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Carbonic Anhydrases As Biocatalysts

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Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts Book
Author : Claudiu T Supuran,Giuseppina De Simone
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-01-14
ISBN : 0444632638
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes, present throughout most living organisms and encoded by five evolutionarily unrelated gene families. The Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts: From Theory to Medical and Industrial Applications presents information on the growing interest in the study of this enzyme family and their applications to both medicine and biotechnology. Offers comprehensive coverage of the carbonic anhydrases enzyme family and their properties as biocatalysts Includes current applications of carbonic anhydrases in biotechnology on the basis of their catalytic efficiency, including new technologies for CO2 capture processes Identifies new targets for drug design studies Provides a selectivity profile for the different carbonic anhydrases and their related biomedical applications

Carbonic Anhydrases

Carbonic Anhydrases Book
Author : Claudiu Supuran,Alessio Nocentini
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-07-17
ISBN : 0128167459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic Anhydrases provides an interdisciplinary review of the burgeoning carbonic anhydrase (CA) research area, spanning from CAs classification (biochemical and structural features) to drug design and pharmacology of CA inhibitors and activators, finally touching on the biotechnological applications of these metalloenzymes. The book adopts a clear step-by-step approach and introduction to this intricate and highly interdisciplinary field. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speak to CA classification and distribution, the mechanisms of action and drug design of inhibitors and activators, the druggability of the various isoforms in the treatment of a multitude of diseases, and threats to human health. Carbonic Anhydrases provides biology, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry students and researchers a thorough discussion and update on the evergreen and expanding research area of CAs. Offers a full overview of CAs’ biochemical and structural features, as well as drug design and pharmacology of inhibitors and activators Provides a thorough update on the newly identified isoforms, modulating chemotypes, and innovative biomedical applications Describes the current biotechnological applications of CAs, including processes for CO2 capture Features chapter contributions from international leaders in CA biology, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism Book
Author : Claudiu T. Supuran
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-04-08
ISBN : 3038978000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis Book
Author : Peter Grunwald
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-06-27
ISBN : 1000021289
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of the world market of therapeutic enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, rare diseases, orphan drugs, the costs of drug development and therapies, and enzymes in downstream processing of pharmaceuticals. It discusses carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their multiple drug interactions, carboxylesterase inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications, employment of inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, use of engineered proteins, bioactive peptides, and fibrinolytic enzymes for thrombolytic therapy, and enzymes important for the design and development of new drugs/drug metabolites such as aldehyde oxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes and the role the latter play in vascular biology and pathophysiology. The treatment of cancer is explored in connection with enzymatic amino acid deprivation therapies and new drugs that act as chemical degraders of oncogenic proteins. The book also introduces the resistance mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the relationship between pathological conditions of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The text also focuses on the potential use of nanoparticles as carriers for enzymes with medical relevance, computer-aided drug design for the identification of multi-target directed ligands, and the development of improved therapeutics through a glycan-“designer” approach. It concludes with an introduction to the chemoenzymatic synthesis of drugs.

Biocatalytic Performance of Carbonic Anhydrase Immobilized Within Polyurethane Foam in Water miscible Organic Solvents

Biocatalytic Performance of Carbonic Anhydrase Immobilized Within Polyurethane Foam in Water miscible Organic Solvents Book
Author : İlyasa Umur Ayaz
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The effects of water-miscible organic solvents such as acetonitrile and ethanol on the activity of free and immobilized bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA) were investigated. The CA was covalently immobilized within polyurethane (PU) foam by cross-linking. Although PU foam holds water almost 12 times of its weight, it was found that adsorption isotherm of moisture on PU foam was a Type III indicating that water and PU foam were non-interacting to each other. The activities for the free and immobilized CA were estimated using para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) as the substrate. The enzyme activities were estimated in increasing volume percents of organic solvent in Tris buffer (10-90%). p-NP, which is one of the products of the hydrolysis reaction of p-NPA, was characterized in the presence of organic solvents and it was observed that its aborptivities were decreased significantly as the organic solvent percentages were increased indicating that p-NP and the water-miscible organic solvent form a complex through mostly a hydrogen bonding. The free CA showed decreasing activity up to critical percentages of organic solvent (40-60%), and then exhibited an increasing activity. The immobilized CA showed decreasing activity in acetonitrile at percentages up to 50%, and then lost its total activity at higher acetonitrile percentages, however, the immobilized CA exhibited no activity in ethanol at percentages above 10%. Stability tests showed that the immobilized CA was dramatically inactivated in the organic solvents at percentages above 30% in shorter times. It was concluded that the water-miscible organic solvents severely perturbed the active site of the enzyme, thus denaturating the enzyme.

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis Book
Author : Andreas S. Bommarius,Bettina R. Riebel-Bommarius
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-02-27
ISBN : 352760605X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The whole range of biocatalysis, from a firm grounding in theoretical concepts to in-depth coverage of practical applications and future perspectives. The book not only covers reactions, products and processes with and from biological catalysts, but also the process of designing and improving such biocatalysts. One unique feature is that the fields of chemistry, biology and bioengineering receive equal attention, thus addressing practitioners and students from all three areas.

Neutron Crystallography in Structural Biology

Neutron Crystallography in Structural Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-02-22
ISBN : 0128192151
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neutron Crystallography in Structural Biology, Volume 634, the latest volume in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Chapters in this updated release include Fundamentals of neutron crystallography in structural biology, Large crystal growth for neutron protein crystallography, Prospects for membrane protein crystals in NMX, IMAGINE: The neutron protein crystallography beamline at the high flux isotope reactor, The macromolecular neutron diffractometer at the spallation neutron source, Current status and near future plan of neutron protein crystallography at J-PARC, Neutron macromolecular crystallography at the European spallation source, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series Includes the latest information on neutron crystallography in structural biology

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis Book
Author : Peter Grunwald
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-06-27
ISBN : 1000020940
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of the world market of therapeutic enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, rare diseases, orphan drugs, the costs of drug development and therapies, and enzymes in downstream processing of pharmaceuticals. It discusses carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their multiple drug interactions, carboxylesterase inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications, employment of inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, use of engineered proteins, bioactive peptides, and fibrinolytic enzymes for thrombolytic therapy, and enzymes important for the design and development of new drugs/drug metabolites such as aldehyde oxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes and the role the latter play in vascular biology and pathophysiology. The treatment of cancer is explored in connection with enzymatic amino acid deprivation therapies and new drugs that act as chemical degraders of oncogenic proteins. The book also introduces the resistance mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the relationship between pathological conditions of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. The text also focuses on the potential use of nanoparticles as carriers for enzymes with medical relevance, computer-aided drug design for the identification of multi-target directed ligands, and the development of improved therapeutics through a glycan-“designer” approach. It concludes with an introduction to the chemoenzymatic synthesis of drugs.

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis Book
Author : D.A. Abramowicz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 9401091242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The action of enzymes fascinated mankind long before they were rec ognized for the complex chemicals that they are. The first application of these remarkable compounds to produce ethanol by fermentation is lost to antiquity. Payer and Persoz (Ann. Chim. Phys. , 53, 73 (1833ii)) appear to have provided the first step toward understanding this com plex area when they reported the isolation of diastase in 1833. These workers showed that diastase could catalyze the hydrolysis of starches to sugars. Somewhat earlier Kirchhoff (Schwigger's Journal, 4, 108 (1812)) had shown that a small amount of dilute acid could hydrolyze a seemingly endless amount of starch to sugars. The genius of Berzelius recognized the commonality of these two observations in connection with a few other isolated observations and in 1834 coined the term catalysis to describe such actions. Professor Leibig was one of the giants of the chemical world in 1840. In addition to his own work, Liebig was training the world's next generation of chemists in his laboratory in Giessen. This cadre of chemists were very impressed by the master teacher so that is it only natural that Liebig's views should dominate with this next generation of chemists. Leibig was, in the 1830s and 1840s, developing his mastery of agricultural chemistry. The mechanism of putrefication was of great concern to Leibig, and he turned to the newly defined area of catalysis for an explanation.

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis Book
Author : Gonzalo de Gonzalo,Pablo Domínguez de María
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2017-11-02
ISBN : 1788012461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Implementing biocatalytic strategies in an industrial setting at a commercial scale is a challenging task, necessitating a balance between industrial need against economic viability. With invited contributions from small and large-scale chemical and pharmaceutical companies, this book bridges the gap between academia and industry. Contributors discuss current processes, types of biocatalysts and improvements, industrial motivation and key aspects to economically succeed. With its focus on industry related issues, this book will be a useful tool for future research by both practitioners and academics.

Nanomaterials for Biocatalysis

Nanomaterials for Biocatalysis Book
Author : Guillermo R Castro,Ashok Kumar,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Xianghui Qi,Ghulam Yasin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-10-15
ISBN : 0128244372
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomaterials for Biocatalysis explains the fundamental design concepts and emerging applications of nanoscale biocatalysts, such as bioconversions, bioelectronics, biosensors, biocomputing and therapeutic applications. Nano-biocatalysts refers to the incorporation of enzymes into nanomaterials. These enzyme-enhanced nanocarriers have many advantages, including low mass transfer limitation, high enzyme capacity, better stabilization, and the formation of single-enzyme nanoparticles. Smart nanocontainers have been developed for the smart release of their embedded active substances. These smart releases can be obtained by using smart coatings as their outer nanoshells. In addition, these nanocontainers could protect the enzymes from chemical or metabolic alterations on their delivering pathways towards the target. This is an important reference source for materials scientists and chemical engineers who want to know more about how nanomaterials are being used for biocatalysis applications. Explains the major fabrication techniques and applications of nanobiocatalysts Shows how nanobiocatalysts are used in a variety of environmental and biomedical sectors Assesses the major challenges associated with the widespread manufacture of nanobiocatalysts

Biocatalysis for Practitioners

Biocatalysis for Practitioners Book
Author : Gonzalo de Gonzalo,Iván Lavandera
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-04-13
ISBN : 3527824456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This reference book originates from the interdisciplinary research cooperation between academia and industry. In three distinct parts, latest results from basic research on stable enzymes are explained and brought into context with possible industrial applications. Downstream processing technology as well as biocatalytic and biotechnological production processes from global players display the enormous potential of biocatalysts. Application of "extreme" reaction conditions (i.e. unconventional, such as high temperature, pressure, and pH value) - biocatalysts are normally used within a well defined process window - leads to novel synthetic effects. Both novel enzyme systems and the synthetic routes in which they can be applied are made accessible to the reader. In addition, the complementary innovative process technology under unconventional conditions is highlighted by latest examples from biotech industry.

Novel Materials for Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology

Novel Materials for Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology Book
Author : Bryan Morreale,Fan Shi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-06-01
ISBN : 0444632611
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials for Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology offers expert insight and experience from recognized authorities in advanced material development in carbon mitigation technology and constitutes a comprehensive guide to the selection and design of a wide range of solvent/sorbent/catalyst used by scientists globally. It appeals to chemical scientists, material scientists and engineers, energy researchers, and environmental scientists from academia, industry, and government in their research directed toward greener, more efficient carbon mitigation processes. Emphasizes material development for carbon mitigation technologies rather than regulations Provides a fundamental understanding of the underpinning science as well as technological approaches to implement carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies Introduces the driving force behind novel materials, their performance and applications for carbon dioxide mitigation Contains figures, tables and an abundance of examples clearly explaining the development, characterization and evaluation of novel carbon mitigation materials Includes hundreds of citations drawing on the most recent published works on the subject Provides a wealth of real-world examples, illustrating how to bridge nano-scale materials to bulk carbon mitigation properties

Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis Book
Author : Peter Grunwald
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
Release : 2017-08-04
ISBN : 1783269103
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Completely Revised and Extended Edition with a significantly enhanced content, all Chapters have been updated considering relevant literature and recent developments until 2016 together with application oriented examples with a focus on Industrial Biocatalysis. Newly treated topics comprise among others systems metabolic engineering approaches, metagenome screening, new tools for pathway engineering, and de-novo computational design as actual research areas in biocatalysis. Information about different aspects of RNA technologies, and completely new Chapters on 'Fluorescent Proteins' and 'Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology' are also included.

Modern Biocatalysis

Modern Biocatalysis Book
Author : Gavin Williams,Mélanie Hall
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2018-05-31
ISBN : 178262726X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The synergy between synthetic biology and biocatalysis is emerging as an important trend for future sustainable processes. This book reviews all modern and novel techniques successfully implemented in biocatalysis, in an effort to provide better performing enzymatic systems and novel biosynthetic routes to (non-)natural products. This includes the use of molecular techniques in protein design and engineering, construction of artificial metabolic pathways, and application of computational methods for enzyme discovery and design. Stress is placed on current 'hot' topics in biocatalysis, where recent advances in research are defining new grounds in enzyme-catalyzed processes. With contributions from leading academics around the world, this book makes a ground-breaking contribution to this progressive field and is essential reading for graduates and researchers investigating (bio)catalysis, enzyme engineering, chemical biology, and synthetic biology.

Industrial Biocatalysis

Industrial Biocatalysis Book
Author : Peter Grunwald
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-12-11
ISBN : 9814463892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biocatalysis has become an essential tool in the chemical industry and is the core of industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, making use of biocatalysts in terms of enzymes or whole cells in chemical processes as an alternative to chemical catalysts. This shift can be seen in the many areas of daily life where biocatalysts—with their environmentally friendly properties—are currently employed. Drivers are the big societal challenges resulting from concerns about the global climate change and the need for an assured energy supply. Modern biocatalysis relies to a large extent on the tremendous advances in the so-called omics techniques and the structural elucidation of biomolecules, which have led to synthetic biology and metabolic engineering as new research fields with high application potential for the rational design of enzymes and microbial production strains. In this book, renowned scientists discuss the actual developments in these research fields together with a variety of application-oriented topics.

Problem Solving in Enzyme Biocatalysis

Problem Solving in Enzyme Biocatalysis Book
Author : Andrés Illanes,Lorena Wilson,Carlos Vera
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-10-02
ISBN : 1118341775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Enzyme biocatalysis is a fast-growing area in process biotechnology that has expanded from the traditional fields of foods, detergents, and leather applications to more sophisticated uses in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemicals sectors and environmental management. Conventional applications of industrial enzymes are expected to grow, with major opportunities in the detergent and animal feed sectors, and new uses in biofuel production and human and animal therapy. In order to design more efficient enzyme reactors and evaluate performance properly, sound mathematical expressions must be developed which consider enzyme kinetics, material balances, and eventual mass transfer limitations. With a focus on problem solving, each chapter provides abridged coverage of the subject, followed by a number of solved problems illustrating resolution procedures and the main concepts underlying them, plus supplementary questions and answers. Based on more than 50 years of teaching experience, Problem Solving in Enzyme Biocatalysis is a unique reference for students of chemical and biochemical engineering, as well as biochemists and chemists dealing with bioprocesses. Contains: Enzyme properties and applications; enzyme kinetics; enzyme reactor design and operation 146 worked problems and solutions in enzyme biocatalysis.

Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology

Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology Book
Author : Peter Grunwald
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-10-25
ISBN : 1351767550
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiocatalysis has rapidly developed into a subarea of enzyme biotechnology. It combines the advances in nanotechnology that have generated nanoscale materials of different sizes, shapes, and physicochemical properties, and the excellent characteristics of biocatalysts into an innovative technology. This book provides an overview of the various relations between nanotechnology and biocatalysis. It discusses the fabrication and application of nanomaterials for the immobilization of enzymes used in the sustainable production of goods and chemicals. Nanosupports have several advantages compared with bulk solid materials because of their high surface area, which results in a significantly reduced mass transfer limitation and comparatively high enzyme loading. These characteristics are also of great use for applications in the fields of enzymatic biosensors, biofuel cells, bioelectronics, and photoelectrochemical analyte detection, where conductive nanomaterials improve the rate of electron transfer. The book also presents an overview of nanotoxicology and covers nanostructured enzyme catalysis in organic solvents and its potential application for biodiesel production, probing of enzymatic activity, and identification of enzyme functions of inorganic nanoparticles as enzyme mimics.

Biocatalysis in Non Conventional Media

Biocatalysis in Non Conventional Media Book
Author : M.H. Vermuë,H.H. Beeftink,U. van Stockar,J. Tramper
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-11-27
ISBN : 1483298019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The international symposium "Fundamentals of Biocatalysis in Non-Conventional Media" was organized under auspices of the working party Applied Biocatalysis of the European Federation of Biotechnology. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were physical-chemical aspects such as pH, water-activity, viscosity, dielectric constants, polarity etc. in relation to biocatalysis in non-conventional media. New measuring techniques were introduced. For people working in the field of biocatalysis in non-conventional media this book will give an excellent overview of the gain in understanding over the last five years of the fundamental aspects of biocatalysis in non-conventional media.

Essentials of Chemical Biology

Essentials of Chemical Biology Book
Author : Andrew D. Miller,Julian Tanner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-05-03
ISBN : 1118687833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“This excellent work fills the need for an upper-level graduate course resource that examines the latest biochemical, biophysical, and molecular biological methods for analyzing the structures and physical properties of biomolecules... This reviewer showed [the book] to several of his senior graduate students, and they unanimously gave the book rave reviews. Summing Up: Highly recommended...” CHOICE Chemical biology is a rapidly developing branch of chemistry, which sets out to understand the way biology works at the molecular level. Fundamental to chemical biology is a detailed understanding of the syntheses, structures and behaviours of biological macromolecules and macromolecular lipid assemblies that together represent the primary constituents of all cells and all organisms. The subject area of chemical biology bridges many different disciplines and is fast becoming an integral part of academic and commercial research. This textbook is designed specifically as a key teaching resource for chemical biology that is intended to build on foundations lain down by introductory physical and organic chemistry courses. This book is an invaluable text for advanced undergraduates taking biological, bioorganic, organic and structural chemistry courses. It is also of interest to biochemists and molecular biologists, as well as professionals within the medical and pharmaceutical industry. Key Features: A comprehensive introduction to this dynamic area of chemistry, which will equip chemists for the task of understanding and studying the underlying principles behind the functioning of biological macro molecules, macromolecular lipid assemblies and cells. Covers many basic concepts and ideas associated with the study of the interface between chemistry and biology. Includes pedagogical features such as: key examples, glossary of equations, further reading and links to websites. Clearly written and richly illustrated in full colour.