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Cognitive Electrophysiology Of Attention

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Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention

Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention Book
Author : George R. Mangun
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-31
ISBN : 0123984963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention explores the fundamental mechanisms of attention and related cognitive functions from cognitive neuroscience perspectives. Attention is an essential cognitive ability that enables humans to process and act upon relevant information while ignoring distracting information, and the capacity to focus attention is at the core of mental functioning. Understanding the neural bases of human attention remains a key challenge for neuroscientists and psychologists, and is essential for translational efforts to treat attentional deficits in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Cognitive electrophysiology is at the center of a multidisciplinary approach that involves the efforts of psychologists, neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists to identify basic brain mechanisms and develop translational approaches to improve mental health. This edited volume is authored by leading investigators in the field and discusses methods focused on electrophysiological recordings in humans, including electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) methods, and also incorporates evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention illuminates specific models about attentional mechanisms in vision, audition, multisensory integration, memory, and semantic processing in humans. Provides an exhaustive overview of attention processes, going from normal functioning to the pathological, and using a combination of methodological tools An important reference for electrophysiology researchers looking at underlying attention processes rather than the methods themselves Enables researchers across a broad range of cognitive-process and methodological specialties to stay current on particular hypotheses, findings, and methods Edited and authored by the worldwide leaders in the field, affording the broadest, most expert coverage available

The Cognitive Electrophysiology of Mind and Brain

The Cognitive Electrophysiology of Mind and Brain Book
Author : Alberto Zani,Alice Proverbio
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9780127754215
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

When his beloved donkey becomes ill, a young Italian boy is determined to take her to the crypt of St. Francis in Assisi in hopes of making her well.

Cognitive Electrophysiology

Cognitive Electrophysiology Book
Author : H.-J. Heinze,T.F. Münte,George R. Mangun
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461202833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MICHAEL S. GAZZANIGA The investigation of the human brain and mind involves a myriad of ap proaches. Cognitive neuroscience has grown out of the appreciation that these approaches have common goals that are separate from other goals in the neural sciences. By identifying cognition as the construct of interest, cognitive neuro science limits the scope of investigation to higher mental functions, while simultaneously tackling the greatest complexity of creation, the human mind. The chapters of this collection have their common thread in cognitive neuroscience. They attack the major cognitive processes using functional stud ies in humans. Indeed, functional measures of human sensation, perception, and cognition are the keystone of much of the neuroscience of cognitive sci ence, and event-related potentials (ERPs) represent a methodological "coming of age" in the study of the intricate temporal characteristics of cognition. Moreover, as the field of cognitive ERPs has matured, the very nature of physiology has undergone a significant revolution. It is no longer sufficient to describe the physiology of non-human primates; one must consider also the detailed knowledge of human brain function and cognition that is now available from functional studies in humans-including the electrophysiological studies in humans described here. Together with functional imaging of the human brain via positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), ERPs fill our quiver with the arrows required to pierce more than the single neuron, but the networks of cognition.

Control of Cognitive Processes

Control of Cognitive Processes Book
Author : International Symposium on Attention and Performance
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780262133678
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The thirty-two contributions discuss evidence from psychological experiments with healthy and brain-damaged subjects, functional imaging, electrophysiology, and computational modeling.

The Oxford Handbook of Attention

The Oxford Handbook of Attention Book
Author : Kia Nobre,Sabine Kastner
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0199675112
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the last three decades, there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms of selective attention at the network as well as the cellular level. The Oxford Handbook of Attention brings together the different research areas that constitute contemporary attention research into one comprehensive and authoritative volume. In 40 chapters, it covers the most important aspects of attention research from the areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, human and animal neuroscience, computational modelling, and philosophy. The book is divided into 4 main sections. Following an introduction from Michael Posner, the books starts by looking at theoretical models of attention. The next two sections are dedicated to spatial attention and non-spatial attention respectively. Within section 4, the authors consider the interactions between attention and other psychological domains. The last two sections focus on attention-related disorders, and finally, on computational models of attention. Aimed at both scholars and students, the Oxford Handbook of Attention provides a concise and state-of-the-art review of the current literature in this field.

The Impact of Cognitive Training on Brain Electrophysiology and Divided Attention in Healthy Older Adults

The Impact of Cognitive Training on Brain Electrophysiology and Divided Attention in Healthy Older Adults Book
Author : Faisal Al-Yawer
Publisher :
Release : 2016
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aging impacts older adults’ ability to divide their attention. Research has shown that cognitive training techniques are promising in improving divided attention. Investigating the effects of training on electrophysiological brain activity might elucidate the mechanisms underlying improvements and allow better training method selection. Electroencephalography (EEG) is ideal for studying divided attention as switching attention is a dynamic process that takes place within milliseconds and requires high temporal resolution. All participants (mean age 69.5 years, SD=6.42) performed a visual detection task and an alphanumeric equation task under single and dual-task conditions. Afterwards, participants were randomly assigned to three groups: The single task training group (STT, N=13) practiced the two tasks separately; the fixed attention training group (FAT, N=12) was trained to assign equal attention to both tasks concurrently; the variable-attention training group (VAT, N=14) was trained to flexibly vary their attention while performing the tasks concurrently. After training, participants were tested again. EEG measures were taken pre- and post-training. Training led to behavioural improvements in all of our participants, with the VAT group displaying the greatest benefits and a reduction in dual-task costs. The N1 component was less pronounced after training while P2 was enhanced, suggesting more efficient processing. Functional connectivity measures indicated an increase in theta band coherence between fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital regions in the VAT group, suggesting improved cognitive control. Our results suggest that variable attentional allocation training incurred behavioural benefits with an electrophysiological profile distinct from single task practice and equal priority dual-task training.

Electrophysiology of Mind

Electrophysiology of Mind Book
Author : Michael D. Rugg,Michael G. H. Coles
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0198524161
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews a productive period of research aimed at connecting brain and mind through the use of scalp-recorded brain potentials to chart the temporal course of information processing in the human brain. The book serves as both as a summary of where we have been and as a pointer of the way ahead.

The Attentive Brain

The Attentive Brain Book
Author : Raja Parasuraman
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780262661126
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Of the myriad tasks that the brain has to perform, perhaps none is as crucial to the performance of other tasks as attention. A central thesis of this book on the cognitive neuroscience of attention is that attention is not a single entity, but a finite set of brain processes that interact mutually and with other brain processes in the performance of perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills.After an introductory part I, the book consists of three parts. Part II, Methods, describes the major neuroscience methods, including techniques used only with animals (anatomical tract tracing, single-unit electrophysiology, neurochemical manipulations), noninvasive human brain-imaging techniques (ERPs, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging), and studies with brain-damaged individuals. This part also includes a chapter on the computational modeling of attention. Part III, Varieties of Attention, looks at three major components of attention from the cognitive neuroscience perspective: selection, vigilance, and control. It also discusses links to memory and language. Finally, part IV, Development and Pathologies, discusses the application of findings from the previous sections to the analysis of normal and abnormal development and to pathologies of attention such as schizophrenia and attention deficit disorders. Contributors Edward Awh, Gordon C. Baylis, Jochen Braun, Dennis Cantwell, Vincent P. Clark, Maurizio Corbetta, Susan M. Courtney, Francis Crinella, Matthew C. Davidson, Gregory J. DiGirolamo, Jon Driver, Jane Emerson, Pauline Filipek, Ira Fischler, Massimo Girelli, Pamela M. Greenwood, James V. Haxby, Mark H. Johnson, John Jonides, Julian S. Joseph, Robert T. Knight, Christof Koch, Steven J. Luck, Richard T. Marrocco, Brad C. Motter, Ken Nakayama, Orhan Nalcioglu, Paul G. Nestor, Ernst Niebur, Brian F. O'Donnell, Raja Parasuraman, Michael I. Posner, Robert D. Rafal, Trevor W. Robbins, Lynn C. Robertson, Judi E. See, James Swanson, Diane Swick, Don Tucker, Leslie G. Ungerleider, Joel S. Warm, Maree J. Webster, Sharon Wigal

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Attention

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Attention Book
Author : Shane O'Mara,Vincent Walsh
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 1994
ISBN : 9780863779176
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The theme of this Special Issue is one that is ill-served by the existing neuropsychological literature. A publication that collates reviews of the developmental, physiological, clinical and cognitive aspects of this topic is therefore timely and would prove valuable to clinicians, researchers and students alike. The underlying problem addressed by the invited contributors is how attention is manifest in the intact brain, and how disorders of attention present themselves in the damaged brain. The topics to be covered will range from the physiology of attention (as revealed by single unit recording studies of extra-striate cortex of monkeys and PET scans in humans and low frequency EEG recordings) to disorders of attention after brain damage (e.g. stroke) and chronic pathological disorders of the brain (e.g. dyslexia and mental retardation). The range of contributions to the Special Issue demonstrates that the kinds of attentional processing required are determined by the task in hand. Correspondingly the volume discusses attention in the parietal, temporal and frontal lobes of the human and macaque brain, investigated by clinical, electrophysiological and behavioural methods. Attentional processes are also shown to be distributed in the brain and the effects of diminished attentional capacities which do not result from focal brain lesions are discussed in the context of mental retardation and dyslexia.

The Neuroscience of Attention The Neuroscience of Attention

The Neuroscience of Attention  The Neuroscience of Attention Book
Author : George R. Mangun
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2012-02-16
ISBN : 0195334361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to selectively attend to events in the world around us is a core cognitive function. It prevents distraction and enables humans and animals to dedicate perceptual, cognitive, and motor resources to deal with the most pressing current challenges. When attention systems of the brain are damaged by disease or trauma, the impact for the individual and society can be significant, and therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms of attention is a central goal in neuroscience. In addition, understanding how attention mechanisms operate is critical for advancing the important mission of developing the most effective training regimes for a wide range of duties, as well as for creating new methods for educating the world's growing population. This text addresses the basic neuroscience of how the brain controls the focus of attention, and how this focused attention influences sensory and motor processes. This volume will provide the reader with a selection of the models, mechanisms and findings in the neuroscience of attentional control and selection from leading authorities working in human and animal models, and incorporating a array of neuroscience methods from single neuron recordings to functional brain imaging, and advanced modeling. The book begins with contributions that describe attentional selection, relying largely on evidence from attention in vision. Subsequent chapters address attentional control mechanisms in cortical and subcortical brain networks. Finally, the role of attention in action, short-term memory, and emotion are discussed.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Book
Author : Michael I. Posner
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 160918985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This authoritative reference provides a comprehensive examination of the nature and functions of attention and its relationship to broader cognitive processes. The editor and contributors are leading experts who review the breadth of current knowledge, including behavioral, neuroimaging, cellular, and genetic studies, as well as developmental and clinical research. Chapters are brief yet substantive, offering clear presentations of cutting-edge concepts, methods, and findings. The book addresses the role of attention deficits in psychological disorders and normal aging and considers the implications for intervention and prevention. It includes 85 illustrations. New to This Edition *Significant updates and many new chapters reflecting major advances in the field. *Important breakthroughs in neuroimaging and cognitive modeling. *Chapters on the development of emotion regulation and temperament. *Expanded section on disorders, including up-to-date coverage of ADHD as well as chapters on psychopathy and autism. *Chapters on cognitive training and rehabilitation.

Essentials of Cognitive Neuroscience

Essentials of Cognitive Neuroscience Book
Author : Bradley R. Postle
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-05-27
ISBN : 1119674158
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Essentials of Cognitive Neuroscience introduces and explicates key principles and concepts in cognitive neuroscience in such a way that the reader will be equipped to critically evaluate the ever-growing body of findings that the field is generating. For some students this knowledge will be needed for subsequent formal study, and for all readers it will be needed to evaluate and interpret reports about cognitive neuroscience research that make their way daily into the news media and popular culture. New to the 2nd Edition New chapter on methodology Updated content considers the growing influence of perspectives from predictive coding, reinforcement learning, deep neural networks, and AI on cognitive neuroscience; as well as important empirical results from the past few years ranging from object and face recognition to perceptual decision making to working memory to language comprehension

Attention and Cognitive Development

Attention and Cognitive Development Book
Author : G. Hale
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 146132985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"My experience is what I agree to attend to," wrote William James (1890) nearly a century ago in his Principles of Psychology. Although certainly not the first to recognize the importance of attention in man's experience--poets and philosophers throughout history have touched upon the concept in one way or another-James deserves credit for having accorded attention a central role in the systematic study of the mind. With the advancement of psychology since that time, except during the behaviorist digression, the concept of attention has been an integral part of many prominent theories dealing with learning, thinking, and other aspects of cognitive functioning. Indeed, attention is an important determinant of experience from birth throughout development. This has been an implicit assumption underlying our view of cognition since the writings of Charles Darwin (1897) and Wilhelm Preyer (1888) as well as James, all of whom offered provocative insights about the developing child's commerce with the environment. Al though systematic research on attention in children was slow to pick up during the early part of this century, interest in the developmental study of attention has expanded enormously in recent years.

Crossmodal Space and Crossmodal Attention

Crossmodal Space and Crossmodal Attention Book
Author : Charles Spence,Jon Driver,Jonathan C. Driver
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2004-04-08
ISBN : 9780198524861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How does the human brain manage to integrate all the information coming from different sensory outputs? The first book by two of the leading stars in cognitive neuroscience, this book addresses one of the hottest topics in the field.

Neural Mechanisms of Spatial Attention

Neural Mechanisms of Spatial Attention Book
Author : Ashley Royston
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438931008
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Elucidating the neural bases of selective attention continues to be a key challenge for psychologists, vision scientists and cognitive neuroscientists. It also represents an essential aim in translational efforts to measure, treat and prevent visual and attentional deficits, to improve teaching and learning, and to tailor automated situational awareness and alerting systems to human capabilities. Past human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies, as well as animal electrophysiological studies, have provided considerable information about the temporal properties, neuroanatomical substrates, and cellular- and synaptic-level mechanisms underlying attention. Despite substantial convergence in the mechanisms of attention revealed by these different approaches, there remain significant unresolved quandaries in the scientific literature. In particular, it is currently debated whether attention can influence neural activity during the initial feedforward wave of visual processing in human primary visual cortex (V1). FMRI in humans and cellular recordings in monkeys both suggest spatial attention can influence afferent sensory processing in V1. In sharp contrast, however, such effects of attention have not been reliably reported for human EEG recordings; the short-latency C1 component of the visually evoked event-related potential (ERP) that is generated in V1 is typically not affected by selective attention. Given the fMRI findings and the animal studies, what can explain this discrepancy? FMRI activations are tied to slow changes in cerebral hemodynamics that cannot distinguish between attention effects on incoming signals and activations due to longer-latency feedback activation of V1 from higher stages of visual processing—therefore, fMRI evidence is equivocal regarding whether attention-related V1 activations represent modulations of feedforward or feedback V1 activity. However, human and animal electrophysiology both provide the temporal resolution to distinguished between initial afferent volleys and feedback activity, making it difficult to reconcile the positive findings in monkeys and the negative findings in humans. The overarching hypothesis of this dissertation is that differences in the methods and paradigms between monkey and human studies could contribute to the differences in attention effects in V1. Specifically, monkey studies typically use continuous stimulation that is arguably more similar to natural vision than the punctate stimulation paradigms (e.g., trial-by-trial spatial cuing) often used in humans to study the effects of attention on sensory processing. Ongoing stimulation may trigger attention-related feedback signals from higher areas onto V1 that might not arise, or might not be observable, when simple, single, isolated stimuli are used. To investigate whether the nature of ongoing visual stimulation may account for some of the discrepancies reported in the literature, this dissertation examines human ERPs recorded during selective attention in six variations of a novel spatial attention task that builds on a paradigm successfully used to reveal V1 attention effects in nonhuman primates. Using this task, significant effects of spatial attention were observed on the amplitude of the C1 ERP in humans (Chapter 2). The addition of high-resolution eye gaze monitoring, however, demonstrated that small, systematic deviations of eye gaze in the direction of the cue hemifield likely contributed to the Chapter 2 finding, and when data from trials with deviations of eye gaze were eliminated, no attentional modulation on the C1 ERP remained (Chapter 3). Therefore, the main hypothesis that stimulus-triggered feedback attentional modulation of V1 signals should be observed as changes in C1 ERP amplitude, was not supported. Although the present findings do not explain the differences between spatial attention effects in monkey and human V1, they do provide additional support for the model that spatial attention effects observed using fMRI in humans is likely not the result of changes in input signal processing in V1, but instead reflects later recurrent activation of V1 that serves other computational purposes.

Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes

Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes Book
Author : Alfredo Ardila,Feggy Ostrosky-Solis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461307996
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuropsychology has presented a particularly formidable array of devel opments during recent years. The number of methods, theoretical ap proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. This volume was planned as a collection of papers that, in one way or another, present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new research in specific topics, others summarize the evidence for a particular the oretical position, and others simply review the area and suggest new perspectives of research. Consistent with the spirit in which the book was planned, the authors present and propose new avenues for developing neuropsychology and understanding the organization of cognitive activity. Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon and Brown ("Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies") present an over view of some clinical and experimental work from the standpoint of mi crogenetic theory. Microgenesis is considered to be the structural devel opment of a cognition through qualitatively different stages. The authors discuss the growing dissatisfaction with both the old center and pathway theories and the newer modular or componental accounts. They also ex plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds.

Attention and Brain Function

Attention and Brain Function Book
Author : Risto Näätänen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 0429945671
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Originally published in 1992, this book presents original psychophysiological research based on computerized techniques of recording and evaluating event-related brain potentials. The application of multichannel magnetoencephalography greatly contributes to exact localization of corresponding neuronal generators responsible for attention. The book contains a bulk of information concerning data obtained by cognitive psychology in the area of study of attention. These results are closely linked with neurophysiological investigation of attention.