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Regenerative Medicine Stem Cells and the Liver

Regenerative Medicine  Stem Cells and the Liver Book
Author : David C. Hay
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-04-12
ISBN : 1578087392
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The regenerative capacity of the liver has been recognized for centuries, but when it is overwhelmed by insulting stimuli or is chronically damaged, its regenerative capability is substantially reduced or lost. Researchers have been working to find solutions to cure failing human liver function. Given the ability of stem cells to self- renew and differentiate into specialized cell liver types, they represent an attractive strategy to replace lost liver function. This book begins by outlining the complex nature of human liver disease and proceeds to examine the potential that stem cell-based approaches have to offer.

Stem cell based liver regeneration

Stem cell based liver regeneration Book
Author : Klaus Eckert,Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Stem cell based liver regeneration book written by Klaus Eckert,Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cell Based Liver Regeneration

Cell Based Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Hala Gabr,Wael Abo El-Kheir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 9780128223406
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cell therapy is a fast-growing field of medicine with remarkable prospects in a broad spectrum of diseases. Cell-Based Liver Regeneration: Current Aspects and Future Approaches addresses the full spectrum of regenerative medicine in liver diseases. Coverage will include the basic science, current research and a comprehensive review of clinical trials conducted in the field. The book will discuss the various types of stem cells for liver regeneration, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of each type. A review of all aspects of implanting stem cell therapy for the liver, such as: choosing the cell type, the source, laboratory manipulation, dose, route and follow-up. The book concludes with a full discussion of the current clinical trials involving cellular therapy in liver regeneration. Cell-Based Liver Regeneration: Current Aspects and Future Approaches is written for stem cell biologists, liver biologists, hepatologists and graduate students by authors with extensive knowledge in basic, pre-clinical and clinical stem cell research. Introduces basic concepts of liver regeneration Discusses the various types of stem cells used in liver regeneration Explores published and ongoing clinical trials involving cellular therapy in liver regeneration

Stem Cell and Liver Regeneration

Stem Cell and Liver Regeneration Book
Author : K. Okita
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 4431539719
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular therapy with liver stem cells and their progeny, including bone marrow cells, is a promising new approach that will contribute significantly to the treatment of liver diseases. The existence of the liver stem cell had long been debated, but it is now generally accepted that the liver contains cells with stem-like properties and that these cells can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into mature hepatocytes under certain conditions. There is also a substantial body of evidence to suggest that oval cells are involved in liver regeneration as they differentiate into hepatocytes and biliary cells. This book is a collection of work on stem cell and liver regeneration, initially delivered at the 14th Yamaguchi (Japan) Symposium on Liver Disease. Its nine chapters present the most recent data about basic and clinical research in hepatology in Japan and other countries, providing a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners alike.

Liver Regeneration

Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Pedro Baptista
Publisher : IntechOpen
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 9789535106227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Doctors and scientists have been aware of the "phenomenom" of liver regeneration since the time of the ancient Greeks, illustrated by the mythic tale of Prometheus' punishment. Nevertheless, true insight into its intricate mechanisms have only become available in the 20th century. Since then, the pathways and mechanisms involved in restoring the liver to its normal function after injury have been resolutely described and characterized, from the hepatic stem/progenitor cell activation and expansion to the more systemic mechanisms involving other tissues and organs like bone-marrow progenitor cell mobilization. This book describes some of the complex mechanisms involved in liver regeneration and provides examples of the most up-to-date strategies used to induce liver regeneration, both in the clinic and in the laboratory. The information presented will hopefully benefit not only professionals in the liver field, but also people in other areas of science (pharmacology, toxicology, etc) that wish to expand their knowledge of the fundamental biology that orchestrates liver injury and regeneration.

Liver Regeneration

Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Pedro Baptista
Publisher : IntechOpen
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 9789535106227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Doctors and scientists have been aware of the "phenomenom" of liver regeneration since the time of the ancient Greeks, illustrated by the mythic tale of Prometheus' punishment. Nevertheless, true insight into its intricate mechanisms have only become available in the 20th century. Since then, the pathways and mechanisms involved in restoring the liver to its normal function after injury have been resolutely described and characterized, from the hepatic stem/progenitor cell activation and expansion to the more systemic mechanisms involving other tissues and organs like bone-marrow progenitor cell mobilization. This book describes some of the complex mechanisms involved in liver regeneration and provides examples of the most up-to-date strategies used to induce liver regeneration, both in the clinic and in the laboratory. The information presented will hopefully benefit not only professionals in the liver field, but also people in other areas of science (pharmacology, toxicology, etc) that wish to expand their knowledge of the fundamental biology that orchestrates liver injury and regeneration.

Liver Regeneration

Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Pedro Baptista
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 9535106228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Doctors and scientists have been aware of the "phenomenom" of liver regeneration since the time of the ancient Greeks, illustrated by the mythic tale of Prometheus' punishment. Nevertheless, true insight into its intricate mechanisms have only become available in the 20th century. Since then, the pathways and mechanisms involved in restoring the liver to its normal function after injury have been resolutely described and characterized, from the hepatic stem/progenitor cell activation and expansion to the more systemic mechanisms involving other tissues and organs like bone-marrow progenitor cell mobilization. This book describes some of the complex mechanisms involved in liver regeneration and provides examples of the most up-to-date strategies used to induce liver regeneration, both in the clinic and in the laboratory. The information presented will hopefully benefit not only professionals in the liver field, but also people in other areas of science (pharmacology, toxicology, etc) that wish to expand their knowledge of the fundamental biology that orchestrates liver injury and regeneration.

Frontiers in Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research

Frontiers in Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Book
Author : Atta-ur-Rahman Rahman, Shazia Anjum
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2017-07-06
ISBN : 1681084775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cell and regenerative medicine research is a hot area of research which promises to change the face of medicine as it will be practiced in the years to come. Challenges in the 21st century to combat diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer and related diseases may well be addressed employing stem cell therapies and tissue regeneration. Frontiers in Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research is essential reading for researchers seeking updates in stem cell therapeutics and regenerative medicine. The sixth volume of this series features reviews on roles of mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage regeneration and bone regeneration, liver regeneration, cardiogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation, and regenerative therapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

High throughput Approaches to Sourcing of Human Hepatocytes for Cell based Therapies

High throughput Approaches to Sourcing of Human Hepatocytes for Cell based Therapies Book
Author : Jing Meghan Shan,Harvard--MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chronic liver disease affects more than 500 million people worldwide. The only therapy shown to directly prevent mortality is organ transplantation. However, there is growing discrepancy between supply and demand of transplant-grade organs and transplant recipients are subject to a lifetime of immunosuppressive regimens. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis is to advance alternatives to whole organ transplantation for liver diseases. Treating the failure of organs serving a multitude of biochemical functions, such as the liver, requires cell-based therapies. Such therapies should ideally employ human cells due to immunological concerns and the substantial differences between animal and human hepatocellular functions. Human cell lines, while renewable, lack the full functional capacity of primary adult hepatocytes, and for clinical applications there is a tumorigenic risk. Primary human hepatocytes have exhibited therapeutic potential; however, limited sourcing has been a bottleneck for many fields of research and clinical therapies. Pluripotent human stem cells are an attractive cell source, but to date, the hepatocyte-like cells obtain by directed differentiation continue to exhibit an immature hepatic phenotype, which resembles fetal hepatocytes more than adult hepatocytes. Motivated by these limitations, we report in the first section of this thesis, the development of a 384-well liver platform that incorporates cell-cell interactions to stabilize the hepatocyte phenotype, and enable high-throughput screening using cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes. We also developed attendant assays to assess cell fates in this platform through an automated image-based proliferation assay and an ELISA-based functional assay. In the second section of this thesis, we use the high-throughput liver platform to conduct a chemical screen of 12,480 small molecules. We identified 12 bioactive factors in three classes: small molecules that enhanced proliferation (PH), or function (FH) or both proliferation and function (FPH) of human primmary hepatocytes. 2 FPHs expanded primary human hepatocytes in vitro, resulting in up to 10 fold more cells over 7 days. This proliferation rate is consistent with in vivo liver regeneration kinetics and similar to PGE2-induced Wnt-mediated human hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. To date, we have tested 10 different donors of primary human hepatocytes and found all to expand upon FPH treatment, though kinetics and degrees of response vary. Additionally, FPH1 and FHl were shown to differentiate hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) toward a phenotype more mature than what was previously obtainable, causing upregulation of previously low or absent adult markers such as CYP3A4, CYP2A6, PXR and BSEP, concomitant with downregulation of persistent fetal marker AFP. In the final section of this thesis, we explore the therapeutic potential of identified small molecules in vivo. Using zebrafish models from the Goessling/North lab, we observed that both PHIl and FHl enhanced liver sizes in lfabp:GFP reporter zebrafish embryos. In another model of acute liver failure induced by overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), PH1 and FHl acted as hepatoprotectants that increased liver size, and in the case of FHi, rescued zebrafish survival. At sub-lethal concentrations (5mM APAP), the respective therapeutic windows of FHl and PHI both exceed that of N-acetylcystein, the only antidote in use clinically, by at least 12 hours. At lethal concentrations (IOmM APAP), FHl therapy further improved zebrafish survival by up to 63% in both embryonic and adult models of APAP toxicity. The high-throughput liver platform developed in this thesis will enable studies of previously inaccessible aspects of liver biology and small-molecule bioactivity, and have led to the identification of first generation small molecules that have the potential to address cell sourcing challenge impacting many facets of liver disease.

Liver Regeneration

Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Udayan M. Apte
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-07-31
ISBN : 9780124201286
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Liver Regeneration: Basic Mechanisms, Relevant Models and Clinical Applications presents cutting-edge information on liver regeneration research through an integrated, systems-wide perspective. The book addresses discoveries on hepatic progenitor cells, liver regeneration after chemical damage, and liver regeneration as a prime therapy for liver failure and disease. By addressing the urgent need for translating basic research findings into clinically relevant modalities and potential therapeutic applications, the book provides the data needed to improve liver patient management. Hundreds of full-color, graphic photographs and illustrations underline key elements and show researchers and students important aspects of liver transplantation, immunofluorescence, and other techniques used in liver regeneration. Summarizes current liver regeneration studies and discussions on expected discoveries Provides an overview of standard scientific and cutting-edge technologies to study liver regeneration Presents details on the molecular mechanisms that affect liver regeneration Highly illustrated, with hundreds of full-color, graphic photographs and illustrations to enhance the learning process

Biomaterial based Devices for Liver Cell Transplantation

Biomaterial based Devices for Liver Cell Transplantation Book
Author : Nailah M. Seale
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The liver performs over 500 functions and plays an integral role in maintaining the proper function of the body. Any change to the complex liver structure can disrupt proper function and result in liver diseases or disorders. Approximately 30 million people in the United State have some form of liver disorder. These disorders can be genetic, example hemophilia B, virus based, example hepatitis C, or lifestyle based, example alcoholic liver disease. Currently, while there may be treatments for some liver disorders, the only long-term cure for all liver disease or disorder is whole or partial organ transplantation. However, there is a significant shortage of transplantable donor organs, which has led to about 27,000 deaths annually attributed to liver disease in the United States alone. To combat this issue researchers are studying different cell therapies to either engineer whole livers as an alternative source for organ transplants; use cell therapies to replace damaged cells and stimulate liver regeneration; or use cell therapy in ex vivo devices as a way to extend a patient's life expectancy and bridge the gap until a donor organ is available. In this dissertation, I have engineered novel devices for liver cell transplantation by focusing on optimizing methods for maximizing cell delivery in vivo and maintaining long-term function. With these devices I have developed vehicles for autogeneic, allogeneic and xenogeneic liver cell transplantation to provide alternatives or improvements to existing liver therapies. Chapter 1 is a literature review focusing on the use of biomaterials in hepatocyte culture and transplantation. Specifically, in this chapter, I underscore the role of biomaterials in improving in vivo hepatocyte culture techniques to help establish a more reliable and readily available cell source for transplantation therapies. Since primary human hepatocytes have limited availability, I also discuss the role of biomaterials in improving stem cell derived hepatocyte culture. Next, I highlight the most recent advancements in the use of biomaterials for engineering 3D constructs for transplantation. Specifically, I focus on the work that has been done using decellularized liver scaffolds for recellularization and transplantation, and the use of hydrogel based scaffolds for encapsulation and transplantation of cells. Because the success of cell therapies hinges on the proper delivery, engraftment and long-term function of a large number of cells, in Chapter 2, I engineered transplantable tissues for applications in liver related cell therapies. Firstly, I have developed a dual compartment system for minimally invasive, subcutaneous implantation of 3-D vascularized liver-like tissues. In this system an inner compartment houses large numbers of primary hepatocytes, while the outer porous compartment facilitates vascularization to support sustained hepatocyte function. When implanted into NOD/SCID mice, this system has shown sustained function for at least 1 month in vivo as evidenced by human serum albumin secretion and immunostaining. While the dual compartment system facilitates host cell recruitment for vascularization, making it an intervention better suited for autogeneic, immunosuppressed interventions; it is not suitable for allogeneic or xenogeneic transplants. To address this, in Chapter 3 I developed a biocompatible device that is closed off from host cell infiltration yet still allows flow of necessary nutrients and waste in and out of the implant, through the selectively permeable chitosan membrane. The device was further optimized through surface modification to prevent adhesion of immune cells and fibroblasts and subsequent fibrous capsule formation. While chapter 3 focuses on the development, modification and characterization of the pouch, chapter 4 focuses on the application of the pouch in allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation. Allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation success of this device to maintain cell function was shown through ELISA and immunostaining analysis.

Bioengineering Liver Transplantation

Bioengineering Liver Transplantation Book
Author : Luc J.W. Van der Laan,Bart Spee,Monique M. A. Verstegen
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-11-19
ISBN : 3039217445
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this Special Issue is to review, understand, and evaluate new and exciting opportunities from the field on regenerative medicine, biomaterials, and stem cell research for the bioengineering of human liver grafts that can be applied for transplantation and personalized treatment of end-stage liver disease.The development of culture conditions for long-term expansion of LGR5+ intestinal stem cells as crypt-villus structures demonstrated the feasibility of deriving complex, organ-like structures in vitro from primary adult tissues, including the liver. Moreover, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be applied to generate functionally maturated liver and bile duct epithelial cells.In this Special Issue, we welcome reviews and original papers focussing on hepatic cell sources, including adult hepatic stem cells, organoids, fetal and induced pluripotent stem cells, and primary cells (i.e., hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and endothelial cells) and how these cells can be applied in tissue engineering strategies to generate implantable and personalized liver grafts. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following: liver tissue engineering, liver regeneration, graft repair, liver stem cells and organoids, bio-scaffolds, and 3D printing.We invite you to contribute original research papers, as well as comprehensive reviews, aligned with these themes, to advance and improve the actual state-of-the-art in liver bioengineering and providing new opportunities for the imminent medical problem of organ and tissue shortage for transplantation.

Liver Regeneration

Liver Regeneration Book
Author : Dieter Häussinger
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2011-07-07
ISBN : 3110250799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver regeneration is of crucial importance for clinical medicine, not only regarding carcinogenesis and diabetes treatment, but also for the use of stem cells for cell therapy and liver surgery. This graduate-level text provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. Hepatic stem cells are introduced and the important players involved in regeneration such as oval cells, bone marrow and stellate cells are reviewed. The cell signaling pathways that initiate liver regeneration and regulate the switch between proliferation and apoptosis are presented and the role of liver stem cells in tumorigenesis is discussed. The book also treats the epigenetic regulation of liver stem cells and the roles of inflammation and angiogenesis in liver regeneration. This compact overview of the fascinating regenerative capacity of the liver will be of interest to graduate students and post-docs in molecular biology, biochemistry and medicine.

Stem Cell and Liver Regeneration

Stem Cell and Liver Regeneration Book
Author : K Okita
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003-12-01
ISBN : 9784431539728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Stem Cell and Liver Regeneration book written by K Okita, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Building Blocks for Regenerative Medicine

Building Blocks for Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Arnav Chhabra
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Despite significant advances in our knowledge about liver pathology and regeneration, non-palliative regimens for most end-stage liver disorders are limited. The only definitive treatment for end-stage liver failure is an orthotopic liver transplant. Unlike other major causes of mortality, death rates from liver diseases are rising instead of declining, leading to widening discrepancy between supply and demand of liver transplants. Thus, the development of an engineered liver construct is crucial to provide an alternative to whole organ transplantation or even for temporary support throughout medical intervention. The development of functional solid organ systems like the liver is an arduous task and faces many challenges. This thesis sought to address two of these challenges: hepatocyte (liver parenchymal cell) sourcing and immune compatibility. The main hurdle in primary human hepatocyte sourcing is the loss of regenerative potential of the cells ex vivo. In vivo, liver regeneration occurs as a well-orchestrated process. Although animal models have offered myriad insights into the process, the exact mechanisms and interactions in humans are less well understood. To this end, we developed a three-dimensional platform called SHEAR (structurally-vascularized hepatic ensembles for analyzing regeneration) to model multiple aspects of human liver regeneration. SHEAR enables precise hemodynamic alterations, and supports biochemical inputs such as cytokines and paracrine interactions with endothelial cells. We found that exposing the endothelium to fluid flow led to increased secretion of regeneration-associated factors. Stimulation with relevant cytokines not only amplified the secretory response, but also induced cell cycling of human hepatocytes within the device. By applying unsupervised machine learning techniques to scan the secretome in stimulated devices, we identified endothelial-derived mediators that can independently stimulate proliferation of human hepatocytes. Collectively, the data presented here underscore the importance of multicellular models that integrate tunable biochemical and fluid forces, and demonstrate that SHEAR devices can be used to discover and validate conditions that promote human liver regeneration. Limiting the allogeneic immune response is a major challenge in the implementation of cell-based therapies. To ameliorate this problem, we engineered an immune cloak around transplantable liver tissue by enabling trans-presentation of immune checkpoint pathways. This technology is called SHIELD (stealth hepatic immunotolerant ensembles for liver disease). SHIELD activates checkpoint pathways in supporting stromal cells and/or in endothelial cells lining the vasculature to induce immune cell exhaustion and anergy. These support cells are admixed with hepatocytes using tissue fabrication techniques and serve as the protector unit. SHIELD imparts inhibitory signals to immune cells surveying the graft, such that the graft does not get rejected by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-mismatched T cells. Thus, SHIELD provides localized, controllable immune-tolerance in a number of transplantation settings.

Hepatic Stem Cells

Hepatic Stem Cells Book
Author : Naoki Tanimizu
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2019-02-04
ISBN : 9781493989607
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume looks at the liver’s epithelial cells—hepatocytes and cholangiocytes—and their progenitors. This book is divided into five parts: isolation of progenitor cells; characterization of liver progenitors in vivo; generation of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and their progenitors; reconstitution of liver tissue structures; and liver injury models. The chapters in this book cover topics such as expansion of bipotential liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) from fetal and neonatal liver; identifying progenitor cells involved in liver regeneration in vivo; methods for generating hepatocytes and cholangiocytes from multiple cellular sources; 3D tissue structures ex vivo; and resolving hepatic fibrosis by bone marrow transplantation. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Hepatic Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource to help researchers understand the current theories used to study hepatic stem/progenitor cells, and aid them in performing experiments related to liver biology and pathophysiology.

Liver Regeneration by Hepatic Progenitor Cells

Liver Regeneration by Hepatic Progenitor Cells Book
Author : Thomas Graham Bird,John Iredale
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body and is frequently the site of injury. During disease, liver injury is usually compensated for by exceptionally efficient regeneration which occurs both from differentiated epithelia and also from an undifferentiated cell population with stem cell like qualities known as hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs). HPCs are particularly active during massive or chronic liver injury and therefore are an attractive target for much needed novel therapies to enhance regeneration in patients for whom the only current effective therapy is liver transplantation. Stem cells in other organs systems are believed to reside in a specialised microenvironment or niche which supports their maintenance and function. To investigate the hypothesis that HPCs are supported by a functional niche and are capable of regenerating hepatocytes, we commenced by establishing a number of murine in vivo models. Having shown a stereotypical niche, consisting of macrophages, myofibroblasts and laminin exists in both animal models and human disease, we investigated the active recruitment of extrahepatic cells into this niche and showed that macrophages are actively recruited from the bone marrow during liver injury. Macrophages were shown to influence HPC behaviour during injury. Furthermore using macrophages as a cellular therapy, induced HPC activation with corresponding changes to liver structure and function. Investigation of signalling pathways revealed and confirmed a TWEAK dependent activation of HPCs following macrophage transfer. Having demonstrated the potential for macrophage therapy via HPC activation, we aimed to study the ability of HPCs to regenerate the hepatic parenchyma. To do so we developed and characterised a novel model of hepatocellular injury and HPC activation. Using the genetic labeling of hepatocytes in this model we were able to show rapid and large scale repopulation of hepatocytes from a precursor source with HPCs being the critical precursor source of hepatocellular regeneration. In addition this process is again dependent on TWEAK signalling, without which HPC mediated regeneration fails resulting in mortality. Therefore HPCs are an attractive biological target for regenerative medicine, and both TWEAK signalling and autologous macrophage infusion offer genuine potential to manipulate these cells as future therapies.

Liver Stem Cells

Liver Stem Cells Book
Author : Takahiro Ochiya
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2016-08-23
ISBN : 9781493959105
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Increasing evidence suggests that liver stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into parenchymal hepatocytes or into bile ductular cells. These stem cells may be activated to proliferate after severe liver injury or exposure to hepatocarcinogens. Stem cell replacement strategies are being investigated as an alternative approach to liver repair and regeneration. Additionally, stem cell transplantation has been shown to significantly improve liver function and increase survival in experimentally-induced liver-injury models in animals. In Liver Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers focus on several hepatic progenitor cells, hepatic differentiation form stem cells, bile ductal cell formation from stem cells, liver stem cells and hepatocarcinogenesi, and application of liver stem cells for cell therapy. These topics shed light on stem cell technology which may lead to the development of effective clinical modalities for human liver diseases. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Thorough and intuitive, Liver Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study of preclinical and clinical investigations that explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in repair of liver injuries.

Transcriptomic Analyses of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells

Transcriptomic Analyses of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells Book
Author : Jasmine Low
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Liver progenitor cells are a subpopulation of liver cells with bipotentiality, that is, they have the ability to differentiate into hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. In certain circumstances, such as chronic liver disease, they are able to repopulate damaged livers and have become the centre of interest for cell-based liver regeneration. However, upon injection of these cells into rodents, some progenitor cell lines form tumours and this brings to light their potential association with liver carcinogenesis. The overall aim of this study was to establish gene expression profiles for tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic progenitor cells in order to better understand molecular changes which characterise each group. The ability to distinguish these populations will greatly assist in strategies to realise the therapeutic potential of liver progenitor cells. A transcriptomic approach was taken to investigate liver progenitor cell culture models and gene expression microarrays were performed to compare several different cell lines. Public microarrays were also downloaded and incorporated into the study, including some performed on embryonic stem cells, adult liver tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma-related tissues, collectively encompassing 405 microarrays experiments. Pathway analyses showed liver progenitor cells have many upregulated pathways compared to liver parenchymal cells, especially those governing the cell cycle, Wnt, TGF-beta, MAPK and ErbB signaling. In addition, purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways were upregulated in all the 'immortalised' cell lines. Based on key transcript expression patterns that correlated highly with the expression patterns of known liver progenitor cell markers, a list of 32 novel, potential markers of liver progenitor cells was identified. Additionally, the availability of a combination of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic liver progenitor cell lines allowed us to focus on their differences and these were projected onto chromosomes, identifying 13 putative "hot spots" related to neoplastic transformation. The findings from this thesis will greatly assist future studies on the biology of liver progenitor cells and facilitate their application in therapeutic approaches for the treatment of liver disease. In particular the data obtained will be useful for researchers who seek to understand the role of these cells in the development of liver cancer.

Artificial Liver Support

Artificial Liver Support Book
Author : G. Brunner,F. W. Schmidt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642966292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The regenerative capacity of the liver cell is almost unlimited. Therefore after acute liver damage, be it viral, toxic, hypoxic, or surgical in origin, restitutio ad integrum is the usual outcome. In two forms of liver disease, however, this is not the case: in fulmi nant hepatic failure, liver regeneration often is not fast enough to keep the organism alive; in end-stage cirrhosis, regeneration is dis turbed by a hypertrophic architecture of fibrotic tissue. For these extreme forms of liver disease and for critical situations before and after liver surgery, artificial liver support is needed. This book contains the latest results in this area of research pre sented by scientists from allover the world at an international symposium held in Celle, Germany, June 2-4, 1980. Exciting new methods like continuous membrane plasma sepa ration and liver cell transplantation into the spleen have been de veloped. The older methods of hemoperfusion and dialysis have been improved. Enzymological methods and liver transplantation have made good progress. We hope that this volume will help the clinician in his decision-making and stimulate ingenious new re search for the benefit of our liver patients.