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Cognitive Biases In Health And Psychiatric Disorders

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Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Tatjana Aue,Hadas Okon-Singer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-02-23
ISBN : 0128166614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurophysiological Foundations focuses on the neurophysiological basis of biases in attention, interpretation, expectancy and memory. Each chapter includes a review of each specific bias, including both positive and negative information in both healthy individuals and psychiatric populations. This book provides readers with major theories, methods used in investigating biases, brain regions associated with the related bias, and autonomic responses to specific biases. Its end goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neural, autonomic and cognitive mechanisms related to processing biases. Outlines neurophysiological research on diverse types of information processing bias, including attention bias, expectancy bias, interpretation bias, and memory bias Discusses both normal and pathological forms of each cognitive biases Provides specific examples on how to translate research on cognitive biases to clinical applications

The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis Searching for Mechanisms

The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis  Searching for Mechanisms Book
Author : Łukasz Gawęda,Steffen Moritz,Susana Ochoa,Suzanne Ho-wai So
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-11-02
ISBN : 2889715795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis Searching for Mechanisms book written by Łukasz Gawęda,Steffen Moritz,Susana Ochoa,Suzanne Ho-wai So, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Schizophrenia Treatment

Schizophrenia Treatment Book
Author : Yu-Chih Shen
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-12-14
ISBN : 9535128256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Schizophrenia treatment has many facets. This book begins with the glutamatergic and GABAergic hypofunctioning contribute to the schizophrenic symptoms and their current targeted therapeutics. The genetic, epigenetic, and immune etiologies of schizophrenia and their potential targeted therapeutics as approached in this book are interesting. Understanding cognitive biases and delusional circuits in schizophrenia is important; several behavioral cognitive therapies working on the reduction and avoidance of these cognitive biases are demonstrating their effectiveness. Advances in schizophrenia treatment followed, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and special sport program, are presented at the book's end.

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process Book
Author : Juárez Ramos, Verónica
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2018-11-16
ISBN : 1522529799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Decision making or making judgments is an essential function in the ordinary life of any individual. Decisions can often be made easily, but sometimes, it can be difficult due to conflict, uncertainty, or ambiguity of the variables required to make the decision. As human beings, we constantly have to decide between different activities such as occupational, recreational, political, economic, etc. These decisions can be transcendental or inconsequential. Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision-Making Process presents comprehensive research focusing on cognitive shortcuts in the decision-making process. While highlighting topics including jumping to conclusion bias, personality traits, and theoretical models, this book is ideally designed for mental health professionals, psychologists, sociologists, managers, academicians, researchers, and upper-level students seeking current research on cognitive biases that affect individual decision making in daily life.

Precision Psychiatry

Precision Psychiatry Book
Author : Leanne M. Williams, Ph.D.,Laura M. Hack, M.D., Ph.D.
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2021-10-15
ISBN : 1615371583
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychiatry is dedicated to understanding mental disorders and helping people struggling with them live fulfilling lives. Although current treatment modalities can be remarkably effective at improving patients' quality of life and mitigating the burden of symptoms for disorders like depression, bipolar disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder, finding the right treatment for an individual can be a long and fraught process during which symptoms can worsen the risks associated with other health conditions. Precision psychiatry, as outlined in this groundbreaking book, presents a new path forward. By integrating findings from basic and clinical neuroscience, clinical practice, and population-level data, the field seeks to develop therapeutic approaches tailored for specific individuals with a specific constellation of health issues, characteristics, strengths, and symptoms. This guide harnesses the expertise of more than three dozen contributors in diverse areas of interest, including neuroimaging, electrophysiology, neurocognition, behavioral science, machine learning, and pharmacotherapy, to examine the current state of precision medicine in psychiatry and explore future areas of advancement. Numerous case examples illustrate and apply the principles of precision psychiatry to mood and anxiety disorders, as well as schizophrenia, in adult patients, emphasizing the push to develop biomarkers and algorithms that will identify subtypes of patients that may be underserved by conventional therapies. In these pages, educators, trainees, and clinicians will find the latest research in precise classification, treatment planning, and early identification across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders--and the foundation for a future where one-size-fits-all treatments are replaced by modalities optimized for individual patients across all stages of a disorder.

Noise

Noise Book
Author : Daniel Kahneman,Olivier Sibony,Cass R. Sunstein
Publisher : Little, Brown
Release : 2021-05-18
ISBN : 031645138X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the Nobel Prize-winning author of Thinking, Fast and Slow and the coauthor of Nudge, a revolutionary exploration of why people make bad judgments and how to make better ones—"a tour de force” (New York Times). Imagine that two doctors in the same city give different diagnoses to identical patients—or that two judges in the same courthouse give markedly different sentences to people who have committed the same crime. Suppose that different interviewers at the same firm make different decisions about indistinguishable job applicants—or that when a company is handling customer complaints, the resolution depends on who happens to answer the phone. Now imagine that the same doctor, the same judge, the same interviewer, or the same customer service agent makes different decisions depending on whether it is morning or afternoon, or Monday rather than Wednesday. These are examples of noise: variability in judgments that should be identical. In Noise, Daniel Kahneman, Olivier Sibony, and Cass R. Sunstein show the detrimental effects of noise in many fields, including medicine, law, economic forecasting, forensic science, bail, child protection, strategy, performance reviews, and personnel selection. Wherever there is judgment, there is noise. Yet, most of the time, individuals and organizations alike are unaware of it. They neglect noise. With a few simple remedies, people can reduce both noise and bias, and so make far better decisions. Packed with original ideas, and offering the same kinds of research-based insights that made Thinking, Fast and Slow and Nudge groundbreaking New York Times bestsellers, Noise explains how and why humans are so susceptible to noise in judgment—and what we can do about it.

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Depression

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Depression Book
Author : Paula T. Hertel
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9781841699257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special issue of Cognition and Emotion is dedicated to the phenomena of emotion-related biases in attention and remembering that are experienced by anxious and depressed people. Andrew Mathews and Colin MacLeod summarize their new research in using experimental methods to train anxiety-like biases in attention and interpretation. Elaine Fox, Riccardo Russo, and Kevin Dutton report new experiments concerning delayed disengagement from threatening events in anxiety. Phil Watkins's article addresses the conditions for obtaining depression-related biases on indirect tests of memory. Depression-consistent biases in false recognition are reported by Rich Wenzlaff, Jo Meier, and Danette Salas; these biases also characterized performance by previously dysphoric students and suggest indirect measures of vulnerability to depression. Prospective evidence that cognitive biases index vulnerability is described by Stephanie Rude and her colleagues. In short, the special issue contains a mixture of new findings with integrative review and suggestions for future directions in investigations of emotionally-disordered cognition.

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on the Science of Changing Behavioral Health Social Norms
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2016-09-03
ISBN : 0309439124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society in areas as basic as education, housing, and employment. Improving the lives of people with mental health and substance abuse disorders has been a priority in the United States for more than 50 years. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 is considered a major turning point in America's efforts to improve behavioral healthcare. It ushered in an era of optimism and hope and laid the groundwork for the consumer movement and new models of recovery. The consumer movement gave voice to people with mental and substance use disorders and brought their perspectives and experience into national discussions about mental health. However over the same 50-year period, positive change in American public attitudes and beliefs about mental and substance use disorders has lagged behind these advances. Stigma is a complex social phenomenon based on a relationship between an attribute and a stereotype that assigns undesirable labels, qualities, and behaviors to a person with that attribute. Labeled individuals are then socially devalued, which leads to inequality and discrimination. This report contributes to national efforts to understand and change attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that can lead to stigma and discrimination. Changing stigma in a lasting way will require coordinated efforts, which are based on the best possible evidence, supported at the national level with multiyear funding, and planned and implemented by an effective coalition of representative stakeholders. Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change explores stigma and discrimination faced by individuals with mental or substance use disorders and recommends effective strategies for reducing stigma and encouraging people to seek treatment and other supportive services. It offers a set of conclusions and recommendations about successful stigma change strategies and the research needed to inform and evaluate these efforts in the United States.

Judgment Under Uncertainty

Judgment Under Uncertainty Book
Author : Daniel Kahneman,Stewart Paul Slovic,Paul Slovic,Amos Tversky,Cambridge University Press
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1982-04-30
ISBN : 9780521284141
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thirty-five chapters describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments, but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas rather than describing single experimental studies.

Heuristics and Biases

Heuristics and Biases Book
Author : Thomas Gilovich,Dale Griffin,Daniel Kahneman,Cambridge University Press
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2002-07-08
ISBN : 9780521796798
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, first published in 2002, compiles psychologists' best attempts to answer important questions about intuitive judgment.

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology Book
Author : David Groome,Michael Eysenck
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2016-04-14
ISBN : 1317556526
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology offers an accessible review of recent research in the application of cognitive methods, theories, and models. Using real-world scenarios and engaging everyday examples this book offers clear explanations of how the findings of cognitive psychologists have been put to use. The book explores all of the major areas of cognitive psychology, including attention, perception, memory, thinking and decision making, as well as some of the factors that affect cognitive processes, such as drugs and biological cycles. Now in full colour, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to include cutting-edge research and theories. There are also new chapters on perceptual errors and accidents, the influence of emotion, and the role of cognitive factors in music and sport. Written by well-respected experts in the field, this textbook will appeal to all undergraduate students of cognitive psychology, as well as professionals working in the areas covered in the book, such as education, police work, sport, and music.

Global Catastrophic Risks

Global Catastrophic Risks Book
Author : Nick Bostrom,Milan M. Cirkovic
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2011-09-29
ISBN : 0199606501
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Global Catastrophic Risk is one that has the potential to inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale. This book focuses on such risks arising from natural catastrophes (Earth-based or beyond), nuclear war, terrorism, biological weapons, totalitarianism, advanced nanotechnology, artificial intelligence and social collapse.

Social Anxiety

Social Anxiety Book
Author : Stefan G. Hofmann,Patricia M. DiBartolo
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-07-15
ISBN : 012397819X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The third edition of Social Anxiety: Clinical, Developmental, and Social Perspectives integrates examinations of social anxiety, shyness, and embarrassment with the research on social anxiety disorder subtypes, biological theories and cognitive-behavioral or pharmacological treatment outcome studies. Clinicians, social and developmental psychologists and behavioral geneticists have all conducted research over the past ten years which is essential to furthering our understanding and treatment of social anxiety disorders. This book weaves together research findings gathered by renowned minds across these various disciplines, and deals with both theory and research. It explores what constitutes social anxiety, assesses the condition and its relationship to other psychological disorders, exploring the biological basis and treatment approaches as well. Coverage includes key issues not discussed fully by other books, including related disorders in adults and children, relationship to social competence and assertiveness, perfectionism, social skills deficit hypothesis, comparison between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments, and potential mediators of change in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. From the Author: Although social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is widely researched topic in psychiatry, other disciplines, such as social and developmental psychology, have independently been studying the same phenomena for many years. Yet, there has been very little cross-discipline communication and integration. The main objective of the book is to integrate the findings on social anxiety from various disciplines, including clinical psychology, psychiatry, social psychology, neuroscience, and developmental psychology. The most comprehensive source of up-to-date data, with review articles covering a thorough delineation of social anxiety, theoretical perspectives, and treatment approaches Consolidates broadly distributed literature into single source Each chapter is written by an expert in the topic area, providing more fully vetted expert knowledge than any existing work Integrates findings from various disciplines — clinical, social and developmental psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience — rather than focusing on only one conceptual perspective Provides a complete understanding of a complex phenomenon, giving researchers and clinicians alike a better set of tools for furthering what we know

Biased Cognitions Social Anxiety Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Neural Processes

Biased Cognitions   Social Anxiety  Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive  Behavioral  and Neural Processes Book
Author : Alexandre Heeren,Wolf-Gero Lange,Quincy Wong,Pierre Philippot
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-03-05
ISBN : 288919423X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults  Third Edition Book
Author : American Psychiatric Association
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release : 2015-07-29
ISBN : 0890424659
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

The Optimism Bias

The Optimism Bias Book
Author : Tali Sharot
Publisher : Vintage
Release : 2011-06-14
ISBN : 0307379833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychologists have long been aware that most people maintain an irrationally positive outlook on life—but why? Turns out, we might be hardwired that way. In this absorbing exploration, Tali Sharot—one of the most innovative neuroscientists at work today—demonstrates that optimism may be crucial to human existence. The Optimism Bias explores how the brain generates hope and what happens when it fails; how the brains of optimists and pessimists differ; why we are terrible at predicting what will make us happy; how emotions strengthen our ability to recollect; how anticipation and dread affect us; how our optimistic illusions affect our financial, professional, and emotional decisions; and more. Drawing on cutting-edge science, The Optimism Bias provides us with startling new insight into the workings of the brain and the major role that optimism plays in determining how we live our lives.

Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions Theory Evidence and Opportunities

Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions  Theory  Evidence  and Opportunities Book
Author : Andrew Kemp,Jeremy Tree,Fergus Gracey,Zoe Fisher
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-04-11
ISBN : 2889745953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions Theory Evidence and Opportunities book written by Andrew Kemp,Jeremy Tree,Fergus Gracey,Zoe Fisher, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don t Do

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don t Do Book
Author : Amy Morin
Publisher : Harper Collins
Release : 2014-12-23
ISBN : 0062358316
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Kick bad mental habits and toughen yourself up."—Inc. Master your mental strength—revolutionary new strategies that work for everyone from homemakers to soldiers and teachers to CEOs. Everyone knows that regular exercise and weight training lead to physical strength. But how do we strengthen ourselves mentally for the truly tough times? And what should we do when we face these challenges? Or as psychotherapist Amy Morin asks, what should we avoid when we encounter adversity? Through her years counseling others and her own experiences navigating personal loss, Morin realized it is often the habits we cannot break that are holding us back from true success and happiness. Indulging in self-pity, agonizing over things beyond our control, obsessing over past events, resenting the achievements of others, or expecting immediate positive results holds us back. This list of things mentally strong people don't do resonated so much with readers that when it was picked up by Forbes.com it received ten million views. Now, for the first time, Morin expands upon the thirteen things from her viral post and shares her tried-and-true practices for increasing mental strength. Morin writes with searing honesty, incorporating anecdotes from her work as a college psychology instructor and psychotherapist as well as personal stories about how she bolstered her own mental strength when tragedy threatened to consume her. Increasing your mental strength can change your entire attitude. It takes practice and hard work, but with Morin's specific tips, exercises, and troubleshooting advice, it is possible to not only fortify your mental muscle but also drastically improve the quality of your life.

Thinking Fast and Slow

Thinking  Fast and Slow Book
Author : Daniel Kahneman
Publisher : Doubleday Canada
Release : 2011-11-01
ISBN : 0385676522
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The guru to the gurus at last shares his knowledge with the rest of us. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman's seminal studies in behavioral psychology, behavioral economics, and happiness studies have influenced numerous other authors, including Steven Pinker and Malcolm Gladwell. In Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman at last offers his own, first book for the general public. It is a lucid and enlightening summary of his life's work. It will change the way you think about thinking. Two systems drive the way we think and make choices, Kahneman explains: System One is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System Two is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Examining how both systems function within the mind, Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities as well as the biases of fast thinking and the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and our choices. Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, he shows where we can trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking, contrasting the two-system view of the mind with the standard model of the rational economic agent. Kahneman's singularly influential work has transformed cognitive psychology and launched the new fields of behavioral economics and happiness studies. In this path-breaking book, Kahneman shows how the mind works, and offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and personal lives--and how we can guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble.

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Wenbin Guo,Fengyu Zhang,Feng Liu,Chaogan Yan
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-07-11
ISBN : 2889458865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders book written by Wenbin Guo,Fengyu Zhang,Feng Liu,Chaogan Yan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.