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Chordate Origins And Evolution

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Chordate Origins and Evolution

Chordate Origins and Evolution Book
Author : Noriyuki Satoh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-14
ISBN : 0128030062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates. In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates (cephlo+uro+vert). Until now, discussion of these topics has been somewhat fragmented, and this work provides a unified presentation of the essential information. In the more than 150 years since Charles Darwin proposed the concept of the origin of species by means of natural selection, which has profoundly affected all fields of biology and medicine, the evolution of animals (metazoans) has been studied, discussed, and debated extensively. Following many decades of classical comparative morphology and embryology, the 1980s marked a turning point in studies of animal evolution, when molecular biological approaches, including molecular phylogeny (MP), molecular evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), and comparative genomics (CG), began to be employed. There are at least five key events in metazoan evolution, which include the origins of 1) diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians; 2) triploblastic animals or bilaterians; 3) protostomes and deuterostomes; 4) chordates, among deuterostomes; and 5) vertebrates, among chordates. The last two have received special attention in relation to evolution of human beings. During the past two decades, great advances have been made in this field, especially in regard to molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the evolution of chordates. For example, the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships among deuterostomes has drastically changed. In addition, we have now obtained a large quantity of MP, evo-devo, and CG information on the origin and evolution of chordates. Covers the most significant advances in this field to give readers an understanding of the interesting biological issues involved Provides a unified presentation of essential information regarding each phylum and an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of chordates Discusses the evolutionary scenario of chordates based on two major characteristic features of animals—namely modes of feeding (energy sources) and reproduction—as the two main forces driving animal evolution and benefiting dialogue for future studies of animal evolution

Chordate Origins and Evolution

Chordate Origins and Evolution Book
Author : Noriyuki Satoh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-26
ISBN : 9780128099346
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

" Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates" focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates. In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates (cephlo+uro+vert). Until now, discussion of these topics has been somewhat fragmented, and this work provides a unified presentation of the essential information. In the more than 150 years since Charles Darwin proposed the concept of the origin of species by means of natural selection, which has profoundly affected all fields of biology and medicine, the evolution of animals (metazoans) has been studied, discussed, and debated extensively. Following many decades of classical comparative morphology and embryology, the 1980s marked a turning point in studies of animal evolution, when molecular biological approaches, including molecular phylogeny (MP), molecular evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), and comparative genomics (CG), began to be employed. There are at least five key events in metazoan evolution, which include the origins of 1) diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians; 2) triploblastic animals or bilaterians; 3) protostomes and deuterostomes; 4) chordates, among deuterostomes; and 5) vertebrates, among chordates. The last two have received special attention in relation to evolution of human beings. During the past two decades, great advances have been made in this field, especially in regard to molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the evolution of chordates. For example, the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships among deuterostomes has drastically changed. In addition, we have now obtained a large quantity of MP, evo-devo, and CG information on the origin and evolution of chordates. Covers the most significant advances in this field to give readers an understanding of the interesting biological issues involvedProvides a unified presentation of essential information regarding each phylum and an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of chordatesDiscusses the evolutionary scenario of chordates based on two major characteristic features of animals namely modes of feeding (energy sources) and reproduction as the two main forces driving animal evolution and benefiting dialogue for future studies of animal evolution"

Chordate Origins and Evolution

Chordate Origins and Evolution Book
Author : Billie J. Swalla,José Xavier-Neto
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chordate Origins and Evolution book written by Billie J. Swalla,José Xavier-Neto, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brains Through Time

Brains Through Time Book
Author : Georg F. Striedter,R. Glenn Northcutt
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0195125681
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Much is conserved in vertebrate evolution, but significant changes in the nervous system occurred at the origin of vertebrates and in most of the major vertebrate lineages. This book examines these innovations and relates them to evolutionary changes in other organ systems, animal behavior, and ecological conditions at the time. The resulting perspective clarifies what makes the major vertebrate lineages unique and helps explain their varying degrees of ecological success. One of the book's major conclusions is that vertebrate nervous systems are more diverse than commonly assumed, at least among neurobiologists. Examples of important innovations include not only the emergence of novel brain regions, such as the cerebellum and neocortex, but also major changes in neuronal circuitry and functional organization. A second major conclusion is that many of the apparent similarities in vertebrate nervous systems resulted from convergent evolution, rather than inheritance from a common ancestor. For example, brain size and complexity increased numerous times, in many vertebrate lineages. In conjunction with these changes, olfactory inputs to the telencephalic pallium were reduced in several different lineages, and this reduction was associated with the emergence of pallial regions that process non-olfactory sensory inputs. These conclusions cast doubt on the widely held assumption that all vertebrate nervous systems are built according to a single, common plan. Instead, the book encourages readers to view both species similarities and differences as fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of nervous systems. Evolution; Phylogeny; Neuroscience; Neurobiology; Neuroanatomy; Functional Morphology; Paleoecology; Homology; Endocast; Brain"--

Chordate

Chordate Book
Author : Noriyuki Satoh
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chordate book written by Noriyuki Satoh, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Origin of Chordates

The Origin of Chordates Book
Author : Q. Bone
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1972
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Origin of Chordates book written by Q. Bone, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Animal Evolution

Animal Evolution Book
Author : Claus Nielsen
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0199606021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using modern phylogenetic reasoning based on an extensive review of morphology, including ultrastructure, and embryology, each phylum is analysed to ascertain its monophyly and hence its ancestral characters.

Muscles of Chordates

Muscles of Chordates Book
Author : Rui Diogo,Janine M. Ziermann,Julia Molnar,Natalia Siomava,Virginia Abdala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-04-17
ISBN : 135133493X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chordates comprise lampreys, hagfishes, jawed fishes, and tetrapods, plus a variety of more unfamiliar and crucially important non-vertebrate animal lineages, such as lancelets and sea squirts. This will be the first book to synthesize, summarize, and provide high-quality illustrations to show what is known of the configuration, development, homology, and evolution of the muscles of all major extant chordate groups. Muscles as different as those used to open the siphons of sea squirts and for human facial communication will be compared, and their evolutionary links will be explained. Another unique feature of the book is that it covers, illustrates, and provides detailed evolutionary tables for each and every muscle of the head, neck and of all paired and median appendages of extant vertebrates.

Advanced Chordate Zoology

Advanced Chordate Zoology Book
Author : Aubrey Salazar
Publisher : Scientific e-Resources
Release : 2018-11-16
ISBN : 1839474424
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The origin and evolution of chordates is one of the most mysterious and interesting phenomena in evolutionary development science. Chordates are creatures characterized by possession of a notochord and pharyngeal gill openings. They comprise of three taxa: cephalochordates, urochordates (or tunicates), and vertebrates. Chordates belong to a supraphyletic gathering of deuterostomes, together with echinoderms and hemichordates, and are thought to have been derived from the regular ancestors of deuterostomes. Vertebrates evoloved by developing a body design with the greatest complexity among metazoans. Amid the 1980s, a new wave of molecular developmental science revealed that genes encoding interpretation factors and flag pathway molecules assume critical roles in the differentiation of embryonic cells, arrangement of organs and tissues, and morphogenesis for development of metazoan body designs. Presently, another wave of evolutionary developmental science studies revealed that metazoans from cnidarians to vertebrates, despite their diverse morphologies, utilize a very comparable set of interpretation factors and flag pathway molecules for body development: these genes are sometimes collectively called a genetic toolbox.

Vertebrate Evolution

Vertebrate Evolution Book
Author : Donald R. Prothero
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-04-19
ISBN : 1000515710
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first vertebrate animals appear in the fossil record over 520 million years ago. These lineages diversified and eventually crept ashore leading to further evolutionary divergence and the appearance of the familiar charismatic vertebrates of today. From the tiniest fishes, diminutive salamanders, and miniaturized lizards to gargantuan dinosaurs, enormous brontotheres, and immense whales, vertebrates have captured the imagination of the lay public as well as the most erudite academics. They are the among the best studied organisms. This book employs beautifully rendered illustrations of these diverse lineages along with informative text to document a rich evolutionary history. The prolific and best-selling author reveals much of the latest findings regarding the phylogenetic history of vertebrates without overwhelming the reader with pedantry and excessive jargon. Simultaneously, comprehensive and authoritative while being approachable and lucid, this book should appeal to both the scholar, the student, and the fossil enthusiast. Key Features Provides an up-to-date account of evolution of vertebrates Includes numerous beautiful color reconstructions of prehistoric vertebrates Describes extinct vertebrates and their evolutionary history Discusses and illustrates the first vertebrates, as well as familiar lineages of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Reviews mass extinctions and other important events in the diversification of vertebrates Related Titles Bard, J. Evolution: The Origins and Mechanisms of Diversity (ISBN 9780367357016) Böhmer, C., et al. Atlas of Terrestrial Mammal Limbs (ISBN 9781138705906) Diogo, R., et al. Muscles of Chordates: Development, Homologies, and Evolution (ISBN 9781138571167) Schweitzer, M. H., et al. Dinosaurs: How We Know What We Know (ISBN 9780367563813)

Chordate

Chordate Book
Author : Pranveer Singh
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2015-03-01
ISBN : 9781634639071
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is structured into eight chapters, starting from introductory chapters throwing light on basic evolutionary principles to different aspects of chordate evolution. This book is written to accommodate the needs of diverse readers that range from undergraduate and postgraduate students to research scholars. This book spans diverse but related disciplines that range from morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, evolution and diversity and has updates from the latest in chordate research.

Across the Bridge

Across the Bridge Book
Author : Henry Gee
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2018-07-04
ISBN : 9780226402864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our understanding of vertebrate origins and the backbone of human history evolves with each new fossil find and DNA map. Many species have now had their genomes sequenced, and molecular techniques allow genetic inspection of even non-model organisms. But as longtime Nature editor Henry Gee argues in Across the Bridge, despite these giant strides and our deepening understanding of how vertebrates fit into the tree of life, the morphological chasm between vertebrates and invertebrates remains vast and enigmatic. As Gee shows, even as scientific advances have falsified a variety of theories linking these groups, the extant relatives of vertebrates are too few for effective genetic analysis. Moreover, the more we learn about the species that do remain—from sea-squirts to starfish—the clearer it becomes that they are too far evolved along their own courses to be of much use in reconstructing what the latest invertebrate ancestors of vertebrates looked like. Fossils present yet further problems of interpretation. Tracing both the fast-changing science that has helped illuminate the intricacies of vertebrate evolution as well as the limits of that science, Across the Bridge helps us to see how far the field has come in crossing the invertebrate-to-vertebrate divide—and how far we still have to go.

Animal Eyes

Animal Eyes Book
Author : Michael F. Land,Dan-Eric Nilsson
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2012-03-01
ISBN : 0191625361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.

Major Events in Early Vertebrate Evolution

Major Events in Early Vertebrate Evolution Book
Author : Per Erik Ahlberg
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-02-15
ISBN : 0203468031
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A multi-author volume Major Events in Early Vertebrate Evolution examines the origin and early evolution of the backboned animals (vertebrates)-the group which comprises all fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, including ourselves. This volume draws together evidence from fossils, genes, and developmental biology (the study of how embry

The Biology of Ascidians

The Biology of Ascidians Book
Author : H. Sawada,H. Yokosawa,C.C. Lambert
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 4431669825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ascidians are the invertebrate group that gave rise to vertebrates, thus the biology of ascidians provides an essential key to understanding both invertebrates and vertebrates. This book is the first to cover all areas of ascidian biology, including development, evolution, biologically active substances, heavy metal accumulation, asexual reproduction, host-defense mechanisms, allorecognition mechanisms, comparative immunology, neuroscience, taxonomy, ecology, genome science, and food science. The 69 articles that make up the collection were contributed by leading ascidiologists from all over the world who participated in the First International Symposium on the Biology of Ascidians, held in June 2000 in Sapporo, Japan. For scientists and students alike, the book is an invaluable source of information from the latest, most comprehensive studies of ascidian biology.

Heads Jaws and Muscles

Heads  Jaws  and Muscles Book
Author : Janine M. Ziermann,Raul E. Diaz Jr,Rui Diogo
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-23
ISBN : 3319935607
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The vertebrate head is the most complex part of the animal body and its diversity in nature reflects a variety of life styles, feeding modes, and ecological adaptations. This book will take you on a journey to discover the origin and diversification of the head, which evolved from a seemingly headless chordate ancestor. Despite their structural diversity, heads develop in a highly conserved fashion in embryos. Major sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and brain develop in close association with surrounding tissues such as bones, cartilages, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Ultimately, this integrated unit of tissues gives rise to the complex functionality of the musculoskeletal system as a result of sensory and neural feedback, most notably in the use of the vertebrate jaws, a major vertebrate innovation only lacking in hagfishes and lampreys. The cranium subsequently further diversified during the major transition from fishes living in an aquatic environment to tetrapods living mostly on land. In this book, experts will join forces to integrate, for the first time, state-of-the-art knowledge on the anatomy, development, function, diversity, and evolution of the head and jaws and their muscles within all major groups of extant vertebrates. Considerations about and comparisons with fossil taxa, including emblematic groups such as the dinosaurs, are also provided in this landmark book, which will be a leading reference for many years to come.

Animal Evolution

Animal Evolution Book
Author : NATURAL SCIENCES and MATHEMATICS (500),ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCES (590)
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2009-08-13
ISBN : 0191579130
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In this book, a group of leading researchers adopt a modern, integrated approach to describe how current molecular genetic techniques and disciplines as diverse as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution. The last decade has seen growing interest in evolutionary biology fuelled by a wealth of data from molecular biology. Modern phylogenies integrating evidence from molecules, embryological data, and morphology of living and fossil taxa provide a wide consensus of the major branching patterns of the tree of life; moreover, the links between phenotype and genotype are increasingly well understood. This has resulted in a reliable tree of relationships that has been widely accepted and has spawned numerous new and exciting questions that require a reassessment of the origins and radiation of animal life. The focus of this volume is at the level of major animal groups, the morphological innovations that define them, and the mechanisms of change to their embryology that have resulted in their evolution. Current research themes and future prospects are highlighted including phylogeny reconstruction, comparative developmental biology, the value of different sources of data and the importance of fossils, homology assessment, character evolution, phylogeny of major groups of animals, and genome evolution. These topics are integrated in the light of a 'new animal phylogeny', to provide fresh insights into the patterns and processes of animal evolution. Animal Evolution provides a timely and comprehensive statement of progress in the field for academic researchers requiring an authoritative, balanced and up-to-date overview of the topic. It is also intended for both upper level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in animal evolution, molecular phylogenetics, evo-devo, comparative genomics and associated disciplines.

Chordate Evolution

Chordate Evolution Book
Author : M. A. Subramanian
Publisher : MJP Publisher
Release : 2019-06-12
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction Fossils in the Study of Chordate Evolution Geological Time Origin of Chordates Evolution of Ostracoderms (Agnatha—Jawless Vertebrates)Evolution of Primitive Jawed Vertebrates Evolution of Fishes Evolution of Amphibians Evolution of Reptiles Dinosaurs Golden Age of Reptiles Evolution of Birds Ratitae Evolution of Mammals Monotremesmarsupials Human Evolution Consequences of chordate evolution Appendix Glossary References Index

An Introduction to the Invertebrates

An Introduction to the Invertebrates Book
Author : Janet Moore
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006-09-21
ISBN : 1139458477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

So much has to be crammed into today's biology courses that basic information on animal groups and their evolutionary origins is often left out. This is particularly true for the invertebrates. The second edition of Janet Moore's An Introduction to the Invertebrates fills this gap by providing a short updated guide to the invertebrate phyla, looking at their diverse forms, functions and evolutionary relationships. This book first introduces evolution and modern methods of tracing it, then considers the distinctive body plan of each invertebrate phylum showing what has evolved, how the animals live, and how they develop. Boxes introduce physiological mechanisms and development. The final chapter explains uses of molecular evidence and presents an up-to-date view of evolutionary history, giving a more certain definition of the relationships between invertebrates. This user-friendly and well-illustrated introduction will be invaluable for all those studying invertebrates.

Vertebrate Photoreceptors

Vertebrate Photoreceptors Book
Author : Takahisa Furukawa,James B. Hurley,Satoru Kawamura
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-15
ISBN : 4431548807
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a series of comprehensive views on various important aspects of vertebrate photoreceptors. The vertebrate retina is a tissue that provides unique experimental advantages to neuroscientists. Photoreceptor neurons are abundant in this tissue and they are readily identifiable and easily isolated. These features make them an outstanding model for studying neuronal mechanisms of signal transduction, adaptation, synaptic transmission, development, differentiation, diseases and regeneration. Thanks to recent advances in genetic analysis, it also is possible to link biochemical and physiological investigations to understand the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptors within a functioning retina in a living animal. Photoreceptors are the most deeply studied sensory receptor cells, but readers will find that many important questions remain. We still do not know how photoreceptors, visual pigments and their signaling pathways evolved, how they were generated and how they are maintained. This book will make clear what is known and what is not known. The chapters are selected from fields of studies that have contributed to a broad understanding of the birth, development, structure, function and death of photoreceptor neurons. The underlying common word in all of the chapters that is used to describe these mechanisms is “molecule”. Only with this word can we understand how these highly specific neurons function and survive. It is challenging for even the foremost researchers to cover all aspects of the subject. Understanding photoreceptors from several different points of view that share a molecular perspective will provide readers with a useful interdisciplinary perspective.