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Commonsense Reasoning

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Commonsense Reasoning

Commonsense Reasoning Book
Author : Erik T. Mueller
Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
Release : 2014-11-11
ISBN : 0128016477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To endow computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of artificial intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning: An Event Calculus Based Approach is a detailed, high-level reference on logic-based commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an up-to-date work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions that span many areas of the commonsense world. The Second Edition features new chapters on commonsense reasoning using unstructured information including the Watson system, commonsense reasoning using answer set programming, and techniques for acquisition of commonsense knowledge including crowdsourcing. Understand techniques for automated commonsense reasoning Incorporate commonsense reasoning into software solutions Acquire a broad understanding of the field of commonsense reasoning Gain comprehensive knowledge of the human capacity for commonsense reasoning

Machine Learning Methods for Commonsense Reasoning Processes Interactive Models

Machine Learning Methods for Commonsense Reasoning Processes  Interactive Models Book
Author : Naidenova, Xenia
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2009-10-31
ISBN : 1605668117
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book suggests that classification is a key to human commonsense reasoning and transforms traditional considerations of data and knowledge communications, presenting an effective classification of logical rules used in the modeling of commonsense reasoning.

Diagnostic Test Approaches to Machine Learning and Commonsense Reasoning Systems

Diagnostic Test Approaches to Machine Learning and Commonsense Reasoning Systems Book
Author : Naidenova, Xenia
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2012-07-31
ISBN : 1466619015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The consideration of symbolic machine learning algorithms as an entire class will make it possible, in the future, to generate algorithms, with the aid of some parameters, depending on the initial users' requirements and the quality of solving targeted problems in domain applications. Diagnostic Test Approaches to Machine Learning and Commonsense Reasoning Systems surveys, analyzes, and compares the most effective algorithms for mining all kinds of logical rules. Global academics and professionals in related fields have come together to create this unique knowledge-sharing resources which will serve as a forum for future collaborations.

Common Sense Reasoning and Rationality

Common Sense  Reasoning  and Rationality Book
Author : Renee Elio
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2002-02-07
ISBN : 0198033680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the eleventh volume in the New Directions in Cognitive Science series (formerly the Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science series), this work promises superb scholarship and interdisciplinary appeal. It addresses three areas of current and varied interest: common sense, reasoning, and rationality. While common sense and rationality often have been viewed as two distinct features in a unified cognitive map, this volume offers novel, even paradoxical, views of the relationship. Comprised of outstanding essays from distinguished philosophers, it considers what constitutes human rationality, behavior, and intelligence covering diverse areas of philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and computer science. Indeed, it is at the forefront of cognitive research and promises to be of unprecedented influence across numerous disciplines.

Integrating Rules and Connectionism for Robust Commonsense Reasoning

Integrating Rules and Connectionism for Robust Commonsense Reasoning Book
Author : Ron Sun
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release : 1994-02-21
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Along with this framework, the book proposes a set of interrelated new ideas regarding the modeling of commonsense reasoning which are highly relevant to current research in AI and cognitive science and the ongoing methodological debate.

Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Book
Author : Luigia Carlucci Aiello,Jon Doyle,Stuart Charles Shapiro
Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann Pub
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning book written by Luigia Carlucci Aiello,Jon Doyle,Stuart Charles Shapiro, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Qualitative Spatial Reasoning

Qualitative Spatial Reasoning Book
Author : M. Teresa Escrig,Francisco Toledo
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9789051994124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the aim of automatically reasoning with spatial aspects in a cognitive way, several qualitative models have been developed recently in the Qualitative Spatial Reasoning field. However, there is no model to reason with several spatial aspects in a uniform way. Moreover, most of these models simplify spatial objects to points. In this book we present a novel approach for integrating the qualitative concepts of orientation, distance, and cardinal directions, using points as well as extended objects as primitive of reasoning, based on Constraint Logic Programming. The resulting model has been applied to build a qualitative Navigation Simulator on the structured environment of the city of Castellon.

Reasoning and Language at Work

Reasoning and Language at Work Book
Author : Enric Trillas,Settimo Termini,Marco Elio Tabacchi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 3030860884
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book furthers the historical and technical debate by looking at reasoning as the action of language when it is devoted to explaining or foretelling, based on the authors centennial combined experience in fuzzy logic. A simple logical model mixing abductions and deductions is introduced in order to attain speculations, conjectures that may be responsible for induction, and creativity in reasoning. A central point and a dire hypothesis of the book are that such process can be implemented by computation and as such can lead to a new approach to automatic thinking and reasoning. On top of the technical approach, the relationship between reasoning and thinking is also analyzed trying to establish links with notions and concepts of thinkers from the European Middle Age to the current days. This book is recommended to young researchers that are interested in either the scientific or philosophical aspects of computational thinking, and can further the debate between the two approaches.

Philosophy and Cognitive Science Categories Consciousness and Reasoning

Philosophy and Cognitive Science  Categories  Consciousness  and Reasoning Book
Author : A. Clark,J. Ezquerro,Jesús M. Larrazabal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401587310
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

PHILOSOPHY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE: CATEGORIES, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND REASONING The individual man, since his separate existence is manifested only by ignorance and error, so far as he is anything apart from his fellows, and from what he and they are to be, is only a negation. Peirce, Some Consequences of Four Incapacities. 1868. For the second time the International Colloquium on Cognitive Science gathered at San Sebastian from May, 7-11, 1991 to discuss the following main topics: Knowledge of Categories Consciousness Reasoning and Interpretation Evolution, Biology, and Mind It is not an easy task to introduce in a few words the content of this volume. We have collected eleven invited papers presented at the Colloquium, which means the substantial part of it. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to include all the invited lectures of the meeting. Before sketching and showing the relevance of each paper, let us explain the reasons for having adopted the decision to organize each two years an international colloquium on Cognitive Science at Donostia (San Sebastian). First of all, Cognitive Science is a very active research area in the world, linking multidisciplinary efforts coming mostly from psychology, artificial intelligence, theoretical linguistics and neurobiology, and using more and more formal tools. We think that this new discipline lacks solid foundations, and in this sense philosophy, particularly knowledge theory, and logic must be called for.

Qualitative Spatio Temporal Representation and Reasoning Trends and Future Directions

Qualitative Spatio Temporal Representation and Reasoning  Trends and Future Directions Book
Author : Hazarika, Shyamanta M.
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2012-05-31
ISBN : 1616928700
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Space and time are inextricably linked. Reasoning about space often involves reasoning about change in spatial configurations. Qualitative spatial information theory encompasses spatial as well as temporal representation and reasoning. Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Representation and Reasoning: Trends and Future Directions is a contribution to the emerging discipline of qualitative spatial information theory within artificial intelligence. This collection of research covers both theory and application-centric research and provides a comprehensive perspective on the emerging area of qualitative spatio-temporal representation and reasoning. This revolutionary new field is increasingly becoming a core issue within mobile computing, GIS/spatial information systems, databases, computer vision as well as knowledge discovery and data mining.

Diagrammatic Reasoning in AI

Diagrammatic Reasoning in AI Book
Author : Robbie T. Nakatsu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-11-19
ISBN : 9780470400722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pioneering work shows how using Diagrams facilitates the design of better AI systems The publication of Diagrammatic Reasoning in AI marks an important milestone for anyone seeking to design graphical user interfaces to support decision-making and problem-solving tasks. The author expertly demonstrates how diagrammatic representations can simplify our interaction with increasingly complex information technologies and computer-based information systems. In particular, the book emphasizes how diagrammatic user interfaces can help us better understand and visualize artificial intelligence (AI) systems. It examines how diagrammatic reasoning enhances various AI programming strategies used to emulate human thinking and problem-solving, including: Expert systems Model-based reasoning Inexact reasoning such as certainty factors and Bayesian networks Logic reasoning A key part of the book is its extensive development of applications and graphical illustrations, drawing on such fields as the physical sciences, macroeconomics, finance, business logistics management, and medicine. Despite such tremendous diversity of usage, in terms of applications and diagramming notations, the book classifies and organizes diagrams around six major themes: system topology; sequence and flow; hierarchy and classification; association; cause and effect; and logic reasoning. Readers will benefit from the author's discussion of how diagrams can be more than just a static picture or representation and how diagrams can be a central part of an intelligent user interface, meant to be manipulated and modified, and in some cases, utilized to infer solutions to difficult problems. This book is ideal for many different types of readers: practitioners and researchers in AI and human-computer interaction; business and computing professionals; graphic designers and designers of graphical user interfaces; and just about anyone interested in understanding the power of diagrams. By discovering the many different types of diagrams and their applications in AI, all readers will gain a deeper appreciation of diagrammatic reasoning.

Logic for Programming Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning

Logic for Programming  Artificial Intelligence  and Reasoning Book
Author : Christian G. Fermüller,Andrei Voronkov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-10-05
ISBN : 3642162428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Annotation. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning, LPAR-17, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in October 2010. The 41 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 133 submissions.

Logic for Programming Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning

Logic for Programming  Artificial Intelligence  and Reasoning Book
Author : Christian Fermèuller,Andrei Voronkov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-27
ISBN : 364216241X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains the research papers presented at the 17th International Conference on Logic for Programming, Arti?cial Intelligence, and Reasoning (LPAR-17), held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 10–15, 2010, accompanied by the 8th International Workshop on the Implementation of Logic (IWIL-8, organized by Eugenia Ternovska, Stephan Schulz, and Geo? Sutcli?e) and the 5th International Workshop on Analytic Proof Systems (APS-5, organized by Matthias Baaz and Christian Fermuller ¨ ). The call for papers attracted 133 abstract submissions of which 105 ma- rialized into full submissions, each of which was assigned for reviewing to at least three Program Committee members; 41 papers were accepted after - tense discussions. Once more the EasyChair system provided an ideal platform for submission, reviewing, discussions, and collecting ?nal versions of accepted papers. The program included three invited talks by Krishnendu Chatterjee, Joseph Halpern, and Michael Maher, as well as an invited tutorial by Norbert Preining. They are documented by the corresponding papers and abstract, respectively, in these proceedings, which this year appear for the ?rst time in the ARCoSS subline of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Automated Deduction CADE 25

Automated Deduction   CADE 25 Book
Author : Amy P. Felty,Aart Middeldorp
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-07-30
ISBN : 3319214012
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Automated Deduction, CADE-25, held in Berlin, Germany, in August 2015. The 36 revised full papers presented ( 24 full papers and 12 system descriptions) were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. CADE is the major forum for the presentation of research in all aspects of automated deduction, including foundations, applications, implementations and practical experience.

Test Of Reasoning

Test Of Reasoning Book
Author : Thorpe
Publisher : Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Release : 2007-04-01
ISBN : 9780070620315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Test Of Reasoning book written by Thorpe, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Psychology of Reasoning

Psychology of Reasoning Book
Author : Ken Manktelow,Man Cheung Chung
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2004-09-02
ISBN : 113542568X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This collection brings together a set of specially commissioned chapters from leading international researchers in the psychology of reasoning. Its purpose is to explore the historical, philosophical and theoretical implications of the development of this field. Taking the unusual approach of engaging not only with empirical data but also with the ideas and concepts underpinning the psychology of reasoning, this volume has important implications both for psychologists and other students of cognition, including philosophers. Sub-fields covered include mental logic, mental models, rational analysis, social judgement theory, game theory and evolutionary theory. There are also specific chapters dedicated to the history of syllogistic reasoning, the psychology of reasoning as it operates in scientific theory and practice, Brunswickian approaches to reasoning and task environments, and the implications of Popper's philosophy for models of behaviour testing. This cross-disciplinary dialogue and the range of material covered makes this an invaluable reference for students and researchers into the psychology and philosophy of reasoning.

Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science

Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science Book
Author : S. Clarke,T.D. Lyons
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 9401728623
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Australia and New Zealand boast an active community of scholars working in the field of history, philosophy and social studies of science. Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science aims to provide a distinctive publication outlet for their work. Each volume comprises a group of thematically-connected essays edited by scholars based in Australia or New Zealand with special expertise in that particular area. In each volume, a majority ofthe contributors are from Australia or New Zealand. Contributions from elsewhere are by no means ruled out, however, and are actively encouraged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question. Earlier volumes in the series have been welcomed for significantly advancing the discussion of the topics they have dealt with. I believe that the present volume will be greeted equally enthusiastically by readers in many parts of the world. R. W. Home General Editor Australasian Studies in History And Philosophy of Science viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The majority of the papers in this collection had their origin in the 2001 Australasian Association for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science annual conference, held at the University of Melbourne, where streams of papers on the themes of scientific realism and commonsense were organised.

Foundations of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Foundations of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Book
Author : Gerhard Lakemeyer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1994-06-28
ISBN : 9783540581079
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The papers collected in this book cover a wide range of topics in asymptotic statistics. In particular up-to-date-information is presented in detection of systematic changes, in series of observation, in robust regression analysis, in numerical empirical processes and in related areas of actuarial sciences and mathematical programming. The emphasis is on theoretical contributions with impact on statistical methods employed in the analysis of experiments and observations by biometricians, econometricians and engineers.

Knowledge Representation and Defeasible Reasoning

Knowledge Representation and Defeasible Reasoning Book
Author : Henry E. Kyburg Jr.,R.P. Loui,G.N. Carlson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 940090553X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) ani mal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psy chology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelli gence and computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also ap pear from time to time. The present volume provides a collection of studies that focus on some of the central problems within the domain of artificial intelligence. These difficulties fall into four principal areas: defeasible reasoning (including the frame problem as apart), ordinary language (and the representation prob lems that it generates), the revision of beliefs (and its rules of inference), and knowledge representation (and the logical problems that are encountered there). These papers make original contributions to each of these areas of inquiry and should be of special interest to those who understand the crucial role that is played by questions of logical form. They vividly illustrate the benefits that can emerge from collaborative efforts involving scholars from linguistics, philosophy, computer science, and AI. J. H. F.

Learning and Reasoning with Complex Representations

Learning and Reasoning with Complex Representations Book
Author : Grigoris Antoniou,Aditya K. Ghose,Workshop on Reasoning with Incomplete and Changing Information,Miroslaw Truszczynski
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998-04-15
ISBN : 9783540644132
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Content Description #Includes bibliographical references and index.