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Compostable Polymer Materials

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Compostable Polymer Materials

Compostable Polymer Materials Book
Author : Ewa Rudnik
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2019-06-04
ISBN : 0080994423
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compostable Polymer Materials, Second Edition, deals with the environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable, or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book covers the entire spectrum of preparation, degradation, and evironmental issues related to compostable polymers. It emphasizes recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxilogical assessment of polymer materials. It descibes the thermal behavior, including flammability properties, of compostable polymers. It also explores possible routes of compostable polymers waste disposal through an ecological lens. Finally, the book examines the economic factors at work, including price evolution over the past decade, the current market, and future perspectives. Compostable Polymer Materials is an essential resource for graduate students and scientists working in chemistry, materials science, ecology, and environmental science. Provides a comprehensive study of the composting process Details methods of compostable polymers preparation, including properties, processing and applications Presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on ecotoxicity testing and biodegradation under real composting conditions of compostable polymers, as well as biodegradation in various environments, such as marine environments and anaerobic conditions Discusses the evolution of waste management in Europe and the United States, as well as the status of MSW disposal and treatment methods in countries such as China and Brazil Overviews biodegradation studies under real composting conditions of products made of compostable polymers, e.g. bags, bottles, cutletry Analyzes evolution of market development, including price of compostable polymers during the last decade

Compostable Polymer Materials

Compostable Polymer Materials Book
Author : Ewa Rudnik
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-07
ISBN : 9780080560847
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compostable Polymer Materials deals with an environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book provides up–to-date results and information about compostable polymer materials in a coherent and comprehensive manner. It covers the entire spectrum of preparation, properties, degradation, and environmental issues. The emphasis is on recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxicological assessment of polymer materials-–important issues from the ecological point of view. Moreover, the thermal behavior of compostable polymers is described. Their price evolution over the past decade, an estimation of the market and future perspectives are presented. Focus on the composting process, compostability standards, compost quality and composting studies Coherent and uniformly presented information about methods of preparation; properties, processing and applications Up-to-date information on ecotoxicity testing and studies of polymers Overview of thermal stability and thermal degradation process of compostable polymer materials Presents future perspectives of compostable polymers, including evolution of price during last decade Information about waste management evolution in Europe, USA and Asia (China) with emphasis on composting during the last decade

The Complete Book on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers Recent Developments Properties Analysis Materials Processes

The Complete Book on Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers  Recent Developments  Properties  Analysis  Materials   Processes  Book
Author : NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Release : 2006-10-01
ISBN : 8178330350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable plastics made with plant based materials have been available for many years. The term biodegradable means that a substance is able to be broken down into simpler substances by the activities of living organisms, and therefore is unlikely to persist in the environment. There are many different standards used to measure biodegradability, with each country having its own. The requirements range from 90 per cent to 60 per cent decomposition of the product within 60 to 180 days of being placed in a standard composting environment. They may be composed of either bio plastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum based plastics which contain additives. Biodegradability of plastics is dependent on the chemical structure of the material and on constitution of the final product, not just on the raw materials used for its production. Polyesters play a predominant role as biodegradable plastics due to their potentially hydrolysable ester bonds. Bio based polymers are divided into three categories based on their origin and production; polymer directly extracted from biomass, polymers produced by classical chemical synthesis using renewable biomass monomer and polymers produces by microorganisms or genetically modified bacteria. In response to public concern about the effects of plastics on the environment and in particular the damaging effects of sea litter on animals and birds, legislation is being enacted or is pending in many countries to ban non degradable packing, finishing nets etc. This book basically deals with biodegradable plastics developments and environmental impacts, hydro biodegradable and photo biodegradable, starch synthetic aliphatic polyester blends, difference between standards for biodegradation, polybutylene succinate (pbs) and polybutylene, recent developments in the biopolymer industry, recent advances in synthesis of biopolymers by traditional methodologies, polymers, environmentally degradable synthetic biodegradable polymers as medical devices, polymers produced from classical chemical synthesis from bio based monomers, potential bio based packaging materials, conventional packaging materials, environmental impact of bio based materials: biodegradability and compostability, etc. Environmentally acceptable degradable polymers have been defined as polymers that degrade in the environment by several mechanisms and culminate in complete biodegradation so that no residue remains in the environment. The present book gives thorough information to biodegradable plastic and polymers. This is an excellent book for scientists engineers, students and industrial researchers in the field of bio based materials.

Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics

Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics Book
Author : Emo Chiellini,Roberto Solaro
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1441992405
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic and semi-synthetic polymeric materials were originally developed for their durability and resistance to all forms of degradation including biodegradation. Such materials are currently widely accepted because of their ease of processability and amenability to provide a large variety of cost effective items that help to enhance the comfort and quality of life in the modern industrial society. However, this widespread utilization of plastics has contributed to a serious plastic waste burden, and the expectation for the 21st century is for an increased demand for polymeric material. This volume focuses on a more rational utilization of resources in the fabrication, consumption and disposal of plastic items, specifically: -Environmentally Degradable Polymeric Materials (EDPs); -Water-soluble/Swellable Biodegradable Polymers; -EDPs from Renewable Resources; -Biopolymers; -Bioresorbable Materials for Biomedical Applications; -Biorelated Polymers; -Standards and Regulations on EDPs.

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 1455730033
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics are a hot issue across the Plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic, from packaging to medical devices and from the construction indusry to the automotive sector. This book brings together a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics, or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers. Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings controlled release and tissue engineering are discussed. Dr Ebnesajjad provides readers with an in-depth reference for the plastics industry – material suppliers and processors, bio-polymer producers, bio-polymer processors and fabricators – and for industry sectors utilizing biopolymers – automotive, packaging, construction, wind turbine manufacturers, film manufacturers, adhesive and coating industries, medical device manufacturers, biomedical engineers, and the recycling industry. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with bioplastics, or evaluating a migration to bioplastics. Includes key published material on biopolymers, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material including coverage of PLA and Tissue Engineering Scaffolds. Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design decisions.

Plastic Films in Food Packaging

Plastic Films in Food Packaging Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 1455731153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The value of the groceries purchases in the USA is over $500 billion annually, most of which is accounted for by packaged foods. Plastic packaging of foods is not only ubiquitous in developed economies, but increasingly commonplace in the developing world, where plastic packaging is instrumental in decreasing the proportion of the food supply lost to spoilage. This new handbook is a combination of new material and updated chapters, chosen by Dr. Sina Ebnesajjad, from recently published books on this subject. Plastic Films in Food Packaging offers a practical handbook for engineers, scientists and managers working in the food packaging industry, providing a tailor-made package of science and engineering fundamentals, best practice techniques and guidance on new and emerging technologies. By covering materials, design, packaging processes, machinery and waste management together in one book, the authors enable the reader to take a lifecycle approach to food packaging. The Handbook addresses questions related to film grades, types of packages for different types of foods, packaging technologies, machinery and waste management. Additionally the book provides a review of new and emerging technologies. Two chapters cover the development of barrier films for food packaging and the regulatory and safety aspects of food packaging. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working at all stages of the food packaging lifecycle: from design through manufacture to recycling Includes key published material on plastic films in food packaging, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material on the regulatory framework and safety aspects Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design and manufacturing decisions

Composites Materials for Food Packaging

Composites Materials for Food Packaging Book
Author : Giuseppe Cirillo,Marek A. Kozlowski,Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-05-04
ISBN : 1119160219
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is intended as an overview on the recent and more relevant developments in the application of composite materials for food packaging applications, emphasizing the scientific outcome arising from the physico-chemical properties of such engineered materials with the needs of food quality and safety. Consumers are increasingly conscious of the strong relationship between food quality and health, and thus the request of packaging materials allowing the quality and safety of foods to be highly preserved. As a result, scientists from both academia and industry work to increase the quality of the food storage, with this book meant as a link between scientific and industrial research, showing how the development in composite materials can impact the field. In the book, the inorganic materials employed for the preparation of composite material is extensively analyzed in terms of physico-chemical properties, environmental and reusability concerns, as well as food interaction features, highlighting the importance and the potential limitations of each approach.

Recycling Materials Based on Environmentally Friendly Techniques

Recycling Materials Based on Environmentally Friendly Techniques Book
Author : Dimitris Achilias
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2015-07-15
ISBN : 9535121421
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reducing the amount of solid wastes in landfills is one of the main targets in nowadays wastes treatment. To this direction, there is a great need in finding of smart recycling techniques which should, as is possible, to be environmentally friendly. The intention of this book is to present some recent methods for the recycling of several materials, including plastics and wood, as well as to show the importance of composting of polymers. It targets professionals, recycling companies, researchers, academics and graduate students in the fields of waste management and polymer recycling in addition to chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry and physics. This book comprises 5 chapters covering areas such as, recycling of polystyrene, polyesters, PC, WEEE and wood waste, together with compostable polymers and nanocomposites.

Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials

Glass Transition and Phase Transitions in Food and Biological Materials Book
Author : Jasim Ahmed
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-02-03
ISBN : 1118935713
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glass and State Transitions in Food and Biological Materials describes how glass transition has been applied to food micro-structure, food processing, product development, storage studies, packaging development and other areas. This book has been structured so that readers can initially grasp the basic principles and instrumentation, before moving through the various applications. In summary, the book will provide the “missing link” between food science and material science/polymer engineering. This will allow food scientists to better understand the concept and applications of thermal properties.

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Physico Chemical and Mechanical Characterization

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials  Physico Chemical and Mechanical Characterization Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-02-17
ISBN : 1119224306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 3rd volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: structural and biodegradation characterization of supramolecular PCL/HAP nano-composites; different characterization of solid bio-fillers based agricultural waste material; poly (ethylene-terephthalate) reinforced with hemp fibers; poly (lactic acid) thermoplastic composites from renewable materials; chitosan –based composite materials: fabrication and characterization; the use of flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites in the externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting monitored by transient thermography and optical techniques; recycling and reuse of fiber reinforced polymer wastes in concrete composite materials; analysis of damage in hybrid composites subjected to ballistic impacts; biofiber reinforced acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) biocomposites; biopolyamides and high performance natural fiber-reinforced biocomposites; impact of recycling on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of wood fiber based HDPE and PLA composites; lignocellulosic fibers composites: an overview; biodiesel derived raw glycerol to value added products; thermo-mechanical characterization of sustainable structural composites; novel pH sensitive composite hydrogel based on functionalized starch/clay for the controlled release of amoxicillin; preparation and characterization of biobased thermoset polymers from renewable resources; influence of natural fillers size and shape into mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites; composite of biodegradable polymer blends of PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber - the effects of ionizing radiation; packaging composite materials from renewable resources; physicochemical properties of ash based geopolymer concrete; a biopolymer derived from castor oil polyurethane; natural polymer based biomaterials; physical and mechanical properties of polymer membranes from renewable resources

Biofiller Reinforced Biodegradable Polymer Composites

Biofiller Reinforced Biodegradable Polymer Composites Book
Author : R. Jumaidin,S. M. Sapuan,H. Ismail
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-10-28
ISBN : 1000198022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presenting a comprehensive overview of the field, Biofiller-Reinforced Biodegradable Polymer Composites examines biodegradable composites derived from biofiller and biodegradable polymers while providing critical information for efficient use of biocomposites developed from natural resources. Discusses advanced techniques for the use of both biofiller and biodegradable polymers as the matrix for composites. Highlights application of both natural fiber and natural matrix for composites in the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. Introduces the basics of biocomposites, the processing and characteristics of new composite materials, and new combinations of composites such as soy protein and nanocellulose. Elaborates on the introduction of new materials to develop biodegradable polymers. This book has been written for researchers, advanced students, and professional engineers and materials scientists working in the area of bio-based polymers, natural fiber composites, and biocomposites.

The Chemistry of Bio based Polymers

The Chemistry of Bio based Polymers Book
Author : Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-01-22
ISBN : 1119681316
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The recent explosion of interdisciplinary research has fragmented the knowledge base surrounding renewable polymers. The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers 2nd edition brings together, in one volume, the research and work of Professor Johannes Fink, focusing on biopolymers that can be synthesized from renewable polymers. After introducing general aspects of the field, the book’s subsequent chapters examine the chemistry of biodegradable polymeric types sorted by their chemical compounds, including the synthesis of low molecular compounds. Various categories of biopolymers are detailed including vinyl-based polymers, acid and lactone polymers, ester and amide polymers, carbohydrate-related polymers and others. Procedures for the preparation of biopolymers and biodegradable nanocomposites are arranged by chemical methods and in vitro biological methods, with discussion of the issue of “plastics from bacteria.” The factors influencing the degradation and biodegradation of polymers used in food packaging, exposed to various environments, are detailed at length. The book covers the medical applications of bio-based polymers, concentrating on controlled drug delivery, temporary prostheses, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Professor Fink also addresses renewable resources for fabricating biofuels and argues for localized biorefineries, as biomass feedstocks are more efficiently handled locally.

Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications

Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications Book
Author : Srikanth Pilla
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-20
ISBN : 0470626070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The Handbook of Bioplastics & Biocomposites Engineering Applications brings together scientists, from academia and industries, to report on current research and applications, in the bioplastics and biocomposites arena, that integrates pure and applied sciences such as chemistry, engineering and materials science. The Handbook focuses on five main categories of applications: Packaging, Civil Engineering, Biomedical, Automotive, General Engineering"--

Polymers in Industry from A to Z

Polymers in Industry from A to Z Book
Author : Leno Mascia
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-02-27
ISBN : 3527329641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We are surrounded by polymers: Whether it′s to prepare a meal, use computer keyboards and mousepads, or step onto a new playground, you′ll encounter a plastic product made of polymers. Owing to the extraordinary range of properties accessible in polymeric materials, they play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life – from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are essential for life on the other. This desktop and library reference book provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the materials, manufacture, structure and architecture, properties, processing, and applications of withing the field of polymers. The book offers a unique mix of theory and application, the essential personal reference for anyone studying or working within the field of polymers.

Advances in Waste Processing Technology

Advances in Waste Processing Technology Book
Author : Abu Zahrim Yaser
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-20
ISBN : 9811548218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights the latest research on waste processing technologies, particularly for domestic, agricultural, and petroleum based pollutants, intended to achieve waste valorisation. In addition, it discusses the important role of plastic recycling, as well as advanced waste processing techniques.

Degradation of Plastics

Degradation of Plastics Book
Author : Inamuddin,Rizwana Mobin,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Rajender Boddula
Publisher : Materials Research Forum LLC
Release : 2021-05-20
ISBN : 1644901331
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The degradation of plastics is most important for the removal and recycling of plastic wastes. The book presents a comprehensive overview of the field. Topics covered include plastic degradation methods, mechanistic actions, biodegradation, involvement of enzymes, photocatalytic degradation and the use of cyanobacteria. Also covered are the market of degradable plastics and the environmental implications. Keywords: Degradable Plastics, Bioplastics, Biodegradable Plastics, Enzymes, Cyanobacteria, Photocatalytic Degradation, Wastewater Treatment, Degradable Plastic Market, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Polyurethane, and Polyethylene Terephthalate.

Biodegradable and Compostable Packaging Materials for Foodstuffs

Biodegradable and Compostable Packaging Materials for Foodstuffs Book
Author : David Cava,Alan Campbell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780907503651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable polymers may replace commonly used oil derived plastics in many applications, including food packaging. Although they are still too expensive and their performance and production volumes do not match those of conventional materials, some of them have properties that make them unique. Building on, and superseding Campden BRI Review 56, this review describes the current state of development of biodegradable food packaging. In the first part, the sector is considered as a whole, highlighting both weakness and growth opportunities. In the second part, individual biodegradable plastics are described. This section includes those that are commercially available, and those still being developed.

Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering

Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering Book
Author : Syed Ali Ashter
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2016-03-29
ISBN : 0323394078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering is a practical, user-friendly reference for plastics engineers working with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics that addresses topics that are required for the successful development of cohesive bioplastic products. While there has been considerable demand for the use of bioplastics in industry, processing these bioplastics is a big challenge. The book provides plastics engineers and researchers with a fundamental, practical understanding of the differences between bioplastics and biodegradable polymers, along with guidance on the different methods used to process bioplastics. The book also covers additives and modifiers for biopolymers and their effect on properties. Examples include commercial applications of bioplastics, current bioplastics being developed, and future trends in the industry. This enables engineers, researchers, technicians, and students to understand the decisive relationship between different processing techniques, morphology, mechanical properties, and the further applications of bio-based polymers. The book presents a true engineering approach for the industry on the processing of biopolymers and biodegradable plastics – discussing the ease of use of the polymer, mechanical and thermal properties, rate of biodegradation in particular environments, and pros and cons of particular bioplastics. Enables engineers, researchers, technicians, and students to understand the decisive relationship between different processing techniques, morphology, mechanical properties, and the further applications of bio-based polymers. Covers additives and modifiers for biopolymers and their effect on properties Includes examples that illustrate the commercial applications of bioplastics, current bioplastics being developed, and future trends in the industry

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing Book
Author : Donald G. Baird,Dimitris I. Collias
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-03-10
ISBN : 1118354729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamental concepts coupled with practical, step-by-stepguidance With its emphasis on core principles, this text equips readerswith the skills and knowledge to design the many processes neededto safely and successfully manufacture thermoplastic parts. Thefirst half of the text sets forth the general theory and conceptsunderlying polymer processing, such as the viscoelastic response ofpolymeric fluids and diffusion and mass transfer. Next, the textexplores specific practical aspects of polymer processing,including mixing, extrusion dies, and post-die processing. Byaddressing a broad range of design issues and methods, the authorsdemonstrate how to solve most common processing problems. This Second Edition of the highly acclaimed PolymerProcessing has been thoroughly updated to reflect currentpolymer processing issues and practices. New areas of coverageinclude: Micro-injection molding to produce objects weighing a fractionof a gram, such as miniature gears and biomedical devices New chapter dedicated to the recycling of thermoplastics andthe processing of renewable polymers Life-cycle assessment, a systematic method for determiningwhether recycling is appropriate and which form of recycling isoptimal Rheology of polymers containing fibers Chapters feature problem sets, enabling readers to assess andreinforce their knowledge as they progress through the text. Thereare also special design problems throughout the text that reflectreal-world polymer processing issues. A companion website featuresnumerical subroutines as well as guidance for usingMATLAB®, IMSL®, and Excel to solvethe sample problems from the text. By providing both underlyingtheory and practical step-by-step guidance, Polymer Processing isrecommended for students in chemical, mechanical, materials, andpolymer engineering.

Hydrogels Based on Natural Polymers

Hydrogels Based on Natural Polymers Book
Author : Yu Chen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-10-23
ISBN : 0128166185
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hydrogels Based on Natural Polymers presents the latest research on natural polymer-based hydrogels, covering fundamentals, preparation methods, synthetic pathways, advanced properties, major application areas, and novel characterization techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of each natural polymer-based hydrogel are also discussed, enabling preparation tactics for specific properties and applications. Sections cover fundamentals, development, characteristics, structures and properties. Additional chapters cover presentation methods and properties based on natural polymers, including physical and chemical properties, stimuli-responsive properties, self-healing properties, and biological properties. The final section presents major applications areas, including the biomedical field, agriculture, water treatments, and the food industry. This is a highly valuable resource for academic researchers, scientists and advanced students working with hydrogels and natural polymers, as well as across the fields of polymer science, polymer chemistry, plastics engineering, biopolymers and biomaterials. The detailed information will also be of great interest to scientists and R&D professionals, product designers, technicians and engineers across industries. Provides systematic coverage of all aspects of hydrogels based on natural polymers, including fundamentals, preparation methods, properties and characterization Offers a balanced assessment of the specific properties and possibilities offered by different natural polymer-based hydrogels, drawing on innovative research Examines cutting-edge applications across biomedicine, agriculture, water treatments, and the food industry