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Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book

Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects  Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book Book
Author : Frederick T. Fraunfelder,Frederick W. Fraunfelder
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2020-06-21
ISBN : 0323674011
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by global experts in the field of chemical- and drug-related ocular problems, Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects, 8th Edition, provides need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology in one concise reference. This best-selling, user-friendly resource features a templated format, numerous full-color illustrations, and sweeping content updates throughout – all designed to eliminate uncertainty and ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment guidance. Provides comprehensive coverage of drugs’ generic and trade names, primary uses, ocular and systemic side effects, and clinical significance. Features a unique side effect index, a new concise paperback format for portability, and clinical photos of ocular symptoms of adverse drug reactions. Covers dozens of new drugs used in the U.S. and internationally, as well as extensive updates to drug registry information to ensure access to the latest data. Includes expanded sections on how to follow patients with visual adverse drug reactions to chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, isotretinoin, ethambutol, and more. Guidelines can be copied to use as patient handouts. Offers extensive discussions of principles of therapy, ocular drug delivery, methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects, and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics. Provides the WHO classification system to help you determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur. Ideal for ophthalmologists, optometrists, and busy clinicians in primary care, emergency medicine, and more – anyone who needs quick, on-the-spot consultation on ocular toxicology.

Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book

Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book Book
Author : Frederick T. Fraunfelder,Frederick W. Fraunfelder,Wiley A. Chambers
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2008-06-12
ISBN : 1437719678
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by international authorities in ocular toxicology, including the Founder of The National Registry of Drug-Induced Side Effects and its current Director, this essential resource provides the clinically relevant information you need to effectively diagnose and manage herbal, chemical, and drug-related ocular problems. Comprehensive coverage of all drugs’ generic and trade drug names, primary uses, ocular and systemic side effects, and clinical significance make this book - like its best-selling predecessor, Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects - the ideal reference for quick, on-the-spot consultation. Leaders in the field provide need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology—all in one concise reference. Data from the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects (Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR) and the World Health Organization (Uppsala, Sweden) help you recognize and avoid drug-induced ocular side effects. A highly templated format makes retrieval of essential knowledge quick and easy. A wealth of full-color photographs provide vivid, visual diagnostic guidance. The latest information on approved medications helps you stay up to date and provide state-of-the-art care. Extensive coverage of principles of therapy, ocular drug delivery, methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects, and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics gives you the knowledge you need to manage any challenge in ocular toxicology Authoritative guidance on ocular drugs and their use in pregnancy helps you safely manage the unique needs of these patients. The inclusion of the WHO classification system helps you determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur.

Clinical Ocular Toxicology

Clinical Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : Frederick T. Fraunfelder,Frederick W. Fraunfelder,Wiley A. Chambers
Publisher : Saunders
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9781416046738
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by international authorities in ocular toxicology, including the Founder of The National Registry of Drug-Induced Side Effects and its current Director, this essential resource provides the clinically relevant information you need to effectively diagnose and manage herbal, chemical, and drug-related ocular problems. Comprehensive coverage of all drugs' generic and trade drug names, primary uses, ocular and systemic side effects, and clinical significance make this book - like its best-selling predecessor, Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects - the ideal reference for quick, on-the-spot consultation. Leaders in the field provide need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology-all in one concise reference. Data from the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects (Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR) and the World Health Organization (Uppsala, Sweden) help you recognize and avoid drug-induced ocular side effects. A highly templated format makes retrieval of essential knowledge quick and easy. A wealth of full-color photographs provide vivid, visual diagnostic guidance. The latest information on approved medications helps you stay up to date and provide state-of-the-art care. Extensive coverage of principles of therapy, ocular drug delivery, methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects, and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics gives you the knowledge you need to manage any challenge in ocular toxicology Authoritative guidance on ocular drugs and their use in pregnancy helps you safely manage the unique needs of these patients. The inclusion of the WHO classification system helps you determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur.

Clinical Ocular Pharmacology

Clinical Ocular Pharmacology Book
Author : Jimmy D. Bartlett,Siret D. Jaanus
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0750675764
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text provides more than theoretical information on pharmacological mechanisms by focusing on the practical uses of drugs in the primary care of patients. It aims to enable students and clinicians to stay informed of developments.

Clinical Ocular Pharmacology

Clinical Ocular Pharmacology Book
Author : Jimmy D. Bartlett,Siret D. Jaanus
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann Medical
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beskrivelse: Written by experts in the field, this comprehensive resource offers valuable information on the practical uses of drugs in primary eye care. Discussions of the pharmacology of ocular drugs such as anti-infective agents, anti-glaucoma drugs, and anti-allergy drugs lead to more in-depth information on ocular drugs used to treat a variety of disorders, including diseases of the eyelids, corneal diseases, ocular infections, and glaucoma. The book also covers ocular toxicology, focusing on drug interactions, ocular effects of systemic drugs, and life-threatening systemic emergencies. A logical organization makes it easy to find essential information.Complete coverage of the basic fundamentals of pharmacology such as ocular drug delivery and ocular drug formulations.Comprehensive reviews of the pharmacology of specific classes of agents such as the cycloplegics, antiglaucoma drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, ocular irrigating solutions, and contact lens care products. In-depth information on ocular drugs used in clinical practice, including chapters on drugs used to treat eyelid disorders, lacrimal diseases, conjunctiva diseases, corneal diseases, allergies, uveitis, postoperative cataract, retinal diseases, and glaucoma. Coverage of ocular toxicology, including drug interactions, ocular effects of systemic drugs, and life-threatening systemic emergencies.Completely revised and updated content that reflects the latest advances in pharmacology. Updated information on post-operative drugs, including LASIK follow up medications. Expanded coverage in the chapters on Anti-infective Drugs, Anti-allergy Drugs and Decongestants, and Lubricants and Other Preparations of Ocular Surface Disease that includes the latest advancements in antibiotics and medications used to treat allergies and dry eye. A dosage quick reference guide on the inside front cover for quick and easy access. Information on the use of herbal medications.

Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book

Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects  Clinical Ocular Toxicology E Book Book
Author : Frederick T. Fraunfelder,Frederick W. Fraunfelder,Wiley A. Chambers
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-09-19
ISBN : 0323319858
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ideal for ophthalmologists, optometrists and busy clinicians, Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects provides the clinically relevant information you need to diagnose and manage chemical and drug-related ocular problems. An easily accessible format, meticulous revisions and comprehensive coverage of all drugs’ generic and trade names, primary uses, ocular and systemic side effects, and clinical significance make this best-selling resource the ideal reference for quick, on-the-spot consultation. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Manage any challenge in ocular toxicology with extensive coverage of principles of therapy; ocular drug delivery; methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects; and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics. Benefit from the masterful guidance and global perspective of world authorities in the field who provide need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology—all in one concise reference. Confer with the WHO classification system to determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur. Zero in on the key information you need to know with highly templated, concise chapters. Apply the latest knowledge and treatments for newly recognized Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR). Identify which ADR’s are clinically relevant and what to do about them. Experience clinical scenarios with vivid clarity through a wealth of new and updated clinical photographs that provide unmatched, visual diagnostic guidance. Recognize and avoid drug-induced ocular side effects with data from the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects (Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR) and the World Health Organization (Uppsala, Sweden). Stay up to date and provide state-of-the-art care with the latest information on approved medications.

Ocular Toxicology

Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : Keith Green,O. Hockwin,Ramesh C. Tripathi,I. Weisse
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461518873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

On behalf of the editorial board and the organizing committee of the 4th congress of the International Society of Ocular Toxicology (I SOT), held in AnnecyNeyrier du Lac, France, October 9 -13, 1994, we are pleased to present to the ocular toxicology community this indexed volume of our congress proceedings. The 4th congress was designed primarily to facilitate and update the knowledge in ocular electrophysiology and ocular pharmacokinetics, in both the clinical and preclinical aspects. The outcome of this 4th congress, established in this volume, is a useful contribution to the meth odology in both fields and will hopefully assist in the evaluation and interpretation of ocular findings recorded in animal studies on drugs and other chemicals, in order to protect human health. Undoubtedly, work on the mechanisms of ocular toxicology in the process of pharmaceutical development must continue and these proceedings, embodying the presented papers, will add to the data base. The editors, the congress organizing committee and the members of the International Society of Ocular Toxicology thank the speakers who gave their time, knowledge, and expertise to assist us in this project. The following manuscripts contain the main substance of each of the platform presentations and, in some cases, much more. Moreover, our thanks go to all the participants coming from a range of background- regulatory, academic and industrial -for their attention and excellent contributions during the discussion.

Ophthalmic Toxicology

Ophthalmic Toxicology Book
Author : G. C. Y. Chiou
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1999-07-01
ISBN : 9781439809983
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thoroughly revised and updates, this new edition of Ophthalmic Toxicology retains its uniqueness in covering all aspects of ophthalmic toxicology. With chapters from leading authorities incorporating the latest developments in the field, including a new chapter on the molecular basis of ophthalmic toxicity, this edition covers such topics as: *t

Drug induced Ocular Side Effects and Ocular Toxicology

Drug induced Ocular Side Effects and Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : Otto Hockwin
Publisher : S Karger Ag
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Drug induced Ocular Side Effects and Ocular Toxicology book written by Otto Hockwin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects

Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects Book
Author : Frederick T. Fraunfelder,Frederick W. Fraunfelder,Wiley A. Chambers
Publisher : Saunders
Release : 2014-11-18
ISBN : 9780323319843
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ideal for ophthalmologists, optometrists and busy clinicians, Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects provides the clinically relevant information you need to diagnose and manage chemical and drug-related ocular problems. An easily accessible format, meticulous revisions and comprehensive coverage of all drugs' generic and trade names, primary uses, ocular and systemic side effects, and clinical significance make this best-selling resource the ideal reference for quick, on-the-spot consultation. Manage any challenge in ocular toxicology with extensive coverage of principles of therapy; ocular drug delivery; methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects; and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics. Benefit from the masterful guidance and global perspective of world authorities in the field who provide need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology-all in one concise reference. Confer with the WHO classification system to determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur. Zero in on the key information you need to know with highly templated, concise chapters. Apply the latest knowledge and treatments for newly recognized Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR). Identify which ADR's are clinically relevant and what to do about them. Experience clinical scenarios with vivid clarity through a wealth of new and updated clinical photographs that provide unmatched, visual diagnostic guidance. Recognize and avoid drug-induced ocular side effects with data from the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects (Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR) and the World Health Organization (Uppsala, Sweden). Stay up to date and provide state-of-the-art care with the latest information on approved medications. Access the complete contents online at Expert Consult.

Advances in Ocular Toxicology

Advances in Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : Keith Green,Henry F. Edelhauser,David S. Hull,David E. Potter,Ramesh C. Tripathi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461559375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume represents the proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the International Society of Ocular Toxicology (ISOT), which was held at the Grove Park Inn and Resort in Asheville, North Carolina, October 13-17, 1996. We are delighted to present this volume to the ophthalmic community, especially those with a significant interest in ocular toxicol ogy. The Fifth Congress was developed around themes relating to ocular drug metabolism, the ocular pathophysiological effects of nitric oxide, government issues relating to the use of alternative methods for toxicity testing, and a workshop that encompassed comparisons of both in vitro versus in vivo models as well as different animal models. The outcome of this congress, embodied in this volume, is a contribution to the methodologies currently employed or under development and to various drug or physical effects on different ocular tissues. While the focus of this proceedings is on ocular effects of drugs or other materials, many of the contributions deal with topics that have a much broader interest. The workshop concerning the use of different model systems and the choice of the best animal model for drug testing covers a wide range of interests that ex tends far beyond specific ocular effects. This is especially true in the area of alternative methods and in the choice of the best animal model for examination of different disease entities.

Ocular Toxicology

Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : International Society of Ocular Toxicology. Congress
Publisher : Marcel Dekker Incorporated
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ocular Toxicology book written by International Society of Ocular Toxicology. Congress, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Assessing Ocular Toxicology in Laboratory Animals

Assessing Ocular Toxicology in Laboratory Animals Book
Author : Andrea B Weir,Margaret Collins
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-04
ISBN : 1627031642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ocular toxicity is routinely assessed in toxicology studies conducted for regulatory purposes. Ocular anatomy and physiology and the assessment of ocular toxicity itself can be challenging to scientists involved in the safety assessment of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other agents. Anatomical and physiological differences between species can impact the nature of ocular effects observed following intended or unintended exposure of ocular tissues to xenobiotics. Ocular Toxicity in Laboratory Animals provides a concise reference addressing ocular anatomy and physiology across species that will enhance the design and interpretation of toxicology studies conducted for regulatory purposes. The book provides an overview of routine and advanced techniques that are used to assess ocular toxicity including slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, electrophysiology and imaging methods for the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Additionally, the book defines the regulatory expectations for pharmaceuticals intended to treat ocular diseases and for other non-pharmaceutical regulated chemicals. With contributions from experts in the field, Ocular Toxicity in Laboratory Animals is an authoritative, accessible guide for toxicologists and other scientists involved in conducting toxicology studies for regulatory purposes and/or reviewing data from such studies.

Standards for Ocular Toxicology and Inflammation

Standards for Ocular Toxicology and Inflammation Book
Author : Brian C. Gilger,Cynthia S. Cook,Michael H. Brown
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-31
ISBN : 3319783645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is an international effort to standardize the language, terms, and methods used in ocular toxicology.With over 300 color illustrations this consensus volume provides standards and harmonization for procedures, terminology, and scoring schemes for ocular toxicology. it is essential for industry, pharmaceutical companies, and governmental agencies to help improve the drug development process and to reduce and refine the use of animals in research. Standards for Ocular Toxicology and Inflammation is endorsed by the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

Dermal and Ocular Toxicology

Dermal and Ocular Toxicology Book
Author : David W. Hobson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-25
ISBN : 1000124886
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dermal and Ocular Toxicology: Fundamentals and Methods is a procedurally-oriented volume of detailed methods and practical examples discussing the dermal and ocular aspects of toxicology. The book is divided into a dermal section and an ocular section. Each section begins with a chapter on the anatomy and physiology of each organ system and then progresses to more specialized chapters discussing such topics as the toxicological pathology of each system, state-of-the-art in vitro and in vivo evaluatory procedures, statistical considerations for test design and data interpretation, and the utilization of test findings. Test methods are provided for acute dermal exposure effects, dermal hypersensitivity and photoallergy assessment, dermal and ocular 0.pharmacokinetics, skin flap and skin grafting techniques, and in vitro alternative methods. This book can be used as an instructional text or as a sourcebook for practicing toxicologists, pharmacologists, industrial hygienists, occupational health professionals, and graduate students.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : Steve Gilbert,Asish Mohapatra,Sol Bobst,Antoinette Hayes,Sara T. Humes
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-16
ISBN : 0128137258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.

Information Resources in Toxicology

Information Resources in Toxicology Book
Author : P.J. Bert Hakkinen,Asish Mohapatra,Steven G. G. Gilbert
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-08-19
ISBN : 9780080920030
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This latest version of Information Resources in Toxicology (IRT) continues a tradition established in 1982 with the publication of the first edition in presenting an extensive itemization, review, and commentary on the information infrastructure of the field. This book is a unique wide-ranging, international, annotated bibliography and compendium of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. Thoroughly updated, the current edition analyzes technological changes and is rife with online tools and links to Web sites. IRT-IV is highly structured, providing easy access to its information. Among the “hot topics covered are Disaster Preparedness and Management, Nanotechnology, Omics, the Precautionary Principle, Risk Assessment, and Biological, Chemical and Radioactive Terrorism and Warfare are among the designated. • International in scope, with contributions from over 30 countries • Numerous key references and relevant Web links • Concise narratives about toxicologic sub-disciplines • Valuable appendices such as the IUPAC Glossary of Terms in Toxicology • Authored by experts in their respective sub-disciplines within toxicology

Journal of Toxicology

Journal of Toxicology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Journal of Toxicology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pharmacology of Ocular Therapeutics

Pharmacology of Ocular Therapeutics Book
Author : Thirumurthy Velpandian
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-29
ISBN : 3319254987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book comprises an integrated review of ocular therapeutics across all relevant fields. It addresses the real-world requirements of ophthalmologists, pharmacists and optometrists, as observed through working alongside these practitioners for two decades. Knowledge surrounding agents used in ophthalmic practice has, historically, been scattered. The book facilitates understanding of ocular drug therapy by compiling all key aspects of the pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, ocular biochemistry and cell biology of these agents. Chapters detail drug transfer across barriers, systemic toxicity of topically applied drugs, autonomic drugs used for diagnostics, as well as anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, glaucoma and antimicrobial therapies, and avenues for the development of new ocular drugs. Applications of extemporaneously prepared formulations are described to inform day-to-day clinical practice. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in tear substitutes, ocular drug delivery systems, stem cell therapy, pharmacogenomics and antiangiogenic ocular chemotherapy are also explored. The book also provides insights from drugs of herbal origin, and a historical perspective on drugs for ocular use. Practicing and resident ophthalmologists, optometrists, pharmacists, nursing professionals, scholars in ocular drug research and students will equally benefit from this comprehensive guide.

Ocular Pharmacology and Toxicology

Ocular Pharmacology and Toxicology Book
Author : Brian C. Gilger
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2013-12-16
ISBN : 9781627037440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering ocular pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicology, Ocular Pharmacology and Toxicology provides ophthalmologists, toxicologists, and pharmacologists with both an introduction to the proper methods for ocular pharmacology and toxicology as well as providing practical methodologies for conducting ocular studies. Expert authors have contributed detailed chapters on study design, analysis, and routes to regulatory approval for various types and routes of ophthalmic drugs. As a volume in the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, chapters feature the kind of in-depth specifics and implementation advice to ensure successful results. Practical and authoritative, Ocular Pharmacology and Toxicology serves as an ideal basis of training in the proper design and conduct of essential studies to accurately determine pharmacokinetics and ocular toxicity from the systemic, topical, periocular, or intraocular administration of drugs or compounds, from the use of ocular medical devices and from ocular surgical procedures.