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CRISPR and RNAi Systems

CRISPR and RNAi Systems Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam,Ki-Taek Lim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-02-27
ISBN : 0128219114
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are vulnerable to pathogens including fungi, bacteria, and viruses, which cause critical problems and deficits. Crop protection by plant breeding delivers a promising solution with no obvious effect on human health or the local ecosystem. Crop improvement has been the most powerful approach for producing unique crop cultivars since domestication occurred, making possible the main innovations in feeding the globe and community development. Genome editing is one of the genetic devices that can be implemented, and disease resistance is frequently cited as the most encouraging application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in agriculture. Nanobiotechnology has harnessed the power of genome editing to develop agricultural crops. Nanosized DNA or RNA nanotechnology approaches could contribute to raising the stability and performance of CRISPR guide RNAs. This book brings together the latest research in these areas. CRISPR and RNAi Systems: Nanobiotechnology Approaches to Plant Breeding and Protection presents a complete understanding of the RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 techniques for controlling mycotoxins, fighting plant nematodes, and detecting plant pathogens. CRISPR/Cas genome editing enables efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used for management of plant insects, and various plant pathogens. The book is an important reference source for both plant scientists and environmental scientists who want to understand how nano biotechnologically based approaches are being used to create more efficient plant protection and plant breeding systems. Shows how nanotechnology is being used as the basis for new solutions for more efficient plant breeding and plant protection Outlines the major techniques and applications of both CRISPR and RNAi technologies Assesses the major challenges of escalating these technologies on a mass scale

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Igor Kovalchuk,Olga Kovalchuk
Publisher : FT Press
Release : 2012-05-22
ISBN : 0132599511
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

Bacteriophages

Bacteriophages Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-05-09
ISBN : 0123948371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume, the first of a two-part series, covers topics including historical, ecological and evolutionary considerations, genomics and molecular biology, and interaction of phages with their hosts. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry

Bioscience  Biotechnology  and Biochemistry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Tomato Class II Glutaredoxin Mutants Generated Via Multiplex CRISPR Cas9 Genome Editing Technology are Susceptible to Multiple Abiotic Stresses

Tomato Class II Glutaredoxin Mutants Generated Via Multiplex CRISPR Cas9 Genome Editing Technology are Susceptible to Multiple Abiotic Stresses Book
Author : Tayebeh Kakeshpour
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene silencing technologies such as clustered regulatory short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 and RNA interference (RNAi) created a revolution in genome engineering. They are highly site-specific, simple, fast, and cost-effective. Since their discovery, gene silencing technologies have extensively been implemented in various organisms including humans, animals, plants, and microbes. They have been used for both basic science studies such as gene functional analysis and applied science such as medicine and crop improvement. In this work, we used multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out all four members of the class II glutaredoxin (GRX) gene family including S14, S15, S16 and S17 in tomato and RNAi technology to express mouse complement 3 (C3) and complement factor 7 (CF7) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in lettuce. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced under abiotic and biotic stresses and also as byproducts of aerobic metabolism, and their overproduction causes oxidative damage to macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. GRXs are small ubiquitous proteins that are known to be involved in cellular redox homeostasis by reducing disulfate bonds and scavenging ROS. To investigate the functions of each member of class II GRX gene family in tomato's response to abiotic stresses, single and multiple knockout lines for class II GRXs were obtained using multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system. Mutant lines and wild-type plants were subjected to heat, drought, chilling, cadmium (Cd) toxicity, and short photoperiod stresses. Phenotyping data showed that members of the class II GRX gene family are critical for tomato's growth, development, and survival under several abiotic stresses. Our findings propose novel functions for members of class II SlGRXs. RNAi technology can be utilized to target disease-related proteins. However, the application of siRNAs is challenging predominantly due to the difficult delivery and instability of siRNA into the host system. Recent findings of bioactivity and bioavailability of plants' miRNAs through animals' digestive systems led to the newly introduced field of dietary siRNAs. Animal's siRNA can be expressed in plant tissues and delivered as dietary siRNA. Here, an expression vector made based on a rice miRNA backbone, Osa-MIR528, was utilized to construct two plant expression vectors containing siRNAs silencing mouse C3 and CF7 proteins. Both C3 and CF7 proteins are involved in blood clotting which could lead to cardiovascular dysfunction. Expression of both primary and mature C3 and CF7 siRNAs in lettuce was validated by semi quantitative real-time PCR and end-point PCR, respectively, and was confirmed via Sanger sequencing. Established amiRNA system in lettuce through this work will have further applications. As an edible leafy plant with high biomass, lettuce can be used as a valuable host to produce various diseases targeting siRNAs.

SCHWARTZ S PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY 2 volume set 11th edition

SCHWARTZ S PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY 2 volume set 11th edition Book
Author : F. Charles Brunicardi,Dana K. Andersen,Timothy R. Billiar,David L. Dunn,John G. Hunter,Lillian Kao,Jeffrey B. Matthews,Raphael E. Pollock
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2019-05-29
ISBN : 1259835375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The BEST EDITION yet of the #1 text for surgical practice and education For half-a-century, no other text has provided such a solid grounding in basic science, anatomy, operative techniques, and more recently, professional development and leadership training, as Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery. Written by the world’s foremost surgeons, this landmark reference offers distinctly modern and all-encompassing coverage of every important topic in general surgery. Enhanced by a new two volume presentation, the Eleventh Edition has been completely updated and refreshed with an emphasis on state-of-the-art, evidence-based surgical care. You will find an exciting array of new contributors from around the world, new chapters on cutting-edge topics, plus the acclaimed learning aids that make the material easier to understand and memorize. This outstanding content is bolstered by more than 800 photographs and 1,300 line drawings, most in full color, as well as online videos demonstrating key operations. Here’s why the Eleventh Edition is the best edition yet: Six timely new chapters on important topics such as enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), ambulatory/outpatient surgery, evidence for surgery practice, skills and simulation, and web-based education and social media High-quality full-color design showcases an unsurpassed illustration program Emphasis on high-yield discussion of diagnosis and treatment of surgical disease, arranged by organ system and surgical specialty Acclaimed learning aids (many new to this edition), including an abundance of completely up-to-date tables that summarize the most current evidence, boxed key points, detailed anatomical figures, diagnostic and management algorithms, and an abundance of completely up-to-date tables, and key references More than the field’s cornerstone textbook, Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery is an international compendium of the knowledge and technique of the world’s leading surgeons.

Sequential Discovery from Small RNA to Genomes an Investigation of the Hyperthermophilic Genus Pyrobaculum

Sequential Discovery   from Small RNA to Genomes  an Investigation of the Hyperthermophilic Genus Pyrobaculum Book
Author : David L. Bernick
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sequential Discovery from Small RNA to Genomes an Investigation of the Hyperthermophilic Genus Pyrobaculum book written by David L. Bernick, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization and Application of Type VI B RNA targeting CRISPR Systems

Characterization and Application of Type VI B RNA targeting CRISPR Systems Book
Author : David Benjamin Turitz Cox
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to modify nucleic acids is critical for establishing the role of genetic and transcribed elements in mediating biological phenotypes. Manipulating endogenous DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes has been greatly aided by the advent of genome editing technologies that utilize programmable nucleases. DNA nucleases derived from class 2 CRISPR systems, which provide adaptive immunity in prokaryotes through cleavage of nucleic acids using a single, multi-domain, RNA-guided endonuclease, have been particularly useful in this regard because they enable targeting of new sites through simple Watson-Crick base pairing rules. Recent computational studies have uncovered the existence of predicted RNA-targeting class 2 CRISPR systems, suggesting that the power of genome editing techniques might be extended to the level of transcripts. In this thesis, I present work describing the discovery and characterization of a new RNA-targeting class 2 CRISPR system: type VI-B. Using a combination of biochemistry and bacterial genetics, we demonstrated that the predicted nuclease of the VI-B system, Casl3b, is an RNA-guided RNase, whose activity can be modulated by the csx genes that often appear in genetic proximity to casl3b. Next, we characterized the behavior of Casl3b and the related enzymes Casl3a and Casl3c in mammalian cells, identifying orthologs of Casl3a and Casl3b with specific RNA interference activity in mammalian cells. Finally, we showed that catalytically inactive versions of a Casl3b ortholog can direct adenosine-to-inosine deaminase activity to transcripts in human cells when fused to the catalytic domain of ADAR2. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we created a high-specificity version of this system that can be utilized in research or potentially therapeutic contexts. The description of a Casl3b ortholog that can be used to knockdown or recruit RNA-modifying domains to transcripts in mammalian cells suggests the utility of this technology to interrogate and modify transcript function in diverse contexts.

CRISPR Cas Genome Editing

CRISPR Cas Genome Editing Book
Author : Anjanabha Bhattacharya,Vilas Parkhi,Bharat Char
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-12-11
ISBN : 3030420221
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a comprehensive collection of papers on CRISPR/Cas genome editing in connection with agriculture, climate-smart crops, food security, translational research applications, bioinformatics analysis, practical applications in cereals, floriculture crops, engineering plants for abiotic stress resistance, the intellectual landscape, regulatory framework, and policy decisions. Gathering contributions by internationally respected experts in the field of CRISPR/Cas genome editing, the book offers an essential guide for researchers, students, teachers and scientists in academia; policymakers; and public companies, private companies and cooperatives interested in understanding and/or applying CRISPR/Cas genome editing to develop new agricultural products.

RNA Based Technologies for Functional Genomics in Plants

RNA Based Technologies for Functional Genomics in Plants Book
Author : Guiliang Tang,Sachin Teotia,Xiaoqing Tang,Deepali Singh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-13
ISBN : 3030649946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a unique and comprehensive overview of key RNA-based technologies, as well as their development and applications for the functional genomics of plant coding and non-coding genes. It focuses on the latest as well as classical RNA-based techniques used for studies on small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes. These techniques chiefly focus on target mimics (TMs) and short tandem target mimics (STTMs) for small RNAs, and artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs), RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR/Cas for genes. Furthermore, the book discusses the latest trends in the field and various modifications of the above-mentioned approaches, and explores how these RNA-based technologies have been developed, applied and validated as essential technologies in plant functional genomics. RNA-based technologies, their mechanisms of action, their advantages and disadvantages, and insights into the further development and applications of these technologies in plants are discussed. These techniques will enable the users to functionally characterize genes and small RNAs through silencing, overexpression and editing. Gathering contributions by globally respected experts, the book will appeal to students, teachers and scientists in academia and industry who are interested in horticulture, genetics, pathology, entomology, physiology, molecular genetics and breeding, in vitro culture & genetic engineering, and functional genomics.

CRISPR Cas Based Strategies Against HIV 1

CRISPR Cas Based Strategies Against HIV 1 Book
Author : Gang Wang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 9789462998162
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Current combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively reduce the viral load in patients to undetectable levels. However, the virus can quickly rebound from this reservoir if the therapy is interrupted. The reason is that cART does not target the viral reservoir in long-lived resting T cells and other cell types. Therefore, one of the potential approaches towards a real cure is to inactivate/eradicate the HIV provirus integrated into human genome of the reservoir cells. In this thesis, the new genome engineering system CRISPR-Cas has been studied to realize this goal. First, efficient inhibition of HIV replication was observed when CRISPR-Cas9 was used to target the HIV provirus. But surprisingly rapid, NHEJ-facilitated HIV escape from CRISPR-Cas9 inhibition was also observed (chapter 2). We subsequently tested several strategies to prevent HIV escape (chapter 3), but success was achieved only by a combinatorial attack with two gRNAs at conserved domains in the HIV-1 genome (chapter 4). Second, we investigated whether dual inhibition of HIV DNA and RNA (CRISPR-Cas9 and RNAi) at overlapping or non-overlapping sites in the HIV genome can improve the antiviral efficiency (chapter 5). Finally, we reviewed CRISPR-Cas9 mediated strategies against HIV-1 (chapter 6)."--Samenvatting auteur.

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-27
ISBN : 9780128001486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of genetics is rapidly evolving, and new medical breakthroughs are occurring as a result of advances in our knowledge of genetics. Advances in Genetics continually publishes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future directions Written and edited by recognized leaders in the field

The Roles of MHC Class I like Molecules and Innate like T Cells in Xenopus Laevis Tumor Immunity

The Roles of MHC Class I like Molecules and Innate like T Cells in Xenopus Laevis Tumor Immunity Book
Author : Maureen L. Banach
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

All vertebrates are susceptible to tumors and cancers. Likewise, the detection and destruction of cancerous cells is an immune function conserved among mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. In human and murine cancers, the relevance of MHC class I-like and natural killer T (NKT) cells in tumor immunity is an active research area. Notably, the conditions that lead to either anti- or pro-tumor activities of these immune cells remain partially understood. To help resolve this issue, we are taking a comparative and evolutionary approach in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Despite phylogenetic distance, the immune system between amphibians and mammals is fundamentally similar. We found that Xenopus ff-2 tumors, expressing different X. laevis MHC class Ilike (XNC) genes invaded the immune system of syngeneic F tadpoles. Impairing the tumor expression of one of XNC genes, XNC10.1, enabled the immune system to recognize and kill these tumors. With respect to Xenopus NKT cell functional analogs, we demonstrated that V?6 innate-like T (iT) cells, expressing an invariant T cell receptor (iTCR) ? chain rearrangement ? V?6-J?1.43, are recruited to the ff-2 tumors. Furthermore, after intraperitoneal transplantations of ff-2 tumors the iTCR transcripts of not only V?6 iT but also of another iT cell subset V?22 iT, defined by V?22-J?1.32 iTCR, increased at the tumor transplantation site. This transcript increase was concomitant with the decrease of the V?6-J?1.43 and V?22-J?1.32 iTCR in the spleen and thymus. We hypothesize that the recruitment and activity of these two iT cell subsets can be manipulated by directly targeting V?6 iT cells. As such, acute depletion of V?6 iT cell enhanced the in vivo ff-2 tumor growth, suggesting the anti-tumor activities of these immune cells. In this work, we developed reverse genetic approaches via RNA interference and the CRISPR/Cas9 system on cell and organism levels to study the relevance of XNC10.1, V?6, and V?22 iT cells in Xenopus tumor immunity.

The Basic Science of Oncology Sixth Edition

The Basic Science of Oncology  Sixth Edition Book
Author : Lea Harrington,Robert E. Bristow,Ian F. Tannock,Richard Hill
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2021-01-08
ISBN : 1259862089
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Complete coverage of the basis of cancer and molecular biology – from globally recognized experts The Basic Science of Oncology is an accessible and thorough introduction to cancer causation, cancer biology, and the biology underlying cancer treatment. You’ll find everything you need to know about the latest critical thinking in oncology, as well ready to apply information about state-of-the-art science and therapeutic applications. Written by leading oncology researchers and clinicians, this is an essential resource for health professionals, students, advanced undergraduates and graduates in biological sciences, and clinicians needing an understanding of cancer cells. Presented in full-color, The Basic Science of Oncology reflects the latest research and developments in the field. Features NEW chapters: Epigenetics and Principles of Genome Regulation and Targeted Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Thoroughly revised content, with expanded coverage of key topics such as immune system and immunotherapy, tumor growth and metabolism, vaccine development, methods of molecular analysis, tumor environment, and more The most current, evidence-based oncology primer—one that encapsulates the science of cancer causation, cancer biology, and cancer therapy Key insights into molecular and genetic aspects of cancer familiarize you with cancer biology as applied to prognosis and personalized cancer medicine In-depth focus on the discovery, evaluation, and biology of anti-cancer drugs, immunotherapy, and molecularly-targeted agents Up-to-date coverage of the basic science of radiation therapy

Principles of Neural Science Sixth Edition

Principles of Neural Science  Sixth Edition Book
Author : Eric R. Kandel,Thomas M. Jessell,Steven A. Siegelbaum
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2021-04-05
ISBN : 1259642240
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The gold standard of neuroscience texts—updated with hundreds of brand-new images and fully revised content in every chapter With 300 new illustrations, diagrams, and radiology studies including PET scans, Principles of Neural Science, 6th Edition is the definitive guide for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, students, and residents. Highly detailed chapters on stroke, Parkinson’s, and MS build your expertise on these critical topics. Radiological studies the authors have chosen explain what’s most important to know and understand for each type of stroke, progressive MS, or non-progressive MS. Features 2,200 images, including 300 new color illustrations, diagrams, and radiology studies (including PET scans) NEW: This edition now features only two contributors per chapter and are mostly U.S.-based NEW: Number of chapters streamlined down from 67 to 60 NEW: Chapter on Navigation and Spatial Memory NEW: New images in every chapter!

Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology

Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology Book
Author : Byong H. Lee
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2020-12-07
ISBN : 9781119042761
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We are in a new era of fermentation and cell culture technologies in which novel techniques and expertise are fast evolving. Fermentation technologies now encompass a broad field which includes the more conventional microbial and enzyme systems that have many applications in the food, biochemical, biomaterial, bioenergy and pharmaceutical sectors. In addition, there has been a growth in new technologies such as genetic engineering, metabolic engineering/systems biology, protein engineering, animal and plant cell based techniques and some bioproducts produced by these new technologies are already successfully commercialized. The requirement for sustainable production of bioenergy and biomaterials is also demanding innovation and the development of novel fermentation concepts, and the continued introduction of new technology demands process development innovation in novel bioreactor design and scale up processes in cell culture systems.

DNA and RNA Modification Enzymes

DNA and RNA Modification Enzymes Book
Author : Henri Grosjean
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-06-11
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is a timely and comprehensive description of the many facets of DNA and RNA modification-editing processes and to some extent repair mechanisms. Each chapter offers fundamental principles as well as up to date information on recent advances in the field (up to end 2008). They ended by a short ‘conclusion and future prospect’ section and an exhaustive list of 35 to up to 257 references (in average 87). Contributors are geneticists, structural enzymologists and molecular biologists working at the forefront of this exciting, fast-moving and diverse field of researches. This book will be a major interest to PhD students and University teachers alike. It will also serve as an invaluable reference tool for new researchers in the field, as well as for specialists of RNA modification enzymes generally not well informed about what is going on in similar processes acting on DNA and vice-versa for specialists of the DNA modification-editing and repair processes usually not much acquainted with what is going on in the RNA maturation field. The book is subdivided into 41 chapters (740 pages). The common links between them are mainly the enzymatic aspects of the different modification-editing and repair machineries: structural, mechanistic, functional and evolutionary aspects. It starts with two general and historical overview of the discovery of modified nucleosides in DNA and RNA and corresponding modification-editing enzymes. Then follows eleven chapters on DNA modification and editing (mechanistic and functional aspects). Two additional chapters cover problems related to DNA/RNA repair and base editing by C-to-U deaminases, followed by three chapters on RNA editing by C-to-U and A-to-I type of deamination. Discussions about interplay between DNA and RNA modifications and the emergence of DNA are covered in two independent chapters, followed by twenty chapters on different but complementary aspects of RNA modification enzymes and their cellular implications. The last chapter concerns the description of the present state-of-the art for incorporating modified nucleosides by in vitro chemical synthesis. At the end of the book, six appendicies give useful details on modified nucleosides, modification-editing enzymes and nucleosides analogs. This information is usually difficult to obtain from current scientific literature.

Research Advances in Plant Biotechnology

Research Advances in Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : Yaroslav Borysovych Blume
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9781536164329
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book the potential of high technological approaches in plant genetic engineering as well as their practical applications are considered. The efficiency of plant genetic transformation remains a challenge due to limitations of intracellular transportation of genes and other biomolecules through the cell wall, damaging of cells/tissues, gene disruption, and high-cost of application of the transformation methods. From stable interest to the development of new techniques for gene delivery into plant cells, key achievements of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and fullerene derivatives to serve as vehicles for the delivery of genetic material into plant cells and plastids are discussed. Besides CNTs and fullerenes, the mineral nanoparticles (mesoporous silica NPs, metal oxide, calcium phosphate), and cationic polymers have been proposed also for plant transformation. In the monograph, the results of practical development of efficient gene transfer techniques based on using these nanomaterials and applicable for plants are presented, too. Then the multiple strategies of site-specific recombinases application in plant genetic engineering with outlining of prospective directions of growth for this molecular tool are detailed. Currently, the CRISPR/Cas system is a powerful method for editing the genome of various organisms. The achievements and prospects of CRISPR/Cas usage for genome editing of fungi are considered in a separate chapter. Because salinity is one of major problems for modern agriculture around the world and creation of salt tolerant cultivars via conventional breeding cannot keep the pace with continuously rising food demand, one contribution to the book critically evaluates the possible roles or capacities of genes from different functional groups to improve plant salt tolerance via genetic engineering. Another chapter presents the results of systematic studies of the effects of new ecologically friendly polycomponent biostimulants of microbiological origin (developed in Ukraine on the basis of either 2,6-dimethylpyridine-N-oxide, or metabolic products of root endophyte fungus from the roots of ginseng, or metabolites of several strains of soil Streptomyces) on improving commercially useful traits in important agricultural crops, including improved growth, productivity and increased resistance to pathogenic fungi, parasitic nematodes and insects. Special attention is paid to the analysis of molecular-genetic mechanisms of the effect of microbial biostimulants at organismal, cellular, and molecular levels. The results of these studies proved that the mechanism of bioprotective effect of microbial biostimulants involves the delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) into plant cells (ie: induction of synthesis of endogenous small regulatory si/miRNAs with immuno-protective, antipathogenic and antiparasitic properties). In the final chapter, the legal approaches to the regulation of plants produced through new breeding techniques such as gene editing are considered.

Casarett Doull s Essentials of Toxicology Fourth Edition

Casarett   Doull s Essentials of Toxicology  Fourth Edition Book
Author : Curtis D. Klaassen,John B. Watkins
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2021-06-29
ISBN : 1260452301
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Develop a strong foundation in the concepts and principles of toxicology with this concise and accessible resource For more than 25 years, Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basics of Poison has set the standard for providing thorough, academic, and authoritative information in clear and engaging ways. Distilling the major principles and concepts from that renowned text, Casarett & Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology delivers an accessible and highly readable introduction to the science and clinical field of medical toxicology. The book reflects the expertise of more than 60 renowned contributors. Presented in full-color, this new edition builds on the wide success of previous editions, with extensive updates that make the book more clinically relevant to students and beginners in toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Chapter-ending self-assessment Q&As and other features make the learning process more effective and efficient. Casarett and Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology is organized into seven units: General Principles of Toxicology Disposition of Toxicants Non-organ-directed Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Toxic Agents Environmental Toxicology Applications of Toxicology Succinct, yet comprehensive, the text covers essential principles, toxicokinetics, how toxic effects are passed on to succeeding generations, how each body system responds to poisons, and the specific effects of a wide range of toxic agents—from pesticides to radiation.