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Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Elisabeth Hildt,Andreas G. Franke
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-08
ISBN : 9400762534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive enhancement is the use of drugs, biotechnological strategies or other means by healthy individuals aiming at the improvement of cognitive functions such as vigilance, concentration or memory without any medical need. In particular, the use of pharmacological substances (caffeine, prescription drugs or illicit drugs) has received considerable attention during the last few years. Currently, however, little is known concerning the use of cognitive enhancers, their effects in healthy individuals and the place and function of cognitive enhancement in everyday life. The purpose of the book is to give an overview of the current research on cognitive enhancement and to provide in-depth insights into the interdisciplinary debate on cognitive enhancement.

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Fabrice Jotterand,Veljko Dubljevic
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-06-06
ISBN : 0199396817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is a growing literature in neuroethics dealing with cognitive neuro-enhancement for healthy adults. However, discussions on this topic tend to focus on abstract theoretical positions while concrete policy proposals and detailed models are scarce. Furthermore, discussions appear to rely solely on data from the US or UK, while international perspectives are mostly non-existent. This volume fills this gap and addresses issues on cognitive enhancement comprehensively in three important ways: 1) it examines the conceptual implications stemming from competing points of view about the nature and goals of enhancement; 2) it addresses the ethical, social, and legal implications of neuroenhancement from an international and global perspective including contributions from scholars in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America; and 3) it discusses and analyzes concrete legal issues and policy options tailored to specific contexts.

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Shira Knafo,César Venero
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-12-20
ISBN : 0124171257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Enhancement: Pharmacologic, Environmental and Genetic Factors addresses the gap that exists in research on the topic, gathering multidisciplinary knowledge and tools that help the reader understand the basics of cognitive enhancement. It also provides assistance in designing procedures and pharmacological approaches to further the use of novel cognitive enhancers, a field that offers potential benefit to a variety of populations, including those with neurologic and psychiatric disorders, mild aging-related cognitive impairment, and those who want to improve intellectual performance. The text builds on our knowledge of the molecular/cellular basis of cognitive function, offering the technological developments that may soon enhance cognition. Separate sections cover enhancement drugs, environmental conditions, and genetic factors in terms of both human and animal studies, including both healthy/young and aging/diseased individuals. Provides a multidisciplinary knowledge, enabling a further understanding of cognitive enhancement Offers coverage of the pharmacologic, environmental, and genetic factors relevant to the topic Discusses cognitive enhancement from the perspective of both healthy and diseased or aging populations Topics are discussed in terms of both human and animal studies

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Robert H. Blank
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-22
ISBN : 1137572485
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid advances in cognitive neuroscience and converging technologies have led to a vigorous debate over cognitive enhancement. This book outlines the ethical and social issues, but goes on to focus on the policy dimensions, which until now have received much less attention. As the economic, social and personal stakes involved with cognitive enhancement are so high, and the advances in knowledge so swift, we are likely to see increasing demands for government involvement in cognitive enhancement techniques. The book therefore places these techniques in a political context and brings the subsequent considerations and divisions to the forefront of the debate, situating their resolution within the milieu of interest group politics. The book will provide a starting point from which readers can develop a balanced policy framework for addressing such concerns.

Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Ruud ter Meulen,Ahmed Mohammed,Wayne Hall
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-02-23
ISBN : 0191040827
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There has been much recent excitement amongst neuroscientists and ethicists about the possibility of using drugs, as well as other technologies, to enhance cognition in healthy individuals. This excitement has arisen from recent advances in neuroscientific technologies such as drugs that increase alertness and wakefulness in healthy individuals or technologies that can stimulate activity in different parts of the brain - either via the scalp or via electrodes - raising the possibility of producing cognitive and affective improvements in otherwise healthy individuals. Despite this growing interest, there are conflicting views on the ethics of cognitive enhancement. Some argue that enhancement is not only an ethical pursuit but one that we have a moral obligation to pursue. Others are more skeptical about the ethical implications and long term effects of cognitive enhancement. Some neuroscientists argue that use of stimulants as putative enhancers will lead to misuse, abuse and addiction in some users, and might have undesirable long-term consequences. This book critically explores and analyses the scientific and ethical debates surrounding cognitive enhancers. Including contributions from neuroscientists, neuropsychopharmacologists, ethicists, philosophers, public health professionals, and policy researchers, the book offers a multidisciplinary, critical consideration of the ethics of the use of cognitive enhancers.

Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond

Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond Book
Author : Richard S. E. Keefe,Avi (Abraham) Reichenberg,Jeffrey Cummings
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0190214406
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond compiles a series of educational and thought-provoking chapters from the world's leading cognitive and clinical scientists to describe the latest research on cognitive impairments in a host of pathological conditions that affect CNS functioning, what treatments are available for these impairments, and how new treatments are being tested. This volume will benefit any investigators in cognitive science and clinical research, but is also accessible to non-experts. It advances the field toward the availability of cognitive enhancing drugs and devices that will benefit those who need them most and others who may feel that these techniques can help them to thrive. There has never been a time that we knew more about cognition and never a time when cognition was more important to the functioning of human beings than right now. Psychological science and cognitive neuroscience have become the most popular endeavor of students world wide, is the focus of attention of our greatest scientific accomplishments and the emphasis of many publications in the mainstream media. Since humans depend on cognitive abilities for survival, quality of life, and productivity, improving it has never been more important. Those with impairments in key aspects of cognition suffer dearly, as they are unable to obtain and retain information, unable to make sound decisions based upon the information at hand, and unable to plan future activities. The availability of pharmacological and behavioral interventions that can improve cognitive abilities and provide impaired individuals with the social, occupational and functional quality of life that the rest of us enjoy has potential far-reaching implications. Such interventions can also benefit those who want to boost current cognitive abilities to higher levels, perhaps as a means to hone skills in providing products for others or to gain an edge on competition. There has never been a book devoted solely to describing the latest cognitive science and neuroscience on the methods for enhancing cognition in healthy and unhealthy humans. Cognitive Enhancement in CNS Disorders and Beyond accomplishes exactly that in a straightforward and accessible manner.

Cognitive Enhancement in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

Cognitive Enhancement in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Book
Author : Matcheri Keshavan,Shaun Eack
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-03-21
ISBN : 1107194784
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A practical guide on how to assess and treat schizophrenia and related disorders using cognitive rehabilitation.

Theory Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement

Theory Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Lorenza S. Colzato
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-09-05
ISBN : 3319575058
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive enhancement, the use of different substances and actions (e.g., meditation, video game, smart drugs, food supplements, nutrition, brain stimulation, neurofeedback, physical exercise, music, or cognitive training) to enhance human perception, attention, memory, cognitive control, and action in healthy individuals. Chapters contain research on enhancing procedures and activities that will help to further develop enhancement based on individual needs and interests. Chapters also discuss the underlying mechanism of how these means influence and change behaviors and moods. In addition, the book also provides “real-life” examples in which the several means of cognitive enhancement have been successfully applied. It concludes with a call to develop more specific, mechanistic theories to guide cognitive enhancing programs as well as the editor’s own tailored-approach proposal for enhancing cognition for individuals. Featured topics include: The effect of caffeine on cognitive abilities. Aerobic exercise and its short-term and long-term effects on cognition. The effect, if any, of Ritalin and Modafinil on promoting cognitive enhancement. Temperature variations and its influences on behavior. The effect of food supplements across the lifespan. "Theory-Driven Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement is a must-have resource for psychologists, physicians, sport and exercise scientists, medical scientists, and teachers". “This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of different aspects of cognitive enhancement. The chapters are very focused, well-structured, in-depth, and rounded up by excellent illustrations. I highly recommend the book to readers interested in the matter”. Dr. Julia Karbach, Goethe University “It is overall a highly original book on a timely topic, with a fresh approach and rich in practical and societal implications. The book is written in a very clear way and it is a pleasure to read.” Dr. Anna M. Borghi, Sapienza University of Rome

Cognitive Enhancement in Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Enhancement in Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Tomiki Sumiyoshi,Kenji Hashimoto
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-11-25
ISBN : 2889630552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disturbances of various domains of cognitive function have been shown to provide a major determinant of outcome for patients with psychiatric conditions. Cognitive impairment is present in an array of diseases, including schizophrenia (with its prodromal stage), mood disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic disorder, and eating disorder. In an effort to develop effective therapeutics for cognitive impairment, bridging of preclinical and clinical evidence has been attempted. This edited Book will provide a forum for researchers and clinicians interested in the phenomenology, underlying mechanisms, and treatment of cognitive impairment associated with psychiatric illnesses. Twenty-eight contributions from 8 countries in Europe, Middle East, Asia, North America, and South America represent studies dealing with genetic, molecular, imaging, physiological, psychological, and behavioral issues. Information in this Book will facilitate the development of therapeutics of greater clinical value.

Evaluating Ethical Frameworks for the Assessment of Human Cognitive Enhancement Applications

Evaluating Ethical Frameworks for the Assessment of Human Cognitive Enhancement Applications Book
Author : Ellen-Marie Forsberg,Clare Shelley-Egan,Erik Thorstensen,Laurens Landeweerd,Bjorn Hofmann
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-23
ISBN : 3319538233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers the policy-maker or decision-maker key insights and practical information regarding the features of ethics frameworks best suited to the ethical assessment of human cognitive enhancement (HCE) applications, such as pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers and noninvasive brain stimulation techniques. This book takes as its departure point the entrenched philosophical debate between opponents and proponents of HCE and the increased feasibility of some applications of HCE. Recent calls for policy-making in the area of human enhancement reflect the need to find a balance between addressing current ethical issues and issues that are more speculative in nature or are underpinned by abstract philosophical concepts. Practical ethical approaches for policy or decision-making should enable the development of an evidence base for the risks and benefits of HCE applications. Moreover, such practical approaches should also incorporate a broader range of value bases that would facilitate convergence regarding certain decisions and judgements. This book identifies and evaluate tools that help us to go beyond polarised philosophical debates in order to assist practical decision makers in concrete ethical deliberation and decision-making. The focus is on systematic methods with which to identify relevant ethical values and assess the impacts of an HCE application on those values in order to facilitate decision-making regarding the ethical acceptability or desirability of the application.

Neuroethics Justice and Autonomy Public Reason in the Cognitive Enhancement Debate

Neuroethics  Justice and Autonomy  Public Reason in the Cognitive Enhancement Debate Book
Author : Veljko Dubljević
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-29
ISBN : 3030136434
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explicitly addresses policy options in a democratic society regarding cognitive enhancement drugs and devices. The book offers an in-depth case by case analysis of existing and emerging cognitive neuroenhancement technologies and canvasses a distinct political neuroethics approach. The author provides an argument on the much debated issue of fairness of cognitive enhancement practices and tackles the tricky issue of how to respect preferences of citizens opposing and those preferring enhancement. The author persuasively argues the necessity of a laws and regulations regarding the use of cognitive enhancers. He also argues that the funds for those who seek cognitive enhancement should be allocated free of charge to the least advantaged. The work argues that the notion of autonomy has been mistakenly associated with the metaphysical concept of free will, and offers a political definition of autonomy to clarify how responsibility is implicitly grounded in the legal and political system. As such, this book is an essential read for everyone interested in neuroethics, and a valuable resource for policy makers, as well as scholars and students in philosophy, law, psychiatry and neuroscience.

Cognitive Enhancing Drugs

Cognitive Enhancing Drugs Book
Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3034878672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the past decade research into the pharmacology of cognition, particularly regarding learning and memory, has supported the concept that many potential neural targets exist for the development of cognitive-enhancing drugs. Whereas the main impetus for this research has been the ever growing population of individuals with dementing disorders such as Alzheimer`s disease, attention is also being focused on issues relating to cognitive impairment associated with "normal" aging. This book is useful as a source of information for making informed decisions regarding the relative utility and attributes of the various neural targets that have been studied to date.

Augmentation of Brain Function Facts Fiction and Controversy

Augmentation of Brain Function  Facts  Fiction and Controversy Book
Author : Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova,Mikhail Lebedev
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-09-14
ISBN : 2889456153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Volume II is entitled “Neurostimulation and pharmacological approaches”. This volume describes augmentation approaches, where improvements in brain functions are achieved by modulation of brain circuits with electrical or optical stimulation, or pharmacological agents. Activation of brain circuits with electrical currents is a conventional approach that includes such methods as (i) intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), (ii) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and (iii) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). tDCS and TMS are often regarded as noninvasive methods. Yet, they may induce long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. This is why some authors consider the term “noninvasive” misleading when used to describe these and other techniques, such as stimulation with transcranial lasers. The volume further discusses the potential of neurostimulation as a research tool in the studies of perception, cognition and behavior. Additionally, a notion is expressed that brain augmentation with stimulation cannot be described as a net zero sum proposition, where brain resources are reallocated in such a way that gains in one function are balanced by costs elsewhere. In recent years, optogenetic methods have received an increased attention, and several articles in Volume II cover different aspects of this technique. While new optogenetic methods are being developed, the classical electrical stimulation has already been utilized in many clinically relevant applications, like the vestibular implant and tactile neuroprosthesis that utilizes ICMS. As a peculiar usage of neurostimulation and pharmacological methods, Volume II includes several articles on augmented memory. Memory prostheses are a popular recent development in the stimulation-based BMIs. For example, in a hippocampal memory prosthesis, memory content is extracted from hippocampal activity using a multiple-input, multiple-output non-linear dynamical model. As to the pharmacological approaches to augmenting memory and cognition, the pros and cons of using nootropic drugs are discussed.

The Hope and Despair of Human Bioenhancement

The Hope and Despair of Human Bioenhancement Book
Author : Paschal M. Corby
Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers
Release : 2019-12-23
ISBN : 1532653964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Hope and Despair of Human Bioenhancement is a virtual dialogue between Transhumanists of the "Oxford School" and the thought of Joseph Ratzinger. Set in the key of hope and despair, it considers whether or not the transhumanist interpretation of human limitations is correct, and whether their confidence in the methods of human enhancement, especially through biotechnology, corresponds to genuine hope. To this end, it investigates the philosophical foundations of transhumanism in modernity's rejection of metaphysics, the triumph of positivism, and the universalism of the theory of evolution, which when applied to anthropology becomes the materialist reduction of the human person. Ratzinger calls into question this absolutization of positive reason and its limitation of hope to what human beings can produce, naming it a pathology of reason, a mutilation of human dignity, and a facade of a world without hope. In its place, he offers a richer concept of hope that acknowledges our contingence and limitations.

Using Substances to Enhance Performance A Psychology of Neuroenhancement

Using Substances to Enhance Performance  A Psychology of Neuroenhancement Book
Author : Ralf Brand
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-01-18
ISBN : 2889450759
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroenhancement (NE) is a behavior conceptualized as the use of a potentially psychoactive substance to enhance ones’ already proficient cognitive capacities. Depending on the specific definitions used, prevalence estimates vary greatly between very low 0.3% (for illicit substances) to astonishingly high 89% (for freely available lifestyle substances). These variations indicate that further research and more conceptual and theoretical clarification of the NE construct is dearly needed. The contributions of this research topic aim to do just that. Specific questions addressed are: How prevalent is NE behavior? How can NE research profit from the already more evolved field of social science research on doping in sports? How is NE perceived by the public? What psychological processes and variables play a role in the decision to neuroenhance? A wide array of methodological approaches is used to investigate these questions. The topics contributions range from theoretical to experimental accounts on NE, and they utilize a diverse set of methods ranging from qualitative to neuroscientific approaches. The research presented here represents a first step towards what we have labeled a psychological approach to NE. By addressing the questions above this research topic hopefully advances our understanding of NE behavior. As with every new field of research, new answers always prompt new questions. In light of what we know now about NE, we hope that the findings presented here will be pursued by other researchers in the future. Clearly, the endeavor to understand NE behavior has only just begun.

Cognitive Remediation for Successful Employment and Psychiatric Recovery

Cognitive Remediation for Successful Employment and Psychiatric Recovery Book
Author : Susan R. McGurk,Kim T. Mueser
Publisher : Guilford Publications
Release : 2021-04-29
ISBN : 146254598X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The TSW program is an evidence-based intervention that enhances people's cognitive functioning in order to help them get and keep competitive jobs. This book explains how to provide the TSW program, and includes materials for implementing it, such as educational handouts and assessment tools. In addition, the book contains a wealth of information about overcoming common cognitive obstacles to steady employment that may be useful to the broad range of professionals helping individuals return to work"--

Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement Book
Author : Robert H. Blank
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-22
ISBN : 1137572485
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid advances in cognitive neuroscience and converging technologies have led to a vigorous debate over cognitive enhancement. This book outlines the ethical and social issues, but goes on to focus on the policy dimensions, which until now have received much less attention. As the economic, social and personal stakes involved with cognitive enhancement are so high, and the advances in knowledge so swift, we are likely to see increasing demands for government involvement in cognitive enhancement techniques. The book therefore places these techniques in a political context and brings the subsequent considerations and divisions to the forefront of the debate, situating their resolution within the milieu of interest group politics. The book will provide a starting point from which readers can develop a balanced policy framework for addressing such concerns.

The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain

The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain Book
Author : Matthew Rizzo,Steven Anderson,Bernd Fritzsch
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-04-23
ISBN : 111877177X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A thought-provoking treatise on understanding and treating the aging mind and brain This handbook recognizes the critical issues surrounding mind and brain health by tackling overarching and pragmatic needs so as to better understand these multifaceted issues. This includes summarizing and synthesizing critical evidence, approaches, and strategies from multidisciplinary research—all of which have advanced our understanding of the neural substrates of attention, perception, memory, language, decision-making, motor behavior, social cognition, emotion, and other mental functions. Written by a plethora of health experts from around the world, The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain offers in-depth contributions in 7 sections: Introduction; Methods of Assessment; Brain Functions and Behavior across the Lifespan; Cognition, Behavior and Disease; Optimizing Brain Function in Health and Disease; Forensics, Competence, Legal, Ethics and Policy Issues; and Conclusion and New Directions. Geared toward improving the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of many brain-based disorders that occur in older adults and that cause disability and death Seeks to advance the care of patients who have perceptual, cognitive, language, memory, emotional, and many other behavioral symptoms associated with these disorders Addresses principles and practice relevant to challenges posed by the US National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Aging (NIA) Presents materials at a scientific level that is appropriate for a wide variety of providers The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain is an important text for neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, physiatrists, geriatricians, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and other primary caregivers who care for patients in routine and specialty practices as well as students, interns, residents, and fellows.

Augmentation of Brain Function Facts Fiction and Controversy

Augmentation of Brain Function  Facts  Fiction and Controversy Book
Author : Mikhail Lebedev,Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-09-14
ISBN : 2889456145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume I, entitled “Augmentation of Brain Functions: Brain-Machine Interfaces”, is a collection of articles on neuroprosthetic technologies that utilize brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs strive to augment the brain by linking neural activity, recorded invasively or noninvasively, to external devices, such as arm prostheses, exoskeletons that enable bipedal walking, means of communication and technologies that augment attention. In addition to many practical applications, BMIs provide useful research tools for basic science. Several articles cover challenges and controversies in this rapidly developing field, such as ways to improve information transfer rate. BMIs can be applied to the awake state of the brain and to the sleep state, as well. BMIs can augment action planning and decision making. Importantly, BMI operations evoke brain plasticity, which can have long-lasting effects. Advanced neural decoding algorithms that utilize optimal feedback controllers are key to the BMI performance. BMI approach can be combined with the other augmentation methods; such systems are called hybrid BMIs. Overall, it appears that BMI will lead to many powerful and practical brain-augmenting technologies in the future.

Neuroethics and the Scientific Revision of Common Sense

Neuroethics and the Scientific Revision of Common Sense Book
Author : Nada Gligorov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-23
ISBN : 9402409653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is focused on the examination of the particular relationship between developments in neuroscience and commonsense concepts, such as free will, personal identity, privacy, etc., which feature prominently in moral discourse. In the book common sense is recast as an ever-shifting repository of theories from many domains, including science. Utilizing this alternative characterization of common sense, the book reexamines the impact of neuroscience on commonsense moral conceptions. Neuroethics is one of the newest, developing branches of Bioethics. Topics often raised include issues of free will, personal identity and the self; the possible ethical implication of memory manipulation; brain imaging and mind-reading; brain stimulation/enhancement and its impacts on personal identity; and brain death.