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Corrosion Issues In Light Water Reactors

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Corrosion Issues in Light Water Reactors

Corrosion Issues in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : D Féron,J-M Olive
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-06-22
ISBN : 1845693469
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stress corrosion cracking is a major problem in light water nuclear reactors, whether pressurised water reactors (PWRs) or boiling water reactors (BWRs). The nuclear industry needs to be able to predict the service life of these power plants and develop appropriate maintenance and repair practices to ensure safe long term operation. This important book sums up key recent research on corrosion in light water reactors and its practical applications. The book is divided into four parts. It begins with an overview of materials degradation due to stress corrosion, corrosion potential monitoring and passivation. Part two summarises research on susceptibility of materials to stress corrosion cracking and the ways it can be initiated. The third part of the book considers stress corrosion crack propagation processes whilst the final part includes practical case studies of corrosion in particular plants. The book reviews corrosion in a range of materials such as low alloy steels, stainless steels and nickel-based alloys. With its distinguished editor and team of contributors, Corrosion issues in light water reactors is a standard work for the nuclear industry. Summarises key recent research on corrosion in light water reactors Includes practical case studies

Electrochemistry in Light Water Reactors

Electrochemistry in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : R-W Bosch,D Féron,J-P Celis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-04-30
ISBN : 1845693027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There has long been a need for effective methods of measuring corrosion within light water nuclear reactors. This important volume discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference electrodes and other electrochemical techniques. The book is divided into three parts with part one reviewing the latest developments in the use of reference electrode technology in both pressurised water and boiling water reactors. Parts two and three cover different types of corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they can be measured using such techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Topics covered across the book include in-pile testing, modelling techniques and the tribocorrosion behaviour of stainless steel under reactor conditions. Electrochemistry in light water reactors is a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology for the power industry. Discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference eletrodes A valuable reference for all concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels Book
Author : Raul B. Rebak
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-01-06
ISBN : 0128175036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels provides a description of what an accident tolerant fuel is and the benefits and detriments of each concept. The book begins with an introduction to nuclear power as a renewable energy source and the current materials being utilized in light water reactors. It then moves on to discuss the recent advancements being made in accident tolerant fuels, reviewing the specific materials, their fabrication and implementation, environmental resistance, irradiation behavior, and licensing requirements. The book concludes with a look to the future of new power generation technologies. It is written for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear power industry and is the first comprehensive work on this topic. Introduces the fundamental description of accident tolerant fuel, including fabrication and implementation Describes both the benefits and detriments of the various Accident Tolerant Fuel concepts Includes information on the process of materials selection with a discussion of how and why specific materials were chosen, as well as why others failed

Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors

Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light water Reactor Materials

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light water Reactor Materials Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used.

Materials Ageing and Degradation in Light Water Reactors

Materials Ageing and Degradation in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : K L Murty
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-02-18
ISBN : 0857097458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Light water reactors (LWRs) are the predominant class of nuclear power reactors in operation today; however, ageing and degradation can influence both their performance and lifetime. Knowledge of these factors is therefore critical to safe, continuous operation. Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors provides a comprehensive guide to prevalent deterioration mechanisms, and the approaches used to handle their effects. Part one introduces fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms. Beginning with an overview of ageing and degradation issues in LWRs, the book goes on to discuss corrosion in pressurized water reactors and creep deformation of materials in LWRs. Part two then considers materials’ ageing and degradation in specific LWR components. Applications of zirconium alloys in LWRs are discussed, along with the ageing of electric cables. Materials management strategies for LWRs are then the focus of part three. Materials management strategies for pressurized water reactors and VVER reactors are considered before the book concludes with a discussion of materials-related problems faced by LWR operators and corresponding research needs. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors is an authoritative review for anyone requiring an understanding of the performance and durability of this type of nuclear power plant, including plant operators and managers, nuclear metallurgists, governmental and regulatory safety bodies, and researchers, scientists and academics working in this area. Introduces the fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms associated with this class of nuclear power reactors Considers materials ageing and degradation in specific light water reactor components, including properties, performance and inspection Chapters also focus on material management strategies

Light Water Reactor Safety

Light Water Reactor Safety Book
Author : B. Pershagen,M. Bowen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483286746
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light water reactor safety are discussed. The concluding chapters examine selected safety issues and their resolution, and highlight results of reactor safety research. The book is amply illustrated, with numerous cross references and a comprehensive index.

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Based Alloys in Water cooled Nuclear Reactors

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Based Alloys in Water cooled Nuclear Reactors Book
Author : Damien Feron,Roger W Staehle
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-01-30
ISBN : 0081000626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Based Alloys in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors: The Coriou Effect presents the latest information on brittle failure of metals in corrosive chemical environments under the influence of tensile stresses. Nickel alloys are more resistant to SCC as well as high temperatures and have been widely used in more challenging environments such as nuclear power plants. However, these alloys can suffer SCC under certain conditions, resulting in component failure. A key figure in understanding the mechanisms of SCC in nickel alloys in water-cooled nuclear reactors is Henri Coriou of the CEA, France’s leading center for nuclear research. This book assesses his work in the context of the latest research on SCC in nickel alloys in nuclear power plants. Up-to-date reviews of recent research findings from leading experts in the field Authoritative and comprehensively reviewed by the Working Party 4 on Nuclear Corrosion Showcases the excellent quality and technical accomplishments of Henri Coriou and CEA

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9789201172105
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The average operating age of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) is increasing and safety and performance of these ageing NPPs must be achieved by effectively managing material degradations within an acceptable level. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of significant material degradations for major components of both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) and is still an important outstanding technical issue. This publication provides general descriptions of degradation mechanisms of different types of SCC which are concerned to systems, structures and components (SSCs) in PWR and BWR. It includes examples of good practices in preventing, mitigating and repairing SCC damages and summarizes related national and international research and development programmes. Practical operational experience and practices in Member States are also presented in this overview"--Provided by publisher.

Nuclear Corrosion

Nuclear Corrosion Book
Author : Stefan Ritter
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-08-14
ISBN : 0128237201
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear Corrosion: Research, Progress and Challenges, part of the “Green Book series of the EFC, builds upon the foundations of the very first book published in this series in 1989 (“Number 1 - Corrosion in the Nuclear Industry ). This newest volume provides an overview on state-of-the-art research in some of the most important areas of nuclear corrosion. Chapters covered include aging phenomena in light water reactors, reprocessing plants, nuclear waste disposal, and supercritical water and liquid metal systems. This book will be a vital resource for both researchers and engineers working within the nuclear field in both academic and industrial environments. Discusses industry related aspects of materials in nuclear power generation and how these materials react with the environment Provides comprehensive coverage of the topic as written by noted experts in the field Includes coverage of nuclear waste corrosion

Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications

Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications Book
Author : Robert Odette,Steven Zinkle
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2019-08-15
ISBN : 012397349X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-performance alloys that can withstand operation in hazardous nuclear environments are critical to presentday in-service reactor support and maintenance and are foundational for reactor concepts of the future. With commercial nuclear energy vendors and operators facing the retirement of staff during the coming decades, much of the scholarly knowledge of nuclear materials pursuant to appropriate, impactful, and safe usage is at risk. Led by the multi-award winning editorial team of G. Robert Odette (UCSB) and Steven J. Zinkle (UTK/ORNL) and with contributions from leaders of each alloy discipline, Structural Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications aids the next generation of researchers and industry staff developing and maintaining steels, nickel-base alloys, zirconium alloys, and other structural alloys in nuclear energy applications. This authoritative reference is a critical acquisition for institutions and individuals seeking state-of-the-art knowledge aided by the editors’ unique personal insight from decades of frontline research, engineering and management. Focuses on in-service irradiation, thermal, mechanical, and chemical performance capabilities. Covers the use of steels and other structural alloys in current fission technology, leading edge Generation-IV fission reactors, and future fusion power reactors. Provides a critical and comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art experimental knowledge base of reactor materials, for applications ranging from engineering safety and lifetime assessments to supporting the development of advanced computational models.

Novel Approaches to Improving High Temperature Corrosion Resistance

Novel Approaches to Improving High Temperature Corrosion Resistance Book
Author : M Schütze,W Quadakkers
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-05-29
ISBN : 1845694473
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-temperature corrosion is a major problem affecting sectors such as the power generation, aerospace and metal-working industries. This important book summarises a wide range of research on ways of dealing with this important problem. The first part of the book reviews ways of modifying alloys to improve high-temperature corrosion resistance. The second part discusses surface treatments such as pre-treatments and coatings. The third part of the book summarises research on testing for high-temperature corrosion resistance and the development of common testing standards. It also reviews research on the behaviour of alloys in a wide range of service conditions such as furnace and boiler environments. The final part of the book discusses ways of modelling high-temperature corrosion processes to improve material performance and service life. With its distinguished editors and team of contributors drawn from some of the leading centres of research in the field, Novel approaches to improving high-temperature corrosion resistance is a standard reference for all those studying and dealing with high-temperature corrosion. Summarises a wide range of research on ways of dealing with high-temperature corrosion Discusses ways of modelling high-temperature corrosion processes to improve material performance and service life A standard reference for all those studying and dealing with high-temperature corrosion

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries

Amine Unit Corrosion in Refineries Book
Author : J Harston,F Ropital
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-04-18
ISBN : 184569323X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The corrosion of carbon steels in amine units used for gas treatment in refining operations is a major problem for the petrochemical industry. Maximising amine unit reliability, together with improving throughput, circulation and treatment capacity, requires more effective ways of measuring and predicting corrosion rates. However, there has been a lack of data on corrosion. This valuable report helps to remedy this lack of information by summarising findings from over 30 plants. It covers such amine types as methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), diethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and di-isopropanolamine (DIPA), and makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability. Covers such amine types as Methyl Diethanolamine (MDEA) and Di-isopropanolamine Makes recommendations on materials and process parameters to maximise amine unit efficiency and reliability

Local Probe Techniques for Corrosion Research

Local Probe Techniques for Corrosion Research Book
Author : R Oltra,V Maurice,R Akid,P. Marcus
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-01-23
ISBN : 1845692594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The effective investigation of corrosion requires the use of methods that can probe material surfaces at the atomic or molecular level and can be used in situ. This important collection reviews the range of techniques available and how they can be used to analyse different types of corrosion. A number of chapters discuss the use of scanning probe microscopy techniques such as electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy (EC-STM and EC-AFM). Other chapters analyse local electrochemical techniques such as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), scanning vibrating electrode techniques (SVET), scanning droplet and scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKFM), as well as microraman spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical imaging. The book reviews the application of these techniques in practice to various metals and types of coating as well as different kinds of corrosion. With its distinguished editors and team of contributors, this is a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion research. Discusses methods that can probe material surfaces at the atomic or molecular level A valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion research

Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminium Alloys in Seawater

Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminium Alloys in Seawater Book
Author : D Féron
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-05-17
ISBN : 1845693086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Copper and aluminium alloys are widely used in marine engineering in areas such as pipelines, storage tanks, ships’ hulls and cladding for offshore structures. This important book reviews key factors affecting the corrosion and service life of these materials in the marine environment. The book is divided into five parts, with part one reviewing key aspects of the corrosion behaviour of both these alloys. Part two discusses the use of copper and copper-nickel alloys in seawater, whilst Parts 3 and 4 cover aluminium bronzes and alloys. The final section of the book covers the use of aluminium-based materials as anodes for the cathodic protection of marine structures. Corrosion behaviour and protection of copper and aluminium alloys in seawater is an important reference for marine engineers concerned with the corrosion and service life of these materials. Reviews key factors affecting the corrosion and service life of copper and aluminium alloys Discusses the use of the alloys in seawater

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The average operating age of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) is increasing and safety and performance of these ageing NPPs must be achieved by effectively managing material degradations within an acceptable level. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of significant material degradations for major components of both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) and is still an important outstanding technical issue. This publication provides general descriptions of degradation mechanisms of different types of SCC which are concerned to systems, structures and compone.

Corrosion Monitoring in Nuclear Systems EFC 56

Corrosion Monitoring in Nuclear Systems EFC 56 Book
Author : Stefan Ritter,Anders Molander
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-09-20
ISBN : 135145773X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Corrosion remains one of the key issues affecting the performance and availability of nuclear power plants. Therefore, reliable in-plant corrosion monitoring methods are essential both for the future operation of existing plants and to ensure the safety of future nuclear waste disposal systems. In two parts, this book was stimulated by a workshop organised by EFC Working Party 4 on Nuclear Corrosion and the European Cooperative Group on Corrosion Monitoring of Nuclear Materials (EGC-COMON). The first part deals mainly with research into the detection of stress corrosion crack initiation in nuclear power plant environments (essentially high temperature water at around 300 °C) by various methods, particularly the electrochemical noise technique but also including the electrochemical impedance, acoustic emission and direct current potential drop methods. The second part addresses the goal to develop in-situ techniques and includes examples of the application of electrochemical corrosion potential monitoring. This book will be of particular interest to scientists and engineers concerned with the mitigation of corrosion in nuclear systems.

Sulphur Assisted Corrosion in Nuclear Disposal Systems

Sulphur Assisted Corrosion in Nuclear Disposal Systems Book
Author : Damien Féron,Bruno Kursten,Frank Druyts
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-26
ISBN : 1000107116
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the different disposal concepts for high-level nuclear waste, corrosion of the metallic barriers and in particular the overpack/container is a major issue. It is imperative for performance assessment to predict the lifetime of these containers. In the lifetime prediction of metallic barriers for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW) or of spent fuel, the presence of (reduced) sulphur species is an issue of growing importance, as the sulphur species are involved in localised corrosion phenomena. The international workshop on Sulphur-Assisted Corrosion in Nuclear Waste Disposal Systems (SACNUC2008) aimed to provide an exchange of information on the influence of sulphur species on the corrosion of metallic barriers. This workshop was a co-organisation of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK*CEN, and the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, under the auspices of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC event N 311). The proceedings are divided into five chapters: Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the disposal concepts of nuclear waste and the role of corrosion. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism of sulphur-induced corrosion processes. This chapter also contains information from outside the nuclear disposal field in which sulphur is known to act as a detrimental factor (e.g. oil and gas industry). Chapter 3 addresses the role of microbial processes in sulphur-assisted corrosion. Chapter 4 covers the modelling of sulphide-assisted corrosion. Chapter 5 is devoted to a panel discussion aiming to identify open issues in the investigation of sulphur-assisted corrosion phenomena and how to incorporate these in robust lifetime prediction of metallic barriers.

Corrosion Under Insulation CUI Guidelines

Corrosion Under Insulation  CUI  Guidelines Book
Author : S Winnik
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2015-11-26
ISBN : 0081007396
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Corrosion-under-insulation (CUI) refers to the external corrosion of piping and vessels that occurs underneath externally clad/jacketed insulation as a result of the penetration of water. By its very nature CUI tends to remain undetected until the insulation and cladding/jacketing is removed to allow inspection or when leaks occur. CUI is a common problem shared by the refining, petrochemical, power, industrial, onshore and offshore industries. In the first edition of this book published in 2008, the EFC Working Parties WP13 and WP15 engaged together to provide guidelines on managing CUI with contributions from a number of European refining, petrochemical and offshore companies. The guidelines are intended for use on all plants and installation that contain insulated vessels, piping and equipment. The guidelines cover a risk-based inspection methodology for CUI, inspection techniques and recommended best practice for mitigating CUI, including design of plant and equipment, coatings and the use of thermal spray techniques, types of insulation, cladding/jacketing materials and protection guards. The guidelines also include case studies. The original document first published in 2008 was very successful and provided an important resource in the continuing battle to mitigate CUI. Many members of the EFC corrosion community requested an update and this has taken between 18-24 months to do so. Hopefully this revised document will continue to serve the community providing a practical source of information on how to monitor and manage insulated systems. Revised and fully updated technical guidance on managing CUI provided by EFC Working Parties WP13 and WP 15 Contributions from a number of European refining, petrochemical and offshore companies Extensive appendices that provide additional practical guidance on the implementation of corrosion-under-insulation best practice, collected practical expertise and case studies

Engineering Tools for Corrosion

Engineering Tools for Corrosion Book
Author : Luciano Lazzari
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 0081024258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineering Tools for Corrosion: Design and Diagnosis proposes models and equations derived from theory. It includes discussions of the estimation of main corrosion parameters for corrosion rate, electrochemical constraints, thresholds limits and initiation time. The algorithms proposed are the conjugation of theory and engineering practice resulting from research and professional activities carried out by the author for almost four decades. Presents a rational approach to the corrosion prediction and evaluation dilemma Illustrates new models and algorithms for quantitative estimation of corrosion related factors and parameters Includes the design and interpretation of accelerated corrosion tests