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Cleanup Of Chemical And Explosive Munitions

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Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions Book
Author : Richard Albright
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2011-12-02
ISBN : 1437734782
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to the two World Wars, are a global concern, especially when former military bases are redeveloped for housing or other civilian uses. Internationally, there are the added challenges of cleanup of battlegrounds and minefields. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50–250 billion to clean up these sites, many of which are in areas of high population density, where the demand for land for development is high. This book is unique in providing detailed guidance for cleaning up military ordnance sites – listing explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products which can contaminate soil and groundwater and the tests needed to detect them, as well as cleanup techniques. Also included are remote sensing techniques, geophysical techniques, safety issues, the particular challenges of chemical weapons, etc. The author illustrates these techniques with case studies, including former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories, and an extended study of the remediation of the large and complex Spring Valley site in the District of Columbia,. The second edition has been fully revised and updated, and also includes new and expanded sections on: geophysical techniques for discovering buried ordnance underwater sites and remediation techniques use of robotics, including remotely operated vehicles compliance and regulatory issues guidance documents from US Department of Defense and other sources The focus on test procedures, environmental remediation techniques, and learning from past case studies, makes Albright’s book the most comprehensive and practical guide on the market for a topic of international importance. The only book available with clear and complete guidance for the cleanup of military ordnance sites and battlefields. The author illustrates his recommendations with real world cases including Spring Valley, DC, former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, and storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and other former Soviet states. An essential reference for the test and environmental remediation procedures required to put former military sites back in to civilian use (e.g. housing). 30% revision, with key updates concerning regulatory changes, US Dept of Defense guidance documents, use of robotic vehicles, underwater sites and discovery of buried ordnance.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions Book
Author : Richard D. Albright
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions book written by Richard D. Albright, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste Book
Author : Robert Noyes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1996-12-31
ISBN : 081551641X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations. The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher. However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are: 1. Chemical weapons destruction 2. Remediation of explosives contaminated soils and lagoons 3. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extraction This book discusses the current and potential treatment technologies involved in these three programs.

Death of the Chesapeake

Death of the Chesapeake Book
Author : Richard Albright
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 1118756665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In essence this book deals with an area that contributes significantly to the pollution and degradation of Chesapeake Bay, but has been completely overlooked in many of the efforts to restore the Bay, specifically, the federal military pollution sources. The book also recognizes for the first time, that efforts to restore the Bay have failed because of violation of a fundamental precept of environmental cleanup; that is, to sample the site and see what is there. The Bay itself has never been sampled. Thus this book presents a view of the environmental condition of Chesapeake Bay that is totally unique. It covers a part of the history of the Bay that is not widely known, including how the Bay was formed. It presents a mixture of science, military history, and novel solutions to the Bay's degradation. In so doing, the author examines the military use of the Bay and reveals the extent of munitions dumpsites containing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as chemical warfare material, and how this is effecting the environment. The book concludes with the author's own clean-up plan that, if implemented, would go a long way to restoring health to Bay. The book is supplemented with many photographs and maps.

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2012-08-21
ISBN : 030925793X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the result of disposal practices from the early to mid-twentieth century, approximately 250 sites in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and 3 territories are known or suspected to have buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). Much of this CWM is likely to occur in the form of small finds that necessitate the continuation of the Army's capability to transport treatment systems to disposal locations for destruction. Of greatest concern for the future are sites in residential areas and large sites on legacy military installations. The Army mission regarding the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) is turning into a program much larger than the existing munition and hazardous substance cleanup programs. The Army asked the Nation Research Council (NRC) to examine this evolving mission in part because this change is significant and becoming even more prominent as the stockpile destruction is nearing completion. One focus in this report is the current and future status of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Project (NSCMP), which now plays a central role in the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel and which reports to the Chemical Materials Agency. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel also reviews current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and surveys organizations involved with remediation of suspected CWM disposal sites to determine current practices and coordination. In this report, potential deficiencies in operational areas based on the review of current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and develop options for targeted research and development efforts to mitigate potential problem areas are identified.

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of International Technologies for the Destruction of Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-11-02
ISBN : 9780309180511
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Chemical Weapons Convention requires, among other things, that the signatories to the convention--which includes the United States--destroy by April 29, 2007, or as soon possible thereafter, any chemical warfare materiel that has been recovered from sites where it has been buried once discovered. For several years the United States and several other countries have been developing and using technologies to dispose of this non-stockpile materiel. To determine whether international efforts have resulted in technologies that would benefit the U.S. program, the U.S. Army asked the NRC to evaluate and compare such technologies to those now used by the United States. This book presents a discussion of factors used in the evaluations, summaries of evaluations of several promising international technologies for processing munitions and for agent-only processing, and summaries of other technologies that are less likely to be of benefit to the U.S. program at this time.

Chemical Weapons Disposal

Chemical Weapons Disposal Book
Author : United States. General Accounting Office
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chemical Weapons Disposal book written by United States. General Accounting Office, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee to Review Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Program Detonation Technologies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2009-05-22
ISBN : 0309126835
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Army's ability to meet public and congressional demands to destroy expeditiously all of the U.S. declared chemical weapons would be enhanced by the selection and acquisition of appropriate explosive destruction technologies (EDTs) to augment the main technologies to be used to destroy the chemical weapons currently at the Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD) in Kentucky and the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Colorado. The Army is considering four EDTs for the destruction of chemical weapons: three from private sector vendors, and a fourth, Army-developed explosive destruction system (EDS). This book updates earlier evaluations of these technologies, as well as any other viable detonation technologies, based on several considerations including process maturity, process efficacy, process throughput, process safety, public and regulatory acceptability, and secondary waste issues, among others. It also provides detailed information on each of the requirements at BGAD and PCD and rates each of the existing suitable EDTs plus the Army's EDS with respect to how well it satisfies these requirements.

Sensing of Deadly Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents Nerve Agent Simulants and their Toxicological Aspects

Sensing of Deadly Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents  Nerve Agent Simulants  and their Toxicological Aspects Book
Author : Sangita Das,Sabu Thomas,Partha Pratim Das
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-09-23
ISBN : 0323906729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sensing of Deadly Toxic Chemical Warfare Agents, Nerve Agent Simulants, and their Toxicological Aspects provides a general overview of the development and performance of different novel molecular frameworks as potent vehicles for sensing Chemical Weapons (CWs). The chapters are contributed by leading researchers in the areas of materials science, medical science, chemical science, and nanotechnology from industries, academics, government and private research institutions across the globe. It covers cover topics such as inorganic nanocomposites, hyperbranched polymers, and graphene heterojunctions for effective sensing of CW agents. This book is a highly valuable reference source for graduates, post-graduates, and research scholars primarily in the fields of materials science, medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, and nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, almost all analytical techniques will be discussed, making this a first-rate reference for professors, students, and scientists in many industries. Provides an efficient, reliable, and highly versatile approach for the synthesis of different molecular systems suitable for diversity-oriented strategies, structure-activity studies and molecular tailoring for the sensing of chemical warfare agents Goes into depth on new binary organogels, discrete carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and has endowed electrochemical chemosensors (ECCSs) with high selectivity and sensitivity towards the detection of chemical warfare agent Highlights in detail the detection of CWs by composite optical waveguide sensors, and describes disposable biofilm biosensors for sensitive detection of biotoxicity in water with treatment of nerve agent poisoning

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1994-02-01
ISBN : 0309050464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The U.S. Army's chemical stockpile is aging and gradually deteriorating. Its elimination has public, political, and environmental ramifications. The U.S. Department of Defense has designated the Department of the Army as the executive agent responsible for the safe, timely, and effective elimination of the chemical stockpile. This book provides recommendations on the direction the Army should take in pursuing and completing its Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry Book
Author : Stanley E Manahan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-06-19
ISBN : 1000582167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With clear explanations, real-world examples and updated ancillary material, the 11th edition of Environmental Chemistry emphasizes the concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology and chemistry. The format and organization popular in preceding editions is used, including an approach based upon the five environmental spheres and the relationship of environmental chemistry to the key concepts of sustainability, industrial ecology and green chemistry. The new edition provides a comprehensive view of key environmental issues, and significantly looks at diseases and pandemics as an environmental problem influenced by other environmental concerns like climate change. Features: The most trusted and best-selling text for environmental chemistry has been fully updated and expanded once again The author has preserved the basic format with appropriate updates including a comprehensive overview of key environmental issues and concerns New to this important text is material on the threat of pathogens and disease, deadly past pandemics that killed millions, recently emerged diseases and the prospects for more environment threats related to disease This outstanding legacy appeals to a wide audience and can also be an ideal interdisciplinary book for graduate students with degrees in a variety of disciplines other than chemistry

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2008-09-01
ISBN : 0444522727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental health has evolved over time into a complex, multidisciplinary field. Many of the key determinants and solutions to environmental health problems lie outside the direct realm of health and are strongly dependent on environmental changes, water and sanitation, industrial development, education, employment, trade, tourism, agriculture, urbanization, energy, housing and national security. Environmental risks, vulnerability and variability manifest themselves in different ways and at different time scales. While there are shared global and transnational problems, each community, country or region faces its own unique environmental health problems, the solution of which depends on circumstances surrounding the resources, customs, institutions, values and environmental vulnerability. This work contains critical reviews and assessments of environmental health practices and research that have worked in places and thus can guide programs and economic development in other countries or regions. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health seeks to conceptualize the subject more clearly, to describe the best available scientific methods that can be used in characterizing and managing environmental health risks, to extend the field of environmental health through new theoretical perspectives and heightened appreciation of social, economic and political contexts, and to encourage a richer analysis in the field through examples of diverse experiences in dealing with the health-environment interface. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health contains numerous examples of policy options and environmental health practices that have worked and thus can guide programs in other countries or regions It includes a wide range of tools and strategies that can assist communities and countries in assessing environmental health conditions, monitoring progress of intervention implementation and evaluating outcomes Provides a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge in this emerging field Articles contain summaries and assessments of environmental health practices and research, providing a framework for further research Places environmental health in the broader context of environmental change and related ecological, political, economic, social, and cultural issues

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-01-20
ISBN : 0309082692
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chemical warfare materiel (CWM) encompasses diverse items that were used during 60 years of efforts by the United States to develop a capability for conducting chemical warfare. Non-Stockpile CWM (NSCWM) is materiel not included in the current U.S. inventory of chemical munitions and includes buried materiel, recovered materiel, components of binary chemical weapons, former production facilities, and miscellaneous materiel. Because NSCWM is stored or buried at many locations, the Army is developing transportable treatment systems that can be moved from site to site as needed. Originally, the Army planned to develop three transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the rapid response system (RRS), the munitions management device (MMD), and the explosive destruction system (EDS). This report supplements an earlier report that evaluated eight alternative technologies for destruction of the liquid waste streams from two of the U.S. Army’s transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the RRS and the MMD. This report evaluates the same technologies for the destruction of liquid waste streams produced by the EDS and discusses the regulatory approval issues and obstacles for the combined use of the EDS and the alternative technologies that treat the EDS secondary waste streams. Although it focuses on the destruction of EDS neutralent, it also takes into consideration the ability of posttreatment technologies to process the more dilute water rinses that are used in the EDS following treatment with a reagent.

Dew of Death

Dew of Death Book
Author : Joel A. Vilensky
Publisher : Indiana University Press
Release : 2005-09-07
ISBN : 0253111528
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Dr. Vilensky raises important concerns regarding the threats posed by lewisite and other weapons of mass destruction. As he describes, non-proliferation programs are a vital component in the War on Terror." -- Richard G. Lugar, United States Senator "Joel Vilensky's book is a detailed and immensely useful account of the development and history of one of the major chemical weapons.... We will always know how to make lewisite, the 'Dew of Death,' but that does not mean that we should, or be compelled to accept such weapons in our lives." -- from the Foreword by Richard Butler, former head of UN Special Commission to Disarm Iraq In 1919, when the Great War was over, the New York Times reported on a new chemical weapon with "the fragrance of geranium blossoms," a poison gas that was "the climax of this country's achievements in the lethal arts." The name of this substance was lewisite and this is its story -- the story of an American weapon of mass destruction. Discovered by accident by a graduate student and priest in a chemistry laboratory at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., lewisite was developed into a weapon by Winford Lewis, who became its namesake, working with a team led by James Conant, later president of Harvard and head of government oversight for the U.S.'s atomic bomb program, the Manhattan Project. After a powerful German counterattack in the spring of 1918, the government began frantic production of lewisite in hopes of delivering 3,000 tons of the stuff to be ready for use in Europe the following year. The end of war came just as the first shipment was being prepared. It was dumped into the sea, but not forgotten. Joel A. Vilensky tells the intriguing story of the discovery and development of lewisite and its curious history. During World War II, the United States produced more than 20,000 tons of lewisite, testing it on soldiers and secretly dropping it from airplanes. In the end, the substance was abandoned as a weapon because it was too unstable under most combat conditions. But a weapon once discovered never disappears. It was used by Japan in Manchuria and by Iraq in its war with Iran. The Soviet Union was once a major manufacturer. Strangely enough, although it was developed for lethal purposes, lewisite led to an effective treatment for a rare neurological disease.

Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds

Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds Book
Author : Mahdi Balali-Mood,Mohammad Abdollahi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-01
ISBN : 3319238744
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers a practical guide to the clinical management of sulphur and nitrogen mustard exposure including information on the history, pharmacology and toxicology of mustard compounds (MC). Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds details the many resulting complications of sulphur mustard (SM) poisoning such as respiratory, Dermatological, Ophthalmological and Psychiatric. This volume is a key resource for clinical toxicologists, military and emergency physicians who are involved in the teaching and research of MC and for all medical and health professions who are responsible for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of MC poisonings.

Environmental Histories of the First World War

Environmental Histories of the First World War Book
Author : Richard P. Tucker,Tait Keller,J. R. McNeill,Martin Schmid
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2018-08-31
ISBN : 1108429165
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Surveys the ecological impacts of World War I, showing how the war had a global impact on the environment.

Phyto

Phyto Book
Author : Kate Kennen,Niall Kirkwood
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-05-01
ISBN : 1317599004
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Winner of the 2017 CBHL Literature Award of Excellence in Landscape Design and Architecture Phyto presents the concepts of phytoremediation and phytotechnology in one comprehensive guide, illustrating when plants can be considered for the uptake, removal or mitigation of on-site pollutants. Current scientific case studies are covered, highlighting the advantages and limitations of plant-based cleanup. Typical contaminant groups found in the built environment are explained, and plant lists for mitigation of specific contaminants are included where applicable. This is the first book to address the benefits of phytotechnologies from a design point of view, taking complex scientific terms and translating the research into an easy-to-understand reference book for those involved in creating planting solutions. Typically, phytotechnology planting techniques are currently employed post-site contamination to help clean up already contaminated soil by taking advantage of the positive effects that plants can have upon harmful toxins and chemicals. This book presents a new concept to create projective planting designs with preventative phytotechnology abilities, ‘phytobuffering’ where future pollution may be expected for particular site programs. Filled with tables, photographs and detailed drawings, Kennen and Kirkwood's text guides the reader through the process of selecting plants for their aesthetic and environmental qualities, combined with their contaminant-removal benefits.

Base Nation

Base Nation Book
Author : David Vine
Publisher : Metropolitan Books
Release : 2015-08-25
ISBN : 1627791701
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From Italy to the Indian Ocean, from Japan to Honduras, a far-reaching examination of the perils of American military bases overseas American military bases encircle the globe. More than two decades after the end of the Cold War, the U.S. still stations its troops at nearly a thousand locations in foreign lands. These bases are usually taken for granted or overlooked entirely, a little-noticed part of the Pentagon's vast operations. But in an eye-opening account, Base Nation shows that the worldwide network of bases brings with it a panoply of ills—and actually makes the nation less safe in the long run. As David Vine demonstrates, the overseas bases raise geopolitical tensions and provoke widespread antipathy towards the United States. They also undermine American democratic ideals, pushing the U.S. into partnerships with dictators and perpetuating a system of second-class citizenship in territories like Guam. They breed sexual violence, destroy the environment, and damage local economies. And their financial cost is staggering: though the Pentagon underplays the numbers, Vine's accounting proves that the bill approaches $100 billion per year. For many decades, the need for overseas bases has been a quasi-religious dictum of U.S. foreign policy. But in recent years, a bipartisan coalition has finally started to question this conventional wisdom. With the U.S. withdrawing from Afghanistan and ending thirteen years of war, there is no better time to re-examine the tenets of our military strategy. Base Nation is an essential contribution to that debate.

The Environment and International History

The Environment and International History Book
Author : Scott Kaufman
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2018-12-13
ISBN : 1472527038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies of the history of international relations traditionally have focused on the decisions made by those at the highest levels of government. In more recent years, scholars have expanded their attention to cover economic, cultural, or social interactions among nations. What has remained largely ignored, however, is the impact of an increasingly-interdependent world upon the environment and, conversely, how environmental concerns have affected the ecology, social relationships, economics, and politics at national, regional, and global levels. The Environment and International History fills this gap, looking at the interrelationship between international politics and the environment. Using a transnational and interdisciplinary approach, this book examines how imperialism, war, and a divergence of interests between the developed and underdeveloped world all have had implications for plants, animals, and humans worldwide.

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-01-11
ISBN : 0309477352
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The U.S. military has a stockpile of approximately 400,000 tons of excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions. About 60,000 tons are added to the stockpile each year. Munitions include projectiles, bombs, rockets, landmines, and missiles. Open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of these munitions has been a common disposal practice for decades, although it has decreased significantly since 2011. OB/OD is relatively quick, procedurally straightforward, and inexpensive. However, the downside of OB and OD is that they release contaminants from the operation directly into the environment. Over time, a number of technology alternatives to OB/OD have become available and more are in research and development. Alternative technologies generally involve some type of contained destruction of the energetic materials, including contained burning or contained detonation as well as contained methods that forego combustion or detonation. Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions reviews the current conventional munitions demilitarization stockpile and analyzes existing and emerging disposal, treatment, and reuse technologies. This report identifies and evaluates any barriers to full-scale deployment of alternatives to OB/OD or non-closed loop incineration/combustion, and provides recommendations to overcome such barriers.