Skip to main content

Characterization Of Biomaterials

In Order to Read Online or Download Characterization Of Biomaterials Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Amit Bandyopadhyay,Susmita Bose
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0124158633
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

One of the key challenges current biomaterials researchers face is identifying which of the dizzying number of highly specialized characterization tools can be gainfully applied to different materials and biomedical devices. Since this diverse marketplace of tools and techniques can be used for numerous applications, choosing the proper characterization tool is highly important, saving both time and resources. Characterization of Biomaterials is a detailed and multidisciplinary discussion of the physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, in vitro and in vivo characterization tools and techniques of increasing importance to fundamental biomaterials research. Characterization of Biomaterials will serve as a comprehensive resource for biomaterials researchers requiring detailed information on physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, and in vitro or in vivo characterization. The book is designed for materials scientists, bioengineers, biologists, clinicians and biomedical device researchers seeking input on planning on how to test their novel materials, structures or biomedical devices to a specific application. Chapters are developed considering the need for industrial researchers as well as academics. Biomaterials researchers come from a wide variety of disciplines: this book will help them to analyze their materials and devices taking advantage of the multiple experiences on offer. Coverage encompasses a cross-section of the physical sciences, biological sciences, engineering and applied sciences characterization community, providing gainful and cross-cutting insight into this highly multi-disciplinary field. Detailed coverage of important test protocols presents specific examples and standards for applied characterization

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : M Jaffe,W. Hammond,P Tolias,T Arinzeh
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 0857093681
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials. Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Characterization of biomaterials is an authoritative reference tool for all those involved in the development, production and application of biomaterials. Reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials Discusses scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, and motility and differentiation Examines the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : T.S. Sampath Kumar
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 012807096X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The physicochemical properties of biomaterials exert a major influence over their interaction with cells and subsequently play an important role on the materials' in vivo performance . Physical characteristics involve internal microstructural features, shape and size of particles, porosity, density, and surface area. Characterization in terms of the chemistry involves determination of the chemical composition and distribution of the elements within the biomaterial. The last decade has seen several innovations in the armory of tools to image and analyze materials, as well as advancement in the collection and processing of those results. In this chapter, the most commonly used methods, which are available for the microstructural characterization of biomaterials, are explained with suitable examples. This chapter starts with microstructural characterization using different types of microscopic techniques including optical and electron microscopy. These techniques can provide information from atomic-scale to microscale to macroscale information. Specific examples are also used for specialized microscopic techniques such as scanning probe microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Some discussions were also used in -related surface characterization using microscopic techniques. Followed by microscopic techniques, phase analysis techniques are discussed based on X-ray diffraction. Short discussion is also placed on infrared (IR)-based spectroscopic characterization for chemical analysis. Further discussion on IR spectroscopy can be found in for surface analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with size, shape, porosity, surface area and surface energy characterization. Particle size analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) is discussed in detail followed by IR spectroscopic analysis. Contact angle measurement for surface energy, mercury intrusion porosimetry for analysis of pore structures and gas adsorption measurements for surface area analysis are presented in detail with relevant examples. Throughout this chapter, specific discussions are focused on examples based on applications as well as advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Mangal Roy,Amit Bandyopadhyay,Susmita Bose
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128071036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In joint replacement surgery with suboptimal bone, allograft materials are often used to achieve biological fixation of the metallic implant to the host bone and reducing the implant fixation time. The most commonly used techniques are cemented and hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated metallic implants. Typically, HA coatings are suggested for patients with better bone stock, whereas recommended implant fixation process for most other osteoporotic patients is bone cements. In general, there is a long-standing need to improve the performance of hip and other devices for longer in vivo implant lifetime that can help in reducing the number of revision surgeries, as well as minimizing physical and mental trauma to the patient. To achieve these goals, it is important to understand the mechanical and biological properties of coatings that can influence not only its short- and long-term bioactivity but also life span in vivo. Over the years, it has been recognized that the stability of a coated implant is governed by its physical and mechanical properties. A coating that separates from the implant provides no advantage over an uncoated implant and undesirable due to problems with debris materials, which can lead to osteolysis. Therefore, it is important to properly characterize the coated implants in terms of its physical and mechanical properties. In this chapter, specific details on coating characterization techniques including sample dimensions, sample preparation, experimental procedure and data interpretation are discussed. In particular, the standards and requirements of regulatory organizations are presented elucidating the significance and use of each characterization. It is important to appreciate that mechanical properties of coatings can only be determined with certain coating specification such as coating thickness. This chapter is designed even for non-experts to follow mechanical property characterizations of coatings on medical implants.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Huaiyu Wang,Paul K. Chu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128070986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The biomaterials surface, which may only be a few atomic layers thick, constitutes the important interface between the biomaterials and the external biological environment and plays a key role in the chemical and biological actions in vitro and in vivo. Hence, in order to monitor and fathom the biological performance of biomaterials, the surface properties must be well known. Recently, surface modification of biomaterials has attracted considerable attention as selective surface properties such as cytocompatibility can be altered while desirable bulk properties such as mechanical strength can be retained. In this respect, surface characterization techniques are indispensable in this important and burgeoning research area. No single technique can provide all the information, and quite often, different analytical tools are required to address a problem related to biomaterials research. To obtain surface chemical and morphological information, spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and microscopic methods such as confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) are typically carried out. Other surface characterization methods such as contact angle (CA) measurement and ellipsometry are also widely used in biomaterials research. It should be emphasized that each technique has its strengths and weaknesses, and complete characterization frequently requires more than one method. In this chapter, we introduce and describe some of the common surface characterization techniques suitable for biomaterials. Initial discussion starts with spectroscopic techniques, their operation principles, and data analysis with specific examples. The discussions related to spectroscopic characterization are focused on XPS, AES, SIMS, surface matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (Surface-MALDI-MS), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. After spectroscopic characterization techniques, this chapter focuses on microscopic characterization. This part of the chapter is specifically focused on optical, electron and confocal microscopic techniques. Microscopic technique also discusses recent advances in atomic level characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and AFM. Finally, the chapter deals with specific surface characterization techniques for morphology with profilometry followed by surface charge measurement using CAs. The last section of the chapter deals with ellipsometry, a specular optical technique which provides unequalled capabilities for thin film metrology. Throughout this chapter, specific discussions are focused on examples based on applications as well as advantages, disadvantages, and challenges.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Nehal I. Abu-Lail,Haluk Beyenal
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128071001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials is generally accepted to be the first step in the development of biomaterial-centred bacterial infections (BCBIs). A better understanding of how bacteria interact with biomaterials is essential to the development of surgical intervention strategies that can be used to reduce BCBIs and coatings capable of preventing bacterial adhesion to their surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to a surface is a multi-step process during which single bacterial cells first initiate attachment to the biomaterial, followed by biofilm formation. The first part of this chapter is devoted to an exploration of how the initial bacterial adhesion to biomaterials can be quantified while the second part focuses on how biofilms can be imaged and how such images can be processed to quantify biofilm structure. We have paid special attention to guiding future biomaterials scientists on the best practices currently used in quantifying bacterial interactions with biomaterials at the nano- and macroscales.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Samit K. Nandi,Subhasish Biswas
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 012807101X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The use of biomaterials has become indispensable in modern medicine that includes primarily for the restoration of function as well as drug carriers. Biomaterials developed for bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, skeletal muscle, dental, and other musculoskeletal applications almost always necessitate mechanical properties characterization to guarantee that they are robust enough for their in vivo functionality. In addition, mechanical conditioning often has a direct consequence on cellular behaviors such as differentiation, extracellular matrix production, migration, and proliferation. There is imperative necessity to get real-time data of tissue development in vivo in response to various biomechanical stimuli such as tension/compression, bending, torsion, and steady or dynamic fluid flow of construct that allows experimental protocol changes to be made early. In vitro characterization is unable to exhibit the tissue response to materials, instead being limited to the response of individual cell lines or primary cells taken from animals. Considering the wide and ever-increasing use of biomaterials in different fields of veterinary and medical sciences with its effective use in emerging fields, the characterization in respect to cellular response in the living system and its effect thereafter for leading a physiologic life, a comprehensive understanding have to be developed in totality. Further, implant safety such as avoidance of adverse tissue reaction and resistance to wear and corrosion are of high clinical significance for implants used in long-term clinical situations. The characterization along with related factors like histological, histomorphological, biochemical, radiological, scanning and transmission electron microscopic, fluorochrome labelling, biomechanical, micro-CT analysis, immunohistochemistry in orthopaedic and soft tissue surgery have been tried to elucidate with emphasis on in vivo applications of biomaterials. Amid various characterization parameters, histology is one of the most important tools to assess cellular reactions in the implant–tissue interface that can be carried out by both undecalcified and decalcified bone specimens. Histomorphometry can directly help in quantitative measurement (percentage) of newly formed bone in the implanted scaffold using semiautomatic image analysis software and also sometimes determines the host's vascularization. Histochemistry can be used to observe connective tissue ingrowth within the scaffold. The morphology and the proliferating cells can be evaluated by immunohistochemical technique. Biochemical markers like serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin help in evaluating the progress of healing and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase for determining the osteoclasts activity. To understand the mechanisms of unusual bone remodelling, a number of different fluorescent stains like calcein green, tetracycline, alizarin red derivatives and xylenol orange have been developed to detect and quantify bone mineralization. Angiogenesis within the scaffold can be observed and quantified by angiography, osteomedullography, micro-CT, immunostaining with von Willebrand factor stain and intravital microscopy. Biomechanical testing is essential for quantitative assessment of implant integration and contact percentage between implant materials with the host tissue and can be performed by pull-out or push-out tests. Surface analysis and the interaction with bone tissue can be best detected by scanning electron microscopy. Non-invasive techniques include radiological, micro-CT analysis, densitometry study and ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI). Radiological study helps to assess the union at the host bone–implant interfaces during the follow-up period and should be carried out at regular and calculated interval. Micro-CT is also a non-invasive technique and has great potential in characterization of biomaterials in regard to pore size and spatial distribution of newly formed bone together with quantitative information. Densitometric evaluation is helpful for estimating bone mineral content and density. UEI provides more information of scaffold degradation and tissue development. Finally, targeted delivery system needs quantitative measurements of biodistributable materials which can be best accomplished by computed tomography (CT), fluorescence imaging, inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, micro-positron emission tomography, MRI imaging, and radiography. This chapter is primarily on hands-on experience in surgical manipulation of different biomaterials like hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, bioactive glass, metals, chitosan, as well as natural coralline hydroxyapatite. Different characterization techniques elaborated in this chapter can show a road map to the researchers, scientists, teachers and readers in this field of biomaterials to understand fundamental aspects of materials and related tissue response to the system in vivo. It can also provide clues for further research in the future towards this emerging field.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Ryan K. Roeder
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128070978
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The design of biomedical devices almost always involves some form of mechanical characterization of biomaterials. This chapter provides a broad overview of experimental methods and important considerations for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, with special attention to the practical needs of engineers and scientists who encounter a need to characterize the mechanical properties of a biomaterial but may not know where to begin or what the key considerations should be. Many details are necessarily omitted from this broad overview, but numerous references are provided for greater technical depth on a particular topic, standardized methodologies, and exemplary studies. Fundamental concepts are introduced, beginning with stress and strain versus force and displacement. The mechanical properties measured from a stress–strain curve, different types of stress–strain curves, and corresponding constitutive models are reviewed, including differences in material classes and anisotropy. Three primary methods of analysis for fracture mechanics are introduced, including stress concentrations, energy criteria for crack initiation and propagation (fracture toughness), and statistical methods for the probability of fracture. The mechanical characterization of biomaterials begins with selection and preparation of standardized test specimens, which are critical to obtaining accurate and reproducible measurements of material properties. Practical considerations are outlined for selection and preparation of the specimen size, geometry, surface finish, and precracking. The mechanical characterization of biomaterial test specimens always involves the application and measurement of load and deformation. Practical considerations are outlined for the selection and use of load frames, load cells, load fixtures, extensometers, and strain gauges. A number of common loading modes are introduced and compared: uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, biaxial tension, torsion, diametral compression, three-point bending, four-point bending, and in-plane shear (including biomaterial-tissue interfacial shear strength). Strain-rate sensitivity or time-dependent behavior can profoundly influence stress–strain behavior and thus measured mechanical properties. The effects of high strain rates may be characterized by impact testing using a pendulum, drop tower, or split Hopkinson pressure bar. The effects of low strain rates may be characterized by creep deformation or creep rupture tests. The time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials is introduced, including creep, stress relaxation, common constitutive models, and practical considerations for testing. The frequency of loading, or cyclic loading, is another aspect of time-dependent behavior, which is critical for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, leading to fatigue deformation and failure or viscoelastic creep and stress relaxation. Practical considerations are described for selecting the waveform, frequency, cyclic stress/strain levels, loading mode, and test duration. Common methods are introduced for fatigue lifetime testing (including S-N curves, notch factors, and fatigue damage), fatigue crack propagation, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Nondestructive tests are particularly useful for sampling small volumes of a biomaterial (e.g., implant retrieval or biopsy) or characterizing spatial heterogeneity in mechanical properties. Various indentation tests and indenter geometries are introduced and compared, including classic hardness (Brinell and Rockwell), microhardness (Knoop and Vickers), and instrumented nanoindentation (Berkovich, cube corner, etc.). Methods and limitations are described for characterizing the reduced modulus, viscoelasticity, and fracture toughness using indentation. Ultrasonic wave-propagation methods are also introduced with an emphasis on methods for characterizing anisotropic elastic constants. Biomaterials are typically subjected to various sterilization methods prior to service and an aqueous physiological environment in service. Therefore, the effects of temperature, pressure, various aqueous media (water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), media, foetal bovine serum (FBS), lipids, etc.), and irradiation on mechanical characterization of biomaterials are considered, including the degradation of mechanical properties by various mechanisms involving water uptake, hydrolysis, and oxidation. Finally, methods and guidelines are provided for data acquisition from transducers and data analysis, including an introduction to some basic statistical methods.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Julia Will,Rainer Detsch,Aldo R. Boccaccini
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128071028
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In order to enhance the application potential of scaffolds in tissue engineering, comprehensive characterization of scaffold micro- and macro-structure, porosity, permeability and mechanical properties are required. In addition, before in vivo studies can be carried out, a complete assessment of the in vitro behavior of scaffolds, e.g. in selected cell culture studies, is required. The present chapter revises the wide range of methods applied to characterize scaffolds and emphasizes the need for a combination of different characterization techniques for understanding scaffold performance required for successful bone regeneration.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Y.M. Thasneem,Chandra P. Sharma
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128070994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The development of biomaterials as a powerful regulator of the cellular microenvironment for application in drug discovery/delivery, tissue engineering, and implant biology, requires a better understanding of cell-surface interactions at macro, micro, and nanometre levels. Cell–substrate interactions are multifaceted, involving the integration of various physical and biochemical signals. The interactions among these micro-environmental factors cannot be facilely elucidated and quantified by conventional experimentations, and this necessitates multifactorial strategies. A major task in the biomaterials field would be to develop advanced tools that can offer greater insight into characterizing the cellular behavior and interactions on the material interface. Obtaining this information is crucial in taking biomaterial science to new realms for biomedical applications. The contribution of molecular techniques to elucidate the cell–biomaterial interactions is indispensable on the time-course and level of expression of particular genes that determine cellular phenotype. The amalgamation of multiple disciplines has already produced many interesting techniques and approaches for the cell–biomaterial characterization, of which we have tried to provide a comprehensive and integrated description. The main focus of this book chapter is to explore the toolbox contents available in elucidating the cell–biomaterial interactions. We brief about the topographical, mechanical and biochemical changes faced by a cell upon the rendezvous of any surface in particular with the cell–biomaterial interface. The material characteristics playing cards in directing cellular behavior are straightened out. We also discuss the current knowledge of how a cell can interact with a substrate at the nanoscale and the effect of size, morphology, organization and separation of nanofeatures on cell response.

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials Book
Author : N. Sanjeeva Murthy
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 0128091681
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomaterials often exhibit structures at multiple length scales that influence the chemical, physical, mechanical and biological properties of a material. This chapter discusses techniques used to determine these structures: light scattering for the determination of particle sizes ~0.1μm; wide-angle X-ray scattering for analyzing the molecular structure, crystallinity and morphology in the solid state (~1nm); small-angle X-ray scattering for obtaining structural information at mesoscale (10nm) to determine lamellar structure and phase behavior in the solid state, and size and aggregation behavior of particles in solution; and small-angle neutron scattering using molecules labeled with deuterium for the analysis of single chain dimensions, polymer mixtures and solvent diffusion in the solid state.

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials Book
Author : Maria Cristina Tanzi,Silvia Farè
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-06-20
ISBN : 0081007434
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Characterization of Polymeric Biomaterials presents a comprehensive introduction on the topic before discussing the morphology and surface characterization of biomedical polymers. The structural, mechanical, and biological characterization is described in detail, followed by invaluable case studies of polymer biomaterial implants. With comprehensive coverage of both theoretical and experimental information, this title will provide scientists with an essential guide on the topic of these materials which are regularly used for clinical applications, such as implants and drug delivery devices. However, a range of novel polymers and the development and modification of existing medical polymers means that there is an ongoing need to satisfy particular design requirements. This book explains the critical and fundamentals methods to characterize polymer materials for biomedical applications. Presents a self-contained reference on the characterization of polymeric biomaterials Provides comprehensive information on how to characterize biomedical polymers in order to improve design and synthesis Includes useful case studies that demonstrate the characterization of biomaterial implants

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials Book
Author : S.C. Gad
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 0128091754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Evaluation of biocompatability of medical devices and biomaterials to meet regulatory requirement starts with consideration of the ISO-10993 guidance (as currently revised) and relevant local expectations such as the FDA G-95 Memorandum requirements. All of these require one to consider the type and duration of potential patient exposure, then to conduct required testing, and finally to do an integrated risk assessment based on the data collected. This chapter seeks to summarize that effort.

Guidelines for Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials April 1979

Guidelines for Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials  April 1979 Book
Author : National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Working Group on Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials,National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Devices and Technology Branch
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1980
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Guidelines for Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials April 1979 book written by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Working Group on Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials,National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Devices and Technology Branch, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization of Biomaterials in Contact with Blood

Characterization of Biomaterials in Contact with Blood Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Characterization of Biomaterials in Contact with Blood book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization of Biomaterials

Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Imran Khan,Malcolm Naylor,Gautam Gupta
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-12
ISBN : 0128071044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Preclinical testing is a critical part of the orthopaedic device design process and is required to demonstrate efficacy, safety and adherence to the requirements of essential regulations. The following chapter provides an overview of the key regulatory and technical requirements associated with mechanical and tribological testing of orthopaedic devices and the characterization of metallic coatings applied to such devices for improved biological fixation. Mechanical testing is typically carried out according to regional or international standards that define the type of device to be tested, its laboratory-based performance requirements and reference criteria that a product must meet. The most widely used tests for orthopaedic devices are static or fatigue tests. These may be conducted under compression, bending, shear or torsion, depending on the in vivo loading conditions that they are trying to replicate. Bearing wear simulator test methods have evolved over several decades from simpler tests such as pin-on-plate to more realistic tests that replicate the forces and motions experienced during walking or other gait cycles and, importantly, allow the testing of actual components. Current wear simulator test standards for hip and knee joints are reviewed and methods of characterizing wear debris and measuring friction are discussed. Metallic coatings on orthopaedic devices can be employed to improve the fixation of the implant to the host bone. This chapter discusses methods to characterize critical properties of metallic coatings for orthopaedic devices and also identifies the acceptance standards set by regulatory bodies for these kinds of coatings.

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials Book
Author : R.T. Dombrowski
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 0128091673
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter provides a review of all the major microscopy imaging techniques that are available to the modern researcher for the characterization of biomaterials. Today, with the melding of both biology and materials science to produce both natural and man-made biomaterials, imaging has become a major characterization technique to carry out the further development of these materials that will be implanted in the human body to perform, augment or replace natural bodily functions. Microstructural imaging techniques utilizing light, electrons and molecular mechanical probes are covered. The various chapter sections for each of these major imaging modes contain a mix of useful foundational theory and practical application knowledge which is meant to allow the researcher to maximize the imaging data obtained using each technique.

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials Book
Author : N.D. Gallant
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 012809169X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This chapter reviews the quantification of cell adhesion and motility with a focus on the assays that enable these analyses. A description of these critical biological processes is provided and the characteristic parameters are described. Each assay is then classified according to the metrics used to quantify cell adhesion or locomotion. Finally, some recent advances and future prospects for the field are presented.

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials Book
Author : Buddy D. Ratner
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 1988-01-01
ISBN : 9780444430168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Surface Characterization of Biomaterials is the first book to define the scope of contemporary research in this area by presenting articles from almost all the groups worldwide who are utilizing both new and traditional methods to explore the surfaces of biomaterials. The book contains introductory, tutorial articles on important methods, perspective articles clarifying why these methods are important to biomaterials science, and sixteen research articles illustrating how these tools are being used by most of the leaders in this field. The techniques featured include ESCA, static SIMS, contact angle methods, scanning electron stimulated desorption microscopy, Fourier transform infrared methods, and transmission electron microscopy. The classes of materials described include polymers, ceramics and metals. Surface modification of many of these materials is discussed. The biological problems addressed include blood compatibility, cell adhesion, osteointegration, and protein adsorption. The book will be welcomed by researchers and manufacturers interested in biomaterials. Experts in the field will find an overview of contemporary research.

Characterization of biomaterials

Characterization of biomaterials Book
Author : J.A. Cooper,B.R. Mintz,S.L. Palumbo,W-J. Li
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-12-19
ISBN : 0128091703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomaterials and scaffolds play an essential role in guiding tissue growth in vivo and matrix production in vitro. Many approaches have been developed to determine the differentiation of cells. The aim of this chapter is to give a general overview of the techniques which can be used to determine the differentiation of cells. This chapter should act as a guide offering advice as to the selection and optimization of protocols to meet particular needs for cell biomaterials characterization. We will begin with a brief review of the most commonly used methods and possible future developments.