem-solving abilities by using actual industrial examples with real process constraints. Crystallization of Organic Compounds begins with detailed discussions of fundamental thermodynamic properties, nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, process dynamics, and scale-up considerations. Next, it investigates modes of operation, including cooling, evaporation, anti-solvent, and reactive crystallization. The authors conclude with special applications such as ultrasound in crystallization and computational fluid dynamics in crystallization. Most chapters feature multiple examples that guide readers step by step through the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). With its focus on industrial applications, this book is recommended for chemical engineers and chemists who are involved with the development, scale-up, or operation of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries.

LITERATURE SURVEY FOR FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY

LITERATURE SURVEY FOR FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The literature survey for the fractional crystallization study of material from tank 241-S-112 is completed, fulfilling the requirements of the Test Plan for Tank 241-S-112 Fractional Crystallization Study (Herting 2003). Crystallization involves the formation of one or more solid phases from a fluid phase or an amorphous solid phase. It is applied extensively in the chemical industry, both as a purification process and a separation process. The main advantage of crystallization over distillation is the production of substances with a very high purity, at a low level of energy consumption, and at relatively mild process conditions. Crystallization is one of the older operations in the chemical industry; therefore, practical experience can usually be used for the design and operation of industrial crystallizers. In addition, advances in the understanding of crystallization kinetics can be useful in the control, design, and scale-up of industrial crystallizers. Research work is currently underway; e.g., the CrysCODE (Crystallizer Control & Design) project, littu://www.aui.tudelft.nl/uroiect/Cn/scode/crvscode.htm, at the Delft University of Technology, with the goal of improving the performance and controllability of industrial crystallizers by means of better control and improved design methodologies. Recent developments in fluid dynamics and reactor technology (e.g., compartment approaches) have led to a better understanding of processes and scale-up phenomena. The ultimate aim of such research is to develop a knowledge-based design frame for optimization of industrial crystallization units. Development work is in progress on a rigorous design analysis model for the description of the crystallization process as a function of the reactor geometry, crystallization kinetics, and operating conditions. One modeling effort is aimed at improving the predictive crystallizer model by implementing a population balance equation that depends on two variables: the size and strain of the crystal. Both the crystal size and the strain in the crystal lattice have a pronounced effect on the growth rate of the individual crystals (Menon 2003). This report is organized into six sections. Section 1 summarizes reports on the design principles for separations by crystallization. Section 2 discusses the fractional crystallization in the NaNO3-CH3COONa-H2O system presented in RPP-18541, ''Test Plan for Tank 241-S-112 Fractional crystallization Study, '' dated 2003. Section 3 summarizes reports on crystallization in the Na2CO3-Na2SO4-H2O system, which includes the effects of the burkeite double salt (Na2CO3 · 2Na2SO4). Section 4 summarizes solubility data for sodium compounds and presents two miscellaneous topics. Section 5 is excerpted from the internet to show applications of thermodynamic calculations. Section 5.1 compares results and calculations for the NaNO3-Na2SO4-H2O system, and Section 5.2 shows the use of the calculations to optimize flowsheets. Flowsheets are given for two examples: (1) the production of KNO3 from NaNO3 and KCl (including the effects of having Na2SO4 in the initial material) and (2) the production of K2SO4 and NaCl from Na2SO4 and KCl. Section 6 is excerpted from the internet to show some examples of the information available on crystallizers.

Polymer Crystallization

Polymer Crystallization Book
Author : Günter Reiter,Jens-Uwe Sommer
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-12-09
ISBN : 9783642079337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The classical view on polymer crystallization basically focused on the expla- tion of a few macroscopically observable parameters like the thickness of the resulting lamellar structure and the corresponding growth rates. However, the emerging paradigm for the description of chain crystals is too simple and cannot account for the complex non-equilibrium processes responsible for structure f- mation on various levels, ranging from the nanometer up to the millimeter scale. This complexity detected by several novel experimental results led to a renewed interest in this ”old” topic of polymer crystallization. These new ?ndings c- cern the early stages of the crystallization process, crystal formation in con?ned geometries like ultra-thin ?lms and the competition between (micro)phase s- aration and crystallization in copolymers and blends. In particular, high spatial resolution techniques such as atomic force microscopy provided deeper insight into the molecular organization of crystallizable polymers. Computer simu- tions based on microscopic processes were used to improve our understanding of how polymer crystals are nucleated and how they grow. New ideas emerged about possible multistage pathways which are followed during the formation of polymer lamellae. The importance and the consequences of the non-equilibrium character of polymer crystals got signi?cantly more attention. Links and ana- gies to growth phenomena and pattern formation in general are being developed. However, these ideas are still subject of intensive and controversial discussions.

Industrial Crystallization

Industrial Crystallization Book
Author : A. W. Bamforth
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Industrial Crystallization book written by A. W. Bamforth, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Kinetics of Milk Fat Crystallization in a Continuous Crystallizer

Kinetics of Milk Fat Crystallization in a Continuous Crystallizer Book
Author : Adil Basuki Ahza
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Kinetics of Milk Fat Crystallization in a Continuous Crystallizer book written by Adil Basuki Ahza, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sugar

Sugar Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1955
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sugar book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.