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Creep Resistant Steels

Creep Resistant Steels Book
Author : Fujio Abe,Torsten-Ulf Kern,R Viswanathan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-03-14
ISBN : 1845694015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Creep-resistant steels are widely used in the petroleum, chemical and power generation industries. Creep-resistant steels must be reliable over very long periods of time at high temperatures and in severe environments. Understanding and improving long-term creep strength is essential for safe operation of plant and equipment. This book provides an authoritative summary of key research in this important area. The first part of the book describes the specifications and manufacture of creep-resistant steels. Part two covers the behaviour of creep-resistant steels and methods for strengthening them. The final group of chapters analyses applications in such areas as turbines and nuclear reactors. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Creep-resistant steels is a valuable reference for the power generation, petrochemical and other industries which use high strength steels at elevated temperatures. Describes the specifications and manufacture of creep-resistant steels Strengthening methods are discussed in detail Different applications are analysed including turbines and nuclear reactors

Precipitation Processes in Creep Resistant Austenitic Steels

Precipitation Processes in Creep Resistant Austenitic Steels Book
Author : Grzegorz Golański
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Creep-resisting austenitic steels constitute a group of construction materials which can work in the conditions of creep for the temperature range from 550 to 700°C. The service of austenitic steels leads to the progressive degradation of their microstructure, which results in the changes of functional properties. The main mechanisms of degradation of the austenitic steel microstructure include the processes of matrix softening, the processes of precipitation and matrix depletion of the interstitial and substitution elements. Precipitation processes in austenitic steels are a very important indicator, which allows the advancement of microstructure degradation processes in these steels to be determined. Hence, the knowledge of the impact of individual secondary phases on the microstructure and properties of austenitic steels plays a very important role in diagnosing the components and equipment of the power boiler system and makes it possible to forecast the time of safe operation of systems made from these steels. Based on own studies and data from literature, this paper will present the characteristics of secondary phase precipitates occurring in creep-resistant austenitic steels during their operation at an elevated/high temperature. The effect of secondary precipitates on mechanical properties of these steels will be discussed too.

Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures

Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures Book
Author : T. Sakuma,Kuniaki Yagi
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 1999-10-12
ISBN : 3035703817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). Recent research on the creep and fracture of engineering materials is presented, with particular emphasis being placed on: mechanisms of high-temperature deformation and fracture, materials for high-temperature service, the behavior of single and polycrystals, components and structures, grain boundaries and interfaces, and superplasticity.

Weldability of Ferritic Steels

Weldability of Ferritic Steels Book
Author : Norman Bailey
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 1994-06-14
ISBN : 9781855730922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is chiefly concerned with the conventional fusion welding processes and their problems and will be of value to practical welding engineers, inspectors and metallurgists. The author also has inmind the needs of those concerned with design and specification, recognising the importance of dealing with problems at the design stage.

Development of Microstructure and Creep Resistance of a Martensitic Creep Resistant Steel

Development of Microstructure and Creep Resistance of a Martensitic Creep Resistant Steel Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In thermal power stations, 9-12 % Cr steels are widely used for components operating at elevated temperatures. In the present work, the influence of quenching and tempering temperatures on microstructure evolution of 9-12 % Cr creep resistant steels was studied. It was found that quenching and tempering parameters influence the number, size, and mutual spacing of precipitates in the steel. The effect of different heat treatment parameters on the steady-state creep rate and time to rupture showed that for the higher quenching temperature, the number of precipitates increases while their mutual spacing decreases, which leads to improved creep resistance. Effect of tempering temperatures is not so pronounced as in the case of quenching temperature.

9 12Cr Heat Resistant Steels

9 12Cr Heat Resistant Steels Book
Author : Wei Yan,Wei Wang,Yiyin Shan,Ke Yang,Wei Sha
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-05-27
ISBN : 3319148397
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With China becoming a major force in steel research and development, this book highlights the work of a group from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, led by the first four authors. This group has the ideal knowledge base for writing this updated book on heat-resistant steels. The fifth author, Sha, based in the UK, has been collaborating with the Chinese group since 2009 and is the lead or sole author of four research books, all published in English. The last book, “Steels: from materials science to structural engineering,” was published by Springer in 2013. Within two months of its publication, researchers at the University of Science and Technology Liaoning had requested translation of the book into Chinese. Springer obliged, and the Chinese version was published by the Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, in August 2014. Sha has organized and completed the writing of the proposed book, though the main research was done in China.

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF CREEP RESISTANT ALLOYS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION IN FERRITIC SUPERALLOYS

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF CREEP RESISTANT ALLOYS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION IN FERRITIC SUPERALLOYS  Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2014
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A new class of ferritic superalloys containing B2-type zones inside parent L21-type precipitates in a disordered solid-solution matrix, also known as a hierarchical-precipitatestrengthened ferritic alloy (HPSFA), has been developed for high-temperature structural applications in fossil-energy power plants. These alloys were designed by the addition of the Ti element into a previously-studied NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy (denoted as FBB8 in this study). In the present research, systematic investigations, including advanced experimental techniques, first-principles calculations, and numerical simulations, have been integrated and conducted to characterize the complex microstructures and excellent creep resistance of HPSFAs. The experimental techniques include transmission-electron microscopy, scanningtransmission- electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography, which provide detailed microstructural information of HPSFAs. Systematic tension/compression creep tests revealed that HPSFAs exhibit the superior creep resistance, compared with the FBB8 and conventional ferritic steels (i.e., the creep rates of HPSFAs are about 4 orders of magnitude slower than the FBB8 and conventional ferritic steels.) First-principles calculations include interfacial free energies, anti-phase boundary (APB) free energies, elastic constants, and impurity diffusivities in Fe. Combined with kinetic Monte- Carlo simulations of interdiffusion coefficients, and the integration of computational thermodynamics and kinetics, these calculations provide great understanding of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of HPSFAs. In addition to the systematic experimental approach and first-principles calculations, a series of numerical tools and algorithms, which assist in the optimization of creep properties of ferritic superalloys, are utilized and developed. These numerical simulation results are compared with the available experimental data and previous first-principles calculations, providing deep insight of creep mechanisms of the creep-resistant ferritic superalloys. With the above investigations, the HPSFA has been proved with superior creep resistance, and its microstructure, creep mechanism, and thermal/mechanical properties have been well studied and understood. In the future, HPSFAs with different additions and sizes of precipitates will be investigated and developed to further enhance the creep resistance of the ferritic superalloys and provide promising applications of the fossil-energy power plants.

Metallurgical Evolution and Creep Strength of 9 12 Cr Heat Resistant Steels at 600 C and 650 C

Metallurgical Evolution and Creep Strength of 9 12  Cr Heat Resistant Steels at 600  C and 650  C Book
Author : Clara Panait
Publisher :
Release : 2010
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

9-12%Cr tempered martensite steels are used for high temperature (400-600°C) especially applications in components of fossil power plants, such as tubes, pipes, heaters. These components are exposed to creep, thermal aging, fatigue, oxidation, corrosion. The development of advanced heat resistant steels with improved long-term creep strength relies on a better understanding of the long-term microstructural evolution and of its influence on the creep strength. This study aims at better understanding of the effect of microstructural evolution on long-term creep strength at 600°C and 650°C of a Grade 92 steel. There are rather few published data on the microstructure of the Grade 92 steel after long-term creep or thermal aging exposure (times higher than 10,000h) both at 600°C and 650°C. Thus, in a first part, P92 steel specimens that had been creep tested for times up to 50,000h at 600°C and 650°C were investigated using transmission electron microscopy on extractive replicas of precipitates, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction to get data on the microstructure of the Grade 92 steel after long-term exposure. These investigations revealed significant precipitation of Laves phases, recovery of the matrix and little precipitation of modified Z-phase. A quantification of the Laves phases and creep damage were realized by image analysis of scanning electron micrographs. Significant precipitation of Laves phase and recovery of the matrix seem to be the most prominent microstructural degradation mechanisms. To separately investigate the effect of each of these two mechanisms on creep strength, creep tests were conducted on thermally aged and thermo-mechanically prepared creep specimens. Creep tests were also conducted on notched specimens. Thermally aged creep specimens enable to study the effect of large Laves phases on the creep strength. A time to rupture four times lower was observed on the aged creep specimens compared to a standard creep test for same testing conditions. This seems not be confirmed, however, at low stresses. Two creep specimens thermo-mechanically prepared by creep-fatigue prestraining at 550°C were used to study the effect of the matrix substructure on the creep strength. A time to rupture twice lower was observed at 600°C (short-term creep) on a thermo-mechanically prepared creep specimen compared to a standard one for the same testing conditions. No such effect was detected at 650°C in the low stress regime. Creep tests were also conducted on notched specimens with various notch shapes to study the effect of stress triaxiality on creep damage. In notched specimens higher amounts of creep damage were observed compared to smooth specimens for similar testing time. A finite element mechanical model coupling microstructural evolution and creep damage was proposed to estimate the long-term creep strength of the Grade 92 steel at 600°C and 650°C. The model taking stress triaxiality into account might also be used to estimate the remaining life of service components and to analyze service components with complex geometry more sensitive to creep damage due to stress triaxiality.

Structural Alloys for Power Plants

Structural Alloys for Power Plants Book
Author : A. Shirzadi,S. Jackson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-07-30
ISBN : 0857097555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current fleets of conventional and nuclear power plants face increasing hostile environmental conditions due to increasingly high temperature operation for improved capacity and efficiency, and the need for long term service. Additional challenges are presented by the requirement to cycle plants to meet peak-load operation. This book presents a comprehensive review of structural materials in conventional and nuclear energy applications. Opening chapters address operational challenges and structural alloy requirements in different types of power plants. The following sections review power plant structural alloys and methods to mitigate critical materials degradation in power plants.

Microstructural Stability of Creep Resistant Alloys for High Temperature Plant Applications

Microstructural Stability of Creep Resistant Alloys for High Temperature Plant Applications Book
Author : A. Strang,J. Cawley,Geoffrey Wilson Greenwood
Publisher : Woodhead Pub Limited
Release : 1998
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second in a series of international conferences focusing attention on the microstructural changes occurring in high temperature materials during service exposure and identifying the processes and mechanisms leading to the observed degradation of their mechanical properties. Highlights the work in progress to develop improved high temperature materials more resistant to microstructural degradation in service.

Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power Plants

Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power Plants Book
Author : D. Gandy and J. Shingledecker
Publisher : ASM International
Release : 2014-01-01
ISBN : 1627080600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conference proceedings covering the latest technology developments for fossil fuel power plants, including nickel-based alloys for advanced ultrasupercritical power plants, materials for turbines, oxidation and corrosion, welding and weld performance, new alloys concepts, and creep and general topics.

Ferrous Materials

Ferrous Materials Book
Author : Hans Berns,Werner Theisen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-26
ISBN : 3540718486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ferrous materials have made a major contribution to the development of modern technology. They span a tremendous range of properties and applications. Part A of this book is dedicated to the fundamental relationships between the structure and the properties of ferrous materials. The considerably larger Part B deals with standardised materials, recent developments and industrial applications, which also affect processing aspects. Details are given for general engineering materials, tool and functional materials, as well as high-strength, creep-resistant and wear-resistant grades. This book closes the gap in the treatment of steel and cast iron. Each chapter takes into account the gradual transitions between the two types of ferrous materials. The authors demonstrate that steel and cast iron are versatile and customisable materials which will continue to play a key role in the future.

Creep and Fracture in High Temperature Components

Creep and Fracture in High Temperature Components Book
Author : European Creep Collaborative Committee
Publisher : DEStech Publications, Inc
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9781932078497
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides information from around the world on creep in multiple high-temperature metals, alloys, and advanced materials.