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The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co firing

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co firing Book
Author : Sjaak Van Loo,Jaap Koppejan
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 1849773041
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

Assess of Biomass Co firing Under Oxy fuel Conditions on Hg Speciation and Ash Deposit Formation

Assess of Biomass Co firing Under Oxy fuel Conditions on Hg Speciation and Ash Deposit Formation Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Highlights: In coal case, oxy-firing enhances Hg capture on the finest particles. Main affection of oxy-conditions on Hg fate is observed for cofiring processes. Oxy-cofiring increases Hg oxidation in the flue gas phase. At low temperatures, HCl(g) fraction is decreased in oxy-cofiring vs air. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces chloride deposition versus sulphates formation. Abstract: In the last years oxy-fuel combustion has been seen as an attractive method for oxygenated fuels, such as biomass, for controlling simultaneously the excess of heat arising from coal combustion and flue gas emissions (CO2, NOx, SO2 ...). However there is a lack of information with respect to the fate of other toxic pollutants found in trace concentrations, such as mercury, in oxy-fuel processes operating with biomass fuels. In addition, the modified conditions and flue gas composition leads to more corrosive environments which needs of previous evaluation to minimize possibly damaging processes in the boilers, furthermore in case of employing biomass of high alkaline compounds contents. The present work evaluates the effect of oxy-combustion processes of sub-bituminous coal and coal/ biomass (thistle) blends on mercury partitioning and speciation, under both air and different oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres, by means of a bubbling fluidized bed combustor at laboratory scale. HSC Chemistry 6.1 was supplemented for the interpretation of the experimental results and for the analysis of ash deposits formation. Hg speciation was seen to be more affected by oxy-fuel combustion during the co-firing tests than in coal combustion, with an increment in Hg oxidation at low temperatures (T

CO FIRING COAL

CO FIRING COAL Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2002
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Book
Author : Arif Darmawan
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass utilization to generate electricity via combustion simply can be classified into firing and cofiring. Biomass cofiring into the pulverized coal boilers has some advantages compared to dedicated biomass firing in terms of capital cost and combustion efficiency. To understand the cofiring behavior of biomass and coal comprehensively, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method can be used to analyze and solve problems involving fluid flows inside a combustor. A CFD modeling is significantly more effective from the perspectives of time and cost and safety and ease of scaling up; hence, it is usually performed before conducting a physical investigation through experiment. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art CFD modeling-based study is capable of solving the complexity of the interdependent processes such as turbulence, heat transfer via radiation, produced gas, and reactions in both the particle and gas phases during combustion. This chapter focuses on the study of cofiring of biomass, which is palm mill wastes, into the existing coal-fired power plant. Two palm mill wastes are evaluated: palm kernel shell and hydrothermally treated empty fruit bunch. Distributions of temperature and the produced are simulated to find the most optimum and applicable cofiring conditions.

NO Emission During Co firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

NO Emission During Co firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2015
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Highlights: Burning biomass alone has a higher NO emission than coal. Nitrogen conversion is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission has been observed. Oxygen staging combustion succeeds in controlling the NO emission. Abstract: Co-firing biomass and coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) holds the potential for negative CO2 emission into the atmosphere and is a promising technology to realized atmospheric CO2 reduction. Experiments co-firing coal and three kinds of Chinese biomass, i.e. rice husk (RH), wood chips (WC) and dry wood flour (WF) under oxy-fuel condition were carried out in a 10 kWt CFBC. Results show that burning biomass separately produces higher NO emissions and a higher fuel nitrogen conversion ratio than burning coal without biomass addition due to the higher volatile matter content of the biomass; the fuel nitrogen conversion ratio is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel under both air and oxy-fuel atmosphere. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission is observed than in air combustion, because CO2 replacing N2 reduces the yield of NO precursors like NH3 during the devolatilization process and enhances NO reduction via char/NO/CO reaction. NO emission increases as temperature, overall oxygen concentration and primary oxidant fraction increase during oxy-fuel combustion. Oxygen staging succeeds in controlling NO emission in a comparatively low level at high overall oxygen concentration condition. The results can be helpful for the design and operation of the oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustor.

Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture

Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture Book
Author : Dumitru Cebrucean
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Coal-fired power plants are the largest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere, with more than 9.5 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted annually. In order to mitigate the emissions of CO2 from coal-fired plants, several measures were proposed, such as increasing the efficiency of the plants, cofiring biomass with coal, and capturing and storing CO2 deep underground. Among these measures, the use of biomass, which is considered one of the most cost-effective renewables and, in addition, carbon neutral, combined with CO2 capture and storage will play an important role toward reducing the fossil-based CO2 emissions. In this study, we investigated in detail the performances of pulverized coal combustion plants with direct cofiring of biomass and integrated with an amine-based postcombustion capture technology. All the systems were modeled and simulated using the process simulation software Aspen Plus. The results indicate that cofiring 10% of biomass in a coal-based power plant only slightly affects the energy performance of the plant, reducing the net efficiency by 0.3% points. The addition of an amine capture system to both the coal-fired and biomass cofiring plants further reduces the efficiency of the plants by more than 10% points. Analyzing the effect of various CO2 capture process parameters on the heat, solvent and cooling water requirements, and on the overall plant performance, it was found that the concentration of amine in the solution is the most important parameter. The results showed that the net electrical efficiency increases for systems using higher amine concentrations. Further, we investigated the effect of systems with lower heat requirement for solvent regeneration on the plant gross/net power output and also analyzed the plant performances under a flexible CO2 capture efficiency.

Evaluation of drying processes for biomass co firing in coal fired steam power plants

Evaluation of drying processes for biomass co firing in coal fired steam power plants Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
Release : 2016-12-30
ISBN : 3736984413
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In dieser Arbeit werden verschiedene Prozesse zu Biomassetrocknung für die anschließende Mitverbrennung in kohlebefeuerten Dampfkraftwerken untersucht. Modelle der verschiedenen Trocknungsprozesse, sowie Modelle des Dampferzeugers und des Gesamtprozesses werden erstellt, um die Auswirkungen der Biomassemitverbrennung auf den Kraftwerksprozess zu untersuchen. Mehrere Szenarien für die dezentrale und prozessintegrierte Trocknung werden analysiert und bewertet. In this work, several processes for biomass drying for biomass co firing in coal fired steam power plants are evaluated. Models are developed for each drying process, as well as for the power plant boiler and the overall power generation process, to analyse the consequences and impacts of biomass co firing on the power generation process. Several scenarios for decentralised and process integrated drying are analysed and evaluated.

1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry

1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry Book
Author : Spyros Kyritsis
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9781902916156
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The 1st World Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy and Industry, held in Sevilla in June 2000, brought together for the first time the traditional European Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry and the Biomass Conference of the Americas, thus creating the largest and most outstanding event in the worldwide biomass sector. The conference elaborated innovative global strategies, projects and efficient practice rules for energy and the environment at a key stage in the industry's development. New concepts and projects were highlighted to increase the social and political awareness for a change in worldwide resource consumption and to promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable development for the next millennium. In 2 volumes, the Proceedings include some 470 papers essential to an understanding of current thinking, practice, research and global developments in the biomass sector - a vital reference source for researchers, manufacturers, and policy makers involved or interested in the use of biomass for energy and industry.

Logistics Costs and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20 Biomass

Logistics  Costs  and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20  Biomass Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2014
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

Near Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U S Electricity Supply

Near Term Opportunities for Integrating Biomass into the U S  Electricity Supply Book
Author : David S. Ortiz,Aimee E. Curtright,Constantine Samaras,Aviva Litovitz,Nicholas Burger
Publisher : Rand Corporation
Release : 2011-07-29
ISBN : 0833058460
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass is an increasingly important source of electricity, heat, and liquid fuel. One near-term option for using biomass to generate electricity is to cofire biomass in coal-fired electricity plants. This report focuses on two aspects of biomass use: plant-site modifications, changes in operations, and costs associated with cofiring biomass; and the logistical issues associated with delivering biomass to the plant.

The Effects of Scale up and Coal biomass Blending on Supercritical Coal Oxy combustion Power Plants

The Effects of Scale up and Coal biomass Blending on Supercritical Coal Oxy combustion Power Plants Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) with biomass is called to be one of the most important technologies to reduce the climate change all over the world. In addition, supercritical pulverized coal plants have been pointed out as interesting power installations because its high efficiency. In this work, the effects of plants scaling and biomass-coal co-firing level on net present value (NPV), cost of energy (COE) and cost of CO2 avoided (CCA) have been studied on a supercritical pulverized combusting coal/biomass blends. Aspen Plus © was used to implement technical simulations. Finally, the main factors affecting plants viability were identified by a sensitivity analysis. The results obtained revealed that the use of biomass reduces the NPV in (−0.23, −1.75) M€/MWe, and increases the COE by (0.007, 0.263) M€/MWe. However, plant scaling was found to be a more important factor, by reaching an impact of 4.32M€/MWe on NPV variation in best case. The reduction of oxy-plants viability by biomass using as raw material could be compensated by an increasing of the designed scale-up. Finally, 300 MWe power plants with 40–50% biomass co-firing level were identified as a compromise solution between economy and risk, improving in this way the interest for potential investment. Highlights: A techno-economical study of fifteen oxy-combustion scenarios were performed. The scale-up and the biomass co-firing level effects were studied. The scale-up effect can reach NPV by 4.32M€/MWe for a scaling of 140–460 MWe. The use of biomass as raw material increases the COE by (0.007, 0.263) M€/MWe. The more interesting bio-CCS are 300 MWe plants with 40–50% biomass co-firing level.

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio Fuels and Co firing

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio Fuels and Co firing Book
Author : N. Altawell
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-03-28
ISBN : 111885246X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A functional discussion of the crop selection process for biomass energy The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing provides a detailed examination and analysis for a number of energy crops and their use as a source for generating electricity and for the production of bio-fuels. Renowned renewable energy expert and consultant Dr. Najib Altawell begins with the fundamentals of bio-fuels and co-firing and moves on to the main feature, which is the methodology that assists energy scientists and engineers to arrive at the most suitable biomass materials tailored to each company’s business and economic environments and objectives. This methodology provides a framework whereby power-generating companies can insert their own values for each factor, whether business factor (BF) or scientific & technical factors (S&T) or both simultaneously. The methodology provides a list of factors related to the biomass energy business. The average values have been obtained from the survey method and laboratory tests. These values are the standard values power companies can use if they need or wish to use them. The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing has been designed and compiled for the widest possible range of readers, researchers, businesspeople, and economists who are connected to the renewable energy field in general, and biomass energy in particular. Because of its focus on practical data and applications, the book is also accessible for general readers who may or may not have a technical or scientific background.

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy Book
Author : Erik Dahlquist
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-04-16
ISBN : 0203120264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it