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Compostable Polymer Materials

Compostable Polymer Materials Book
Author : Ewa Rudnik
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-07
ISBN : 9780080560847
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compostable Polymer Materials deals with an environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book provides up–to-date results and information about compostable polymer materials in a coherent and comprehensive manner. It covers the entire spectrum of preparation, properties, degradation, and environmental issues. The emphasis is on recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxicological assessment of polymer materials-–important issues from the ecological point of view. Moreover, the thermal behavior of compostable polymers is described. Their price evolution over the past decade, an estimation of the market and future perspectives are presented. Focus on the composting process, compostability standards, compost quality and composting studies Coherent and uniformly presented information about methods of preparation; properties, processing and applications Up-to-date information on ecotoxicity testing and studies of polymers Overview of thermal stability and thermal degradation process of compostable polymer materials Presents future perspectives of compostable polymers, including evolution of price during last decade Information about waste management evolution in Europe, USA and Asia (China) with emphasis on composting during the last decade

Compostable Polymer Materials

Compostable Polymer Materials Book
Author : Ewa Rudnik
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2019-06-04
ISBN : 0080994423
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compostable Polymer Materials, Second Edition, deals with the environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable, or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book covers the entire spectrum of preparation, degradation, and evironmental issues related to compostable polymers. It emphasizes recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxilogical assessment of polymer materials. It descibes the thermal behavior, including flammability properties, of compostable polymers. It also explores possible routes of compostable polymers waste disposal through an ecological lens. Finally, the book examines the economic factors at work, including price evolution over the past decade, the current market, and future perspectives. Compostable Polymer Materials is an essential resource for graduate students and scientists working in chemistry, materials science, ecology, and environmental science. Provides a comprehensive study of the composting process Details methods of compostable polymers preparation, including properties, processing and applications Presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on ecotoxicity testing and biodegradation under real composting conditions of compostable polymers, as well as biodegradation in various environments, such as marine environments and anaerobic conditions Discusses the evolution of waste management in Europe and the United States, as well as the status of MSW disposal and treatment methods in countries such as China and Brazil Overviews biodegradation studies under real composting conditions of products made of compostable polymers, e.g. bags, bottles, cutletry Analyzes evolution of market development, including price of compostable polymers during the last decade

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1455728349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new Handbook provides engineers and scientists with the information and practical guidance needed to successfully design and manufacture products using biopolymers and biodegradable plastics. Biopolymers and biodegradable plastics are a hot issue across the plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic: from packaging to medical devices and from the construction industry to the automotive sector. This book brings together in one place a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics-in chapters previously published as well as updated and new chapters-for a broad audience of engineers of and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers. Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings, controlled release, and tissue engineering are discussed.

The Complete Book on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers Recent Developments Properties Analysis Materials Processes

The Complete Book on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers  Recent Developments  Properties  Analysis  Materials   Processes  Book
Author : NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Release : 2006-10-01
ISBN : 8178330350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable plastics made with plant based materials have been available for many years. The term biodegradable means that a substance is able to be broken down into simpler substances by the activities of living organisms, and therefore is unlikely to persist in the environment. There are many different standards used to measure biodegradability, with each country having its own. The requirements range from 90 per cent to 60 per cent decomposition of the product within 60 to 180 days of being placed in a standard composting environment. They may be composed of either bio plastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum based plastics which contain additives. Biodegradability of plastics is dependent on the chemical structure of the material and on constitution of the final product, not just on the raw materials used for its production. Polyesters play a predominant role as biodegradable plastics due to their potentially hydrolysable ester bonds. Bio based polymers are divided into three categories based on their origin and production; polymer directly extracted from biomass, polymers produced by classical chemical synthesis using renewable biomass monomer and polymers produces by microorganisms or genetically modified bacteria. In response to public concern about the effects of plastics on the environment and in particular the damaging effects of sea litter on animals and birds, legislation is being enacted or is pending in many countries to ban non degradable packing, finishing nets etc. This book basically deals with biodegradable plastics developments and environmental impacts, hydro biodegradable and photo biodegradable, starch synthetic aliphatic polyester blends, difference between standards for biodegradation, polybutylene succinate (pbs) and polybutylene, recent developments in the biopolymer industry, recent advances in synthesis of biopolymers by traditional methodologies, polymers, environmentally degradable synthetic biodegradable polymers as medical devices, polymers produced from classical chemical synthesis from bio based monomers, potential bio based packaging materials, conventional packaging materials, environmental impact of bio based materials: biodegradability and compostability, etc. Environmentally acceptable degradable polymers have been defined as polymers that degrade in the environment by several mechanisms and culminate in complete biodegradation so that no residue remains in the environment. The present book gives thorough information to biodegradable plastic and polymers. This is an excellent book for scientists engineers, students and industrial researchers in the field of bio based materials.

Plastic Films in Food Packaging

Plastic Films in Food Packaging Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 1455731153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The value of the groceries purchases in the USA is over $500 billion annually, most of which is accounted for by packaged foods. Plastic packaging of foods is not only ubiquitous in developed economies, but increasingly commonplace in the developing world, where plastic packaging is instrumental in decreasing the proportion of the food supply lost to spoilage. This new handbook is a combination of new material and updated chapters, chosen by Dr. Sina Ebnesajjad, from recently published books on this subject. Plastic Films in Food Packaging offers a practical handbook for engineers, scientists and managers working in the food packaging industry, providing a tailor-made package of science and engineering fundamentals, best practice techniques and guidance on new and emerging technologies. By covering materials, design, packaging processes, machinery and waste management together in one book, the authors enable the reader to take a lifecycle approach to food packaging. The Handbook addresses questions related to film grades, types of packages for different types of foods, packaging technologies, machinery and waste management. Additionally the book provides a review of new and emerging technologies. Two chapters cover the development of barrier films for food packaging and the regulatory and safety aspects of food packaging. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working at all stages of the food packaging lifecycle: from design through manufacture to recycling Includes key published material on plastic films in food packaging, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material on the regulatory framework and safety aspects Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design and manufacturing decisions

Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics

Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics Book
Author : Emo Chiellini,Roberto Solaro
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1441992405
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic and semi-synthetic polymeric materials were originally developed for their durability and resistance to all forms of degradation including biodegradation. Such materials are currently widely accepted because of their ease of processability and amenability to provide a large variety of cost effective items that help to enhance the comfort and quality of life in the modern industrial society. However, this widespread utilization of plastics has contributed to a serious plastic waste burden, and the expectation for the 21st century is for an increased demand for polymeric material. This volume focuses on a more rational utilization of resources in the fabrication, consumption and disposal of plastic items, specifically: -Environmentally Degradable Polymeric Materials (EDPs); -Water-soluble/Swellable Biodegradable Polymers; -EDPs from Renewable Resources; -Biopolymers; -Bioresorbable Materials for Biomedical Applications; -Biorelated Polymers; -Standards and Regulations on EDPs.

Degradable Polymers Recycling and Plastics Waste Management

Degradable Polymers  Recycling  and Plastics Waste Management Book
Author : Albertsson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-07-07
ISBN : 9780824796686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on the International Workshop on Controlled Life-Cycle of Polymeric Materials held in Stockholm, this work examines degradable polymers and the recycling of plastic materials. It highlights recent results on recycling and waste management, including topics such as renewable resources, degradation, processing and products, and environmental issues.

Sustainable Plastics

Sustainable Plastics Book
Author : Joseph P. Greene
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-09-22
ISBN : 1118899806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing guidelines for implementing sustainable practices for traditional petroleum based plastics, biobased plastics, and recycled plastics, Sustainable Plastics and the Environment explains what sustainable plastics are, why sustainable plastics are needed, which sustainable plastics to use, and how manufacturing companies can integrate them into their manufacturing operations. A vital resource for practitioners, scientists, researchers, and students, the text includes impacts of plastics including Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and sustainability strategies related to biobased plastics and petroleum based plastics as well as end-of-life options for petroleum and biobased plastics.

Degradable Polymers

Degradable Polymers Book
Author : G. Scott
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9781402007903
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The emphasis in degradable polymers has changed since the first edition of this book. Biomedical and agricultural applications remain important topics of scientific and commercial interest in the second edition. However, an increased emphasis on composting as a means of recovering value from wastes has led to a new impetus to understand how plastics degrade in the environment and the implication of this for international standards. Polymers based on renewable resources are also a major topic in this edition but the debate continues about their long-term sustainability and ecological advantages over degradable man-made polymers. Degradable Polymers will be of interest not only to academic and industrial scientists working on packaging, agricultural and medical applications of plastics but also to students of environmental science and legislators concerned with the effects of man-made materials in the environment.

Microbiology of Composting

Microbiology of Composting Book
Author : Heribert Insam,Nuntavun Riddech,Susanne Klammer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2002-05-14
ISBN : 9783540675686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Composting is increasingly used as a recycling technology for organic wastes. Knowledge on the composition and activities of compost microbial communities has so far been based on traditional methods. New molecular and physiological tools now offer new insights into the "black box" of decaying material. An unforeseen diversity of microorganisms are involved in composting, opening up an enormous potential for future process and product improvements. In this book, the views of scientists, engineers and end-users on compost production, process optimisation, standardisation and product application are presented.

High Technology Research and Applications 2017

High Technology  Research and Applications 2017 Book
Author : Georgii E. Osokin,Ekaterina A. Kulinich
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2018-04-27
ISBN : 3035732817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The 6th International Science and Engineering Conference for young scientists, postgraduate and undergraduate students “High Technology: Research and Applications” (HTRA, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, November 27-29, 2017) presents research works in the fields of new materials and coatings for various applications, projects in advanced organic chemistry and biotechnologies, achievements of machine engineering.

Biodegradable and Compostable Packaging Materials for Foodstuffs

Biodegradable and Compostable Packaging Materials for Foodstuffs Book
Author : David Cava,Alan Campbell
Publisher :
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780907503651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable polymers may replace commonly used oil derived plastics in many applications, including food packaging. Although they are still too expensive and their performance and production volumes do not match those of conventional materials, some of them have properties that make them unique. Building on, and superseding Campden BRI Review 56, this review describes the current state of development of biodegradable food packaging. In the first part, the sector is considered as a whole, highlighting both weakness and growth opportunities. In the second part, individual biodegradable plastics are described. This section includes those that are commercially available, and those still being developed.

Introduction to Polymer Chemistry Second Edition

Introduction to Polymer Chemistry  Second Edition Book
Author : Charles E. Carraher Jr.
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-01-12
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this second edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, ceramics, and more.

Automotive Plastics and Composites

Automotive Plastics and Composites Book
Author : Joseph P. Greene
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2021-05-01
ISBN : 0128182407
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Automotive Plastics and Composites: Materials and Processing is an essential guide to the use of plastic and polymer composites in automotive applications, whether in the exterior, interior, under-the-hood, or powertrain, with a focus on materials, properties, and processing. The book begins by introducing plastics and polymers for the automotive industry, discussing polymer materials and structures, mechanical, chemical, and physical properties, rheology, and flow analysis. In the second part of the book, each chapter is dedicated to a category of material, and considers the manufacture, processing, properties, shrinkage, and possible applications, in each case. Two chapters on polymer processing provide detailed information on both closed-mold and open-mold processing. The final chapters explain other key aspects, such as recycling and sustainability, design principles, tooling, and future trends. This book is an ideal reference for plastics engineers, product designers, technicians, scientists, and R&D professionals, looking to develop materials, components, or products, for automotive applications. This also supports researchers, scientists and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer processing, and materials science and engineering. Analyses mechanical, chemical, physical, and thermal properties, enabling the reader to select the appropriate material for specific applications Explains polymer processing, with thorough coverage of operations across both closed-mold and open-mold processin Provides systematic coverage of materials, including commodity and engineering thermoplastics, biobased plastics, thermosets, composites, elastomeric polymers, and 3D printed plastics

Advances in Biodegradable Polymers

Advances in Biodegradable Polymers Book
Author : G. F. Moore,S. M. Saunders
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 1998-02
ISBN : 9781859571187
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this report the factors which influence biodegradation are first explained. Methods of testing and evaluating biodegradation are then described and compared. The principles, relative costs and practical applications of specific tests are outlined together with the position with respect to recognised standards. The range of biodegradable polymers and polymer blends is then described, including natural and synthetic products. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Polymerization Processes and Polymer Materials II

Polymerization Processes and Polymer Materials II Book
Author : Zbigniew Florjanczyk
Publisher : Wiley-VCH
Release : 2002-01-28
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The World Polymer Congresses are highlights in the calendars of polymer scientists. In July 2000, the 38th International Symposium on Macromolecules (sponsored by IUPAC) was held in Warsaw, attended by 1 500 participants from 54 countries. The program covered all areas of macromolecular chemistry---from various kinds of polymer synthesis to theory and modeling of polymer systems; from polymer properties and characterization to industrial processing. All types of polymers (e.g., crystalline, branched, blends, composites and biorelated) were discussed, and industrial and educational perspectives were explored. Volumes 174 and 175 of Macromolecular Symposia present almost all the Invited and Plenary Lectures from the Congress and represent an excellent overview of the current state of macromolecular science.

Polymerization Processes and Polymer Materials II

Polymerization Processes and Polymer Materials II Book
Author : I. Meisel,C. S. Kniep,S. Spiegel,K. Grieve
Publisher : Wiley-VCH
Release : 2002-01-28
ISBN : 9783527303373
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The World Polymer Congresses are highlights in the calendars of polymer scientists. In July 2000, the 38th International Symposium on Macromolecules (sponsored by IUPAC) was held in Warsaw, attended by 1 500 participants from 54 countries. The program covered all areas of macromolecular chemistry---from various kinds of polymer synthesis to theory and modeling of polymer systems; from polymer properties and characterization to industrial processing. All types of polymers (e.g., crystalline, branched, blends, composites and biorelated) were discussed, and industrial and educational perspectives were explored. Volumes 174 and 175 of Macromolecular Symposia present almost all the Invited and Plenary Lectures from the Congress and represent an excellent overview of the current state of macromolecular science.

Soil Management

Soil Management Book
Author : H. W. Dalzell,H. E. Dalzell,A. J. Biddlestone,K. R. Gray,K. Thurairajan
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
Release : 1987
ISBN : 9789251025536
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A manual on compost making. Described are: principles of composting, materials for composting, practical composting processes, uses of composts, environmental aspects, economic and social aspects, education and training of farmers and extension workers

Degradable Polymers and Materials

Degradable Polymers and Materials Book
Author : Chief Technical Officer Kishan Khemani,Kishan C. Khemani,Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry Carmen Scholz,Carmen Scholz,American Chemical Society. Meeting
Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
Release : 2006
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is an excellent guide to biobased and biodegradable polymeric materials. It summarizes current knowledge on polymer degradation mechanisms and provides insight into recent, state of the art syntheses of (bio)degradable polymers. The book captures the shift that is currently observed in polymer industries, which takes the industry from a strict petroleum-based business to an industry that starts to incorporate biobased raw materials and seeks actively to manufacture materials that are environmentally benign. The book describes various aspects of current polymer research with special emphasis on natural polymers, syntheses and modifications of polyesters and characterization technologies that allow to elucidate degradation mechanisms. The understanding of polymer degradation is not limited anymore to hydrolytic processes, this book captures new approaches to the degradation of plastic materials ranging from photodegradation to the regulation of genes of polymer-degrading microorganisms. A profound part of the book is dedicated to poly(lactic acid) a polymer that is now produced in large scale from renewable resources, the modification, copolymerization, application and engineering of this material is discussed in detail and a comprehensive review is provided.