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Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Sean Ekins
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-01-15
ISBN : 1119282586
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A key resource for toxicologists across a broad spectrum of fields, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of molecular modelling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. • Provides a perspective of what is currently achievable with computational toxicology and a view to future developments • Helps readers overcome questions of data sources, curation, treatment, and how to model / interpret critical endpoints that support 21st century hazard assessment • Assembles cutting-edge concepts and leading authors into a unique and powerful single-source reference • Includes in-depth looks at QSAR models, physicochemical drug properties, structure-based drug targeting, chemical mixture assessments, and environmental modeling • Features coverage about consumer product safety assessment and chemical defense along with chapters on open source toxicology and big data

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Sean Ekins
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-06-30
ISBN : 0470145889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art molecular modeling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals This unique volume describes how the interaction of molecules with toxicologically relevant targets can be predicted using computer-based tools utilizing X-ray crystal structures or homology, receptor, pharmacophore, and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models of human proteins. It covers the in vitro models used, newer technologies, and regulatory aspects. The book offers a complete systems perspective to risk assessment prediction, discussing experimental and computational approaches in detail, with: * An introduction to toxicology methods and an explanation of computational methods * In-depth reviews of QSAR methods applied to enzymes, transporters, nuclear receptors, and ion channels * Sections on applying computers to toxicology assessment in the pharmaceutical industry and in the environmental arena * Chapters written by leading international experts * Figures that illustrate computational models and references for further information This is a key resource for toxicologists and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental sciences as well as researchers involved in ADMET, drug discovery, and technology and software development.

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : William Mendez,Bruce A. Fowler
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0128060530
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The focus of the chapter is on the development and application of computational toxicology methods to human risk assessment. The various CompTox methods are defined, and a brief history of their development and applications in risk assessment is provided. The technological, economic, and public health concerns driving the development of the methods are described, along with how the specific forces shaped the historical and current use of CompTox methods in risk assessment. Translation research programs in the United States and OECD are briefly reviewed, and current applications of CompTox to risk assessment in the areas of screening, priority setting for testing and regulation, and the elucidation of adverse outcome pathways are discussed. Potential future directions for the application of computational toxicology in a wider range of risk applications are identified, along with ongoing research needs.

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Luis G. Valerio
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0128060476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The remarkable advances of high-performance computing to facilitate and increase efficiency in helping to resolve or support assessments on the toxic effects of chemicals on tissues and genomic material have led to development of novel in silico methods. These methods can support risk assessment via integration of study data that can be translated into meaningful predictive information. This chapter describes some methods in computational toxicology and how to integrate experimental data with computational assessments for supporting risk assessment.

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Bruce A. Fowler
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 012396508X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Isaac Warren,Eftim Sorina
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0128060506
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New and emerging high-throughput toxicology and human exposure data sets offer great promise to expand or reshape the process of chemical risk assessment. While the methods to mine new computational toxicology data and assess its predictive power and compatibility with more traditional toxicology data are still under development, this chapter presents publicly available data sets that can be mined to support risk assessment. Risk assessors are faced with adapting to toxicity testing in the 21st century and soon may be required to consider new types of data for use in risk assessment. In the meantime, further work is required to quantify the uncertainty associated with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, collect and analyze further exposure data, and organize and evaluate new data from different sources across the existing risk assessment paradigm or as components of a new risk assessment paradigm.

Advances in Computational Toxicology

Advances in Computational Toxicology Book
Author : Huixiao Hong
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-05-21
ISBN : 3030164438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive review of both traditional and cutting-edge methodologies that are currently used in computational toxicology and specifically features its application in regulatory decision making. The authors from various government agencies such as FDA, NCATS and NIEHS industry, and academic institutes share their real-world experience and discuss most current practices in computational toxicology and potential applications in regulatory science. Among the topics covered are molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, machine learning methods for toxicity analysis, network-based approaches for the assessment of drug toxicity and toxicogenomic analyses. Offering a valuable reference guide to computational toxicology and potential applications in regulatory science, this book will appeal to chemists, toxicologists, drug discovery and development researchers as well as to regulatory scientists, government reviewers and graduate students interested in this field.

Computational Systems Toxicology

Computational Systems Toxicology Book
Author : Julia Hoeng,Manuel C. Peitsch
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2016-10-29
ISBN : 9781493950034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This detailed volume explores key state-of-the-art computational applications that are crucial in Systems Toxicology. The recent technological developments in experimental biology and multi-omics measurements that enable Systems Biology and Systems Toxicology can only be fully leveraged by the application of a broad range of computational approaches ranging from data management to mathematical modeling. Taking this into account, chapters in this book cover data management and processing, data analysis, biological network building and analysis, as well as the application of computational methods to toxicological assessment. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, Computational Systems Toxicology includes the kind of key practical advice that will aid readers in furthering our knowledge of toxic substances and reactions to them.

Comprehensive Toxicology

Comprehensive Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-12-01
ISBN : 0081006128
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comprehensive Toxicology, Third Edition, discusses chemical effects on biological systems, with a focus on understanding the mechanisms by which chemicals induce adverse health effects. Organized by organ system, this comprehensive reference work addresses the toxicological effects of chemicals on the immune system, the hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, hepatic toxicology, renal toxicology, gastrointestinal toxicology, reproductive and endocrine toxicology, neuro and behavioral toxicology, developmental toxicology and carcinogenesis, also including critical sections that cover the general principles of toxicology, cellular and molecular toxicology, biotransformation and toxicology testing and evaluation. Each section is examined in state-of-the-art chapters written by domain experts, providing key information to support the investigations of researchers across the medical, veterinary, food, environment and chemical research industries, and national and international regulatory agencies. Thoroughly revised and expanded to 15 volumes that include the latest advances in research, and uniquely organized by organ system for ease of reference and diagnosis, this new edition is an essential reference for researchers of toxicology. Organized to cover both the fundamental principles of toxicology and unique aspects of major organ systems Thoroughly revised to include the latest advances in the toxicological effects of chemicals on the immune system Features additional coverage throughout and a new volume on toxicology of the hematopoietic system Presents in-depth, comprehensive coverage from an international author base of domain experts

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-16
ISBN : 0128137258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Issues in Drug Management Toxicology Monitoring Resistance and Safety 2011 Edition

Issues in Drug Management  Toxicology  Monitoring  Resistance  and Safety  2011 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1464967083
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Issues in Drug Management, Toxicology, Monitoring, Resistance, and Safety: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Drug Management, Toxicology, Monitoring, Resistance, and Safety. The editors have built Issues in Drug Management, Toxicology, Monitoring, Resistance, and Safety: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Drug Management, Toxicology, Monitoring, Resistance, and Safety in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Drug Management, Toxicology, Monitoring, Resistance, and Safety: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Hayes Principles and Methods of Toxicology

Hayes  Principles and Methods of Toxicology Book
Author : A. Wallace Hayes,Claire L. Kruger
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-10-10
ISBN : 1842145371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology has long been established as a reliable reference to the concepts, methodologies, and assessments integral to toxicology. The new sixth edition has been revised and updated while maintaining the same high standards that have made this volume a benchmark resource in the field. With new authors and new chap

In Silico Toxicology

In Silico Toxicology Book
Author : Mark T. D. Cronin,Judith C. Madden
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1849730040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.

Chemometrics and Cheminformatics in Aquatic Toxicology

Chemometrics and Cheminformatics in Aquatic Toxicology Book
Author : Kunal Roy
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2022-01-06
ISBN : 1119681596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

CHEMOMETRICS AND CHEMINFORMATICS IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY Explore chemometric and cheminformatic techniques and tools in aquatic toxicology Chemometrics and Cheminformatics in Aquatic Toxicology delivers an exploration of the existing and emerging problems of contamination of the aquatic environment through various metal and organic pollutants, including industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, nanomaterials, pesticides, surfactants, dyes, and more. The book discusses different chemometric and cheminformatic tools for non-experts and their application to the analysis and modeling of toxicity data of chemicals to various aquatic organisms. You’ll learn about a variety of aquatic toxicity databases and chemometric software tools and webservers as well as practical examples of model development, including illustrations. You’ll also find case studies and literature reports to round out your understanding of the subject. Finally, you’ll learn about tools and protocols including machine learning, data mining, and QSAR and ligand-based chemical design methods. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to chemometric and cheminformatic tools and techniques, including machine learning and data mining An exploration of aquatic toxicity databases, chemometric software tools, and webservers Practical examples and case studies to highlight and illustrate the concepts contained within the book A concise treatment of chemometric and cheminformatic tools and their application to the analysis and modeling of toxicity data Perfect for researchers and students in chemistry and the environmental and pharmaceutical sciences, Chemometrics and Cheminformatics in Aquatic Toxicology will also earn a place in the libraries of professionals in the chemical industry and regulators whose work involves chemometrics.

An Introduction to Toxicology

An Introduction to Toxicology Book
Author : Philip C. Burcham
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-19
ISBN : 144715553X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a readable introduction to modern toxicology with a particular focus on the mechanisms underlying the induction of toxicity by foreign substances. Since bioactivation is central to many toxic syndromes, special interest is devoted to chemicals that undergo conversion to toxic metabolites that induce toxic effects as diverse as cancer, birth defects and organ injury. The molecular consequences accompanying damage to cellular DNA and proteins is explored together with the relevance of toxicological paradigms to human diseases caused by alcohol and tobacco. The discipline of toxicology has developed rapidly since the thalidomide disaster in the 1960’s as scientists worldwide seek to understand the adverse health effects of human medicines, environmental pollutants, consumer chemicals and industrial reagents. An Introduction to Toxicology is intended to supplement the recommended reading list of undergraduate and graduate programs in toxicology and pharmacology as an enjoyable, accessible primer with illustrations that “unpack” the concepts being discussed in the text. ​

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents Book
Author : Ramesh C. Gupta
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-31
ISBN : 0128190914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Third Edition, covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors and biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, and countermeasures. Expanding on the second edition, Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents has been completely updated, presenting the most recent advances in field. Brand new chapters include a new chapter on emergency preparedness, coverage of the chemical warfare agents used in Syria, the use of the Novichok agent in the UK, and more. Unites world-leading experts to bring you cutting-edge, agent-specific information on Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and their adverse effects on human and animal health, and the environment Provides you with all the information you need on CWA modes of action, detection, prevention, therapeutic treatment and countermeasures New to this edition: a full update to reflect the most recent advances in the field and new chapters on emergency preparedness, the chemical warfare agents used in Syria, and the use of the Novichok agent in the UK

Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment Book
Author : Bruce A. Fowler
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-06-10
ISBN : 0128019018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment provides an introduction to the exciting field of biomarkers and their use in toxicology and risk assessment. In recent years, new classes of molecular biomarkers capable of detecting early manifestations of ongoing chemical-induced cell injury and cell death have been developed as a result of advances in analytical chemistry, molecular biology, and computational modeling. The interplay between these emergent tools of science has resulted in new insights into initial mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment guides the reader through a broad range of molecular biological markers, including the "omic" biomarkers, and provides an examination of the various elements in the evolution of these modern tools. It then explores possible ways in which these markers may be applied to advance the field of chemical risk assessment. Since molecular biomarkers and related technologies are inherently complex, the book concludes with a section on risk communication in order that readers may appreciate both the strengths and limitations of molecular biological marker approaches to risk assessment practice. Introduces the use of molecular biomarkers to detect toxic effects of chemicals as early as possible Provides an accessible overview of this emerging, interdisciplinary field, to best inform decision making in chemical and pharmaceutical safety Includes a section on risk communication of these complex concepts, essential for effective risk assessment Provides new insights into the initial mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity

Computer Applications in Pharmaceutical Research and Development

Computer Applications in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Book
Author : Sean Ekins
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-07-11
ISBN : 0470037229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A unique, holistic approach covering all functions and phases of pharmaceutical research and development While there are a number of texts dedicated to individual aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, this unique contributed work takes a holistic and integrative approach to the use of computers in all phases of drug discovery, development, and marketing. It explains how applications are used at various stages, including bioinformatics, data mining, predicting human response to drugs, and high-throughput screening. By providing a comprehensive view, the book offers readers a unique framework and systems perspective from which they can devise strategies to thoroughly exploit the use of computers in their organizations during all phases of the discovery and development process. Chapters are organized into the following sections: * Computers in pharmaceutical research and development: a general overview * Understanding diseases: mining complex systems for knowledge * Scientific information handling and enhancing productivity * Computers in drug discovery * Computers in preclinical development * Computers in development decision making, economics, and market analysis * Computers in clinical development * Future applications and future development Each chapter is written by one or more leading experts in the field and carefully edited to ensure a consistent structure and approach throughout the book. Figures are used extensively to illustrate complex concepts and multifaceted processes. References are provided in each chapter to enable readers to continue investigating a particular topic in depth. Finally, tables of software resources are provided in many of the chapters. This is essential reading for IT professionals and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry as well as researchers involved in informatics and ADMET, drug discovery, and technology development. The book's cross-functional, all-phases approach provides a unique opportunity for a holistic analysis and assessment of computer applications in pharmaceutics.

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology Book
Author : Carey N. Pope,Jing Liu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-06
ISBN : 0128136022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology: From Molecules to Man integrates the various aspects of toxicology, from "simple” molecular systems, to complex human communities, with expertise from a spectrum of interacting disciplines. Chapters are written by specialists within a given subject, such as a chemical engineer, nutritional scientist, or a microbiologist, so subjects are clearly explained and discussed within the toxicology context. Many chapters are comparative across species so that students in ecotoxicology learn mammalian toxicology and vice versa. Specific citations, further reading, study questions, and other learning features are also included. The book allows students to concurrently learn concepts in both biomedical and environmental toxicology fields, thus better equipping them for the many career opportunities toxicology provides. This book will also be useful to those wishing to reference how disciplines interact within the broad field of toxicology. Covers major topics and newer areas in toxicology, including nanotoxicology, Tox21, epigenetic toxicology, and organ-specific toxicity Includes a variety of perspectives to give a complete understanding of toxicology Written by specialists within each subject area, e.g., a chemical engineer, to ensure concepts are clearly explained

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-20
ISBN : 0128136987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.