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Carbonic Anhydrases

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Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts Book
Author : Claudiu T Supuran,Giuseppina De Simone
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-01-14
ISBN : 0444632638
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes, present throughout most living organisms and encoded by five evolutionarily unrelated gene families. The Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts: From Theory to Medical and Industrial Applications presents information on the growing interest in the study of this enzyme family and their applications to both medicine and biotechnology. Offers comprehensive coverage of the carbonic anhydrases enzyme family and their properties as biocatalysts Includes current applications of carbonic anhydrases in biotechnology on the basis of their catalytic efficiency, including new technologies for CO2 capture processes Identifies new targets for drug design studies Provides a selectivity profile for the different carbonic anhydrases and their related biomedical applications

The Carbonic Anhydrases

The Carbonic Anhydrases Book
Author : W.R. Chegwidden,N.D. Carter,Y.H. Edwards
Publisher : Birkhäuser
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 303488446X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a seemingly ubiquitous enzyme of profound physiological importance, which plays essential roles in respiration, acid-base homeostasis, bone resorption, calcification, photosynthesis, several biosynthetic pathways and a variety of processes involving ion, gas and fluid transfer. This enzyme, which is present in at least three gene families (a, ß, ?), has found favour as a model for the study of evolution of gene families and for site-directed mutagenesis in structure/function relationships, for protein folding and for transgenic and gene target studies. Since the early use of CA inhibitors as diuretics and in treating congestive heart failure, the enzyme has been target of considerable clinical attention. Much of this is now focused on endeavours to produce a new generation of such drugs for the effective treatment of glaucoma and other potential applications. Recent data, suggesting links between CA and various disease processes, including cancer, have stimulated further...

The Carbonic Anhydrases

The Carbonic Anhydrases Book
Author : S.J. Dodgson,N.D. Carter,G. Gros,R.E. Tashian
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1991-05-31
ISBN : 9780306436369
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As we approach the twenty-first century the problems of industrialization are evident: we find there is a greenhouse effect, the ozone layer is being depleted, the rain is acidified, and there is a terrible problem of increasing C0 concentrations in the atmo 2 sphere. The carbonic anhydrases are a unique family of enzymes that solve these problems in the human body: they are responsible for converting C0 (a gas) to 2 HC0-, which is the biggest intracellular buffer, with a concomitant decrease in a 3 hydroxyl ion. Globally, the functions of the carbonic anhydrases in photosynthesis in rain forests and in the algae and plankton that cover our oceans indicate that they are also of utmost importance in the maintenance of the acid-base balance on our planet. Although the whole field of C0 metabolism is enormous and still rapidly 2 expanding, because of the research interests of the editors this book is mainly concerned with mammalian carbonic anhydrases. However, if the interested reader intends to purify carbonic anhydrases from nonmammalian sources, Dr. Cheg widden has provided the necessary information in Chapter 7. The carbonic anhydrases were first discovered in 1933; until1976 there were thought to be only two isozymes. Since then CA ill, IY, V, VI, and Vll have been discovered and well characterized. There is, of course, no reason to believe that we have found them all.

The Carbonic Anhydrases Current and Emerging Therapeutic Targets

The Carbonic Anhydrases  Current and Emerging Therapeutic Targets Book
Author : W. Richard Chegwidden,Nicholas D. Carter
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-12-01
ISBN : 303079511X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume assembles and integrates the wealth of diverse information that is now accumulating in this burgeoning field. The existing and potential therapeutic applications of targeting CA cover a remarkably wide-range of diseases and disorders and have generated increasing and extensive interest in recent years. Its inter-disciplinary approach embraces both the most up-to-date therapeutic application of CA-targeting and the latest research data that will provide a platform for the development of novel applications. The interested audience comprises scientists and clinicians from many relevant disciplines within science and medicine.

Carbonic Anhydrase Mechanism Regulation Links to Disease and Industrial Applications

Carbonic Anhydrase  Mechanism  Regulation  Links to Disease  and Industrial Applications Book
Author : Susan C. Frost,Robert McKenna
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 9400773595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of carbonic anhydrase has spanned multiple generations of scientists. Carbonic anhydrase was first discovered in 1932 by Meldrum and Roughton. Inhibition by sulfanilamide was shown in 1940 by Mann and Keilin. Even Hans Krebs contributed to early studies with a paper in 1948 showing the relationship of 25 different sulfonamides to CA inhibition. It was he who pointed out the importance of both the charged and uncharged character of these compounds for physiological experiments. The field of study that focuses on carbonic anhydrase (CA) has exploded in recent years with the identification of new families and isoforms. The CAs are metalloenzymes which are comprised of 5 structurally different families: the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and epsilon classes. The alpha class is found primarily in animals with several isoforms associated with human disease. The beta CAs are expressed primarily in plants and are the most divergent. The gamma CAs are the most ancient. These are structurally related to the beta CAs, but have a mechanism more similar to the alpha CAs. The delta CAs are found in marine algae and diflagellates. The epsilon class is found in prokaryotes in which it is part of the carboxysome shell perhaps supplying RuBisCO with CO2 for carbon fixation. With the excitement surrounding the discovery of disease-related CAs, scientists have redoubled their efforts to better understand structure-function relationships, to design high affinity, isotype-specific inhibitors, and to delineate signaling systems that play regulatory roles over expression and activity. We have designed the book to cover basic information of mechanism, structure, and function of the CA families. The authors included in this book bring to light the newest data with regard to the role of CA in physiology and pathology, across phylums, and in unique environmental niches.

Primary Structural Studies of Horse Carbonic Anhydrases

Primary Structural Studies of Horse Carbonic Anhydrases Book
Author : Robert Paul Bray
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Primary Structural Studies of Horse Carbonic Anhydrases book written by Robert Paul Bray, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Carbonic Anhydrases

Carbonic Anhydrases Book
Author : Claudiu T. Supuran,Alessio Nocentini
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-07-17
ISBN : 0128167459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic Anhydrases provides an interdisciplinary review of the burgeoning carbonic anhydrase (CA) research area, spanning from CAs classification (biochemical and structural features) to drug design and pharmacology of CA inhibitors and activators, finally touching on the biotechnological applications of these metalloenzymes. The book adopts a clear step-by-step approach and introduction to this intricate and highly interdisciplinary field. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speak to CA classification and distribution, the mechanisms of action and drug design of inhibitors and activators, the druggability of the various isoforms in the treatment of a multitude of diseases, and threats to human health. Carbonic Anhydrases provides biology, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry students and researchers a thorough discussion and update on the evergreen and expanding research area of CAs. Offers a full overview of CAs’ biochemical and structural features, as well as drug design and pharmacology of inhibitors and activators Provides a thorough update on the newly identified isoforms, modulating chemotypes, and innovative biomedical applications Describes the current biotechnological applications of CAs, including processes for CO2 capture Features chapter contributions from international leaders in CA biology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology

Carbonic Anhydrase

Carbonic Anhydrase Book
Author : Claudiu T. Supuran,Andrea Scozzafava,Janet Conway
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-05-27
ISBN : 1134400152
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic Anhydrase: Its Inhibitors and Activators provides a state-of-the-art overview of the latest developments and challenges in carbonic anhydrase research. Authors describe the mechanisms of action of specific inhibitors in relation to physiological function, and present previously unpublished research on CA activators. Written by a team of in

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism Book
Author : Claudiu T. Supuran
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-04-08
ISBN : 3038978000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Book
Author : Robert W. Schrier
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9780781793070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The thoroughly updated Eighth Edition of this classic three-volume work provides the most comprehensive, current, and authoritative information on diseases of the kidney and urinary tract. This clinically oriented reference focuses on diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases, disorders, and complications and incorporates the basic science practicing physicians need to evaluate and manage the disease process. Each of the fourteen sections is written by internationally renowned contributors and provides coverage comparable to a complete book. The first two sections review renal basic science and describe current diagnostic tools. The remaining twelve sections cover various types of diseases, including hypertension, urological problems, and urinary tract concerns. Each disease-oriented section begins with an up-to-date review of pathophysiology and then focuses on specific diseases. This edition has new lead authors for more than 25 chapters, and separate chapters on heart disease and the kidney, liver disease and the kidney, and the nephrotic syndrome.

Carbonic Anhydrase as Drug Target

Carbonic Anhydrase as Drug Target Book
Author : Daumantas Matulis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-05-21
ISBN : 303012780X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers deep insights into the thermodynamics and molecular structures of the twelve catalytically active isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA) with a particular focus on inhibitor binding for drug design. X-ray crystallographic structures in combination with enzyme kinetic testing provide information on the interaction of CAs and their inhibitors, knowledge which is crucial for rational drug design. CAs are zinc carrying enzymes that catalyse the reversible interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate and are involved in numerous cellular processes. They are therefore a common target for drugs. The suppression of CA activities through inhibitory compounds has found application for example in diuretics and in glaucoma therapy. In this book methods used to determine binding thermodynamics of inhibitory compounds (Isothermal titration calorimetry, Fluorescent thermal shift assay/differential scanning fluorimetry and others) will be compared in detail. Also types and chemical synthesis of CA inhibitors, the use of antibodies against CAs as well as inhibitor application in animals are discussed.

An Innovative Approach to Understanding and Treating Cancer Targeting pH

An Innovative Approach to Understanding and Treating Cancer  Targeting pH Book
Author : Tomas Koltai,Stephan J. Reshkin,Salvador Harguindey
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-01-16
ISBN : 0128190604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Innovative Approach to Studying and Treating Cancer: Targeting pH describes one of the few characteristics of cancer that is not shared by normal tissues: the reversal or inversion of the pH gradient when intracellular pH becomes alkaline and extracellular pH becomes acid. This is now recognized as one of the most selective and differential hallmarks of all cancer cells and tissues, being the opposite of the condition found in normal tissues and a potential target in order to achieve either a stable disease or even regression with no toxicity. The book discusses topics such as lactic acid and its transport system in the pH paradigm, mechanisms to decrease extra cellular pH and increase intracellular pH, NHE-1 activity in cancer, carbonic anhydrases, vacuolar ATPase proton pump, and the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter system. Additionally, it discusses complementary pharmacological interventions, cellular acidification and extracellular alkalinization as a new and integral approach to cancer treatment. Analyzes the mechanisms that lead to the inversion of pH gradient in cancer tissues Summarizes almost 100 years of research on pH inversion in cancer in one single source, discussing the most relevant and updated researches in the field Proposes new efficient treatments against cancer using pH inversion mechanisms, either with new drugs like proton transport inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors (PTIs and PPIs) or with repurposed drugs

Isozymes

Isozymes Book
Author : Clement Lawrence Markert
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vol. 4.

The Anatomical Record

The Anatomical Record Book
Author : Charles Russell Bardeen,Irving Hardesty,John Lewis Bremer,Edward Allen Boyden
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Issues for 1906- include the proceedings and abstracts of papers of the American Association of Anatomists (formerly the Association of American Anatomists); 1916-60, the proceedings and abstracts of papers of the American Society of Zoologists.

Report

Report Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Report book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Index Medicus

Index Medicus Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Index Medicus book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Blue Biotechnology

Blue Biotechnology Book
Author : Werner E. G. Müller,Heinz C. Schröder,Xiaohong Wang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-25
ISBN : 3319512846
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the discovery of molecules from unexploited extreme marine environments, and presents new approaches in marine genomics. It combines the current state of knowledge in marine genomics and advanced natural products’ chemistry to pursue the sustainable production of novel secondary metabolites (lead compounds), as well as pharmacologically active peptides/proteins, with antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic, anti-protozoan/anti-plasmodial, anti-ageing and immune-modulating effects. Further, it employs molecular-biology-based approaches and advanced chemical techniques to obtain and to select candidate compounds for pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Evolution of Fungi and Fungal Like Organisms

Evolution of Fungi and Fungal Like Organisms Book
Author : Stefanie Pöggeler,Johannes Wöstemeyer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-07-28
ISBN : 3642199747
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on sequence analyses of many different genes, the past decade has provided us with a profound knowledge of fungal systematics and phylogeny. In addition, a number of sequences of complete fungal genomes have been identified and several others will soon follow. In this volume, leading experts address questions concerning the origin of the fungal kingdom and fungal evolution at a level of analytical refinement that has never been possible before. The following major aspects are highlighted: evolutionary roots of fungi; evolution of signaling in fungi and fungal-like organisms; evolution of mutualistic systems and metabolism in fungi; and evolutionary mechanisms and trends.

Drug Design of Zinc Enzyme Inhibitors

Drug Design of Zinc Enzyme Inhibitors Book
Author : Claudiu T. Supuran,Jean-Yves Winum
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-10-22
ISBN : 9780470508152
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brings together functional and structural informationrelevant to the design of drugs targeting zinc enzymes The second most abundant transition element in living organisms, zinc spans all areas of metabolism, with zinc-containing proteins offering both established and potential drug targets. Drug Design of Zinc-Enzyme Inhibitors brings together functional and structural information relevant to these zinc-containing targets. With up-to-date overviews of the latest developments field, this unique and comprehensive text enables readers to understand zinc enzymes and evaluate them in a drug design context. With contributions from the leaders of today's research, Drug Design of Zinc-Enzyme Inhibitors covers such key topics as: Major drug targets like carbonic anhydrases, matrix metalloproteinases, bacterial proteases, angiotensin-converting enzyme, histone deacetylase, and APOBEC3G Roles of recently discovered zinc-containing isozymes in cancer, obesity, epilepsy, pain management, malaria, and other conditions Cross reactivity of zinc-enzyme inhibitors and activators The extensive use of X-ray crystallography and QSAR studies for understanding zinc-containing proteins Clinical applications An essential resource for the discovery and development of new drug molecules, Drug Design of Zinc-Enzyme Inhibitors gives researchers, professionals, students, and academics the foundation to understand and work with zinc enzyme inhibitors and activators.

Therapeutic Application of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Inflammatory Disorders

Therapeutic Application of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Inflammatory Disorders Book
Author : Lucia Morbidelli,Benjamin Bonavida
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-09
ISBN : 0128172797
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Therapeutic Application of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Inflammatory Disorders presents updated reviews on the chemistry, signaling, pre-clinical and clinical activities on the role of nitric oxide donors/inhibitors used alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of a variety of diseases. This book examines various studies related to the application of novel therapeutic NO (donors/inhibitors) compounds in the treatment of various cancers. These studies have been shown to exert significant therapeutic activities against various cancers and various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, allergies, and asthma, where no current effective therapies exist. Pathologies based on functional and structural vascular alterations are also taken into consideration. Edited and written by internationally renowned experts in the field of novel therapeutics for cancer, this book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, medical scientists, clinicians, clinical pharmacologists, and graduate students. Provides readers with a clear overview of the recent findings and references as well as summaries, significant molecular pathways, and conclusions Discusses new ideas proposed and makes suggestions for further investigations that will advance the field Presents introductory and summary information on the contributions of the field, all the findings of the studies discussed, and projects future goals for research