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Carbon Mineralization In Coastal Wetlands

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Carbon Mineralization in Coastal Wetlands

Carbon Mineralization in Coastal Wetlands Book
Author : Xiaoguang Ouyang,Joe Shing Yip Lee,Derrick YF Lai,Cyril Marchand
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 9780128192207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies on blue carbon has strongly emphasized the storage potential of coastal wetlands. Currently, studies on carbon mineralization are patchy because they usually focus on either leaf litter/root decomposition or greenhouse gas emissions. Few studies systematically review the processes and principles of greenhouse gas production and emissions, and the linkage between litter/root decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon Mineralization in Coastal Wetlands will fill the current knowledge gap in carbon mineralization and provide a balanced view of the carbon dynamics of coastal wetlands. Potential readers will get a holistic treatment of carbon mineralization, from litter/root decomposition pathways and their contribution to carbon mineralization, and the processes and sources of greenhouse gas production. The book will compare carbon mineralization in mangroves and saltmarshes and highlight the differences in carbon dynamics. Provide comprehensive perspectives on the processes and mechanisms of carbon mineralization in coastal wetlands Identify factors regulating organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emission Clarify the linkage between litter decomposition and greenhouse gas emission Unravel how greenhouse gas emissions are modified by anthropogenic activities, including eutrophication and deforestation

Biochar as Soil Amendment

Biochar as Soil Amendment Book
Author : José María De la Rosa
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-03-10
ISBN : 3039282743
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change Book
Author : Rahul Datta,Ram Swaroop Meena
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 9813367652
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon stabilization involves to capturing carbon from the atmosphere and fix it in the forms soil organic carbon stock for a long period of time, it will be present to escape as a greenhouse gas in the form of carbon dioxide. Soil carbon storage is an important ecosystem service, resulting from interactions of several ecological processes. This process is primarily mediated by plants through photosynthesis, with carbon stored in the form of soil organic carbon. Soil carbon levels have reduced over decades of conversion of pristine ecosystems into agriculture landscape, which now offers the opportunity to store carbon from air into the soil. Carbon stabilization into the agricultural soils is a novel approach of research and offers promising reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This book brings together all aspects of soil carbon sequestration and stabilization, with a special focus on diversity of microorganisms and management practices of soil in agricultural systems. It discusses the role of ecosystem functioning, recent and future prospects, soil microbial ecological studies, rhizosphere microflora, and organic matter in soil carbon stabilization. It also explores carbon transformation in soil, biological management and its genetics, microbial transformation of soil carbon, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), and their role in sustainable agriculture. The book offers a spectrum of ideas of new technological inventions and fundamentals of soil sustainability. It will be suitable for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, soil microbiology, agronomy, ecology, and environmental sciences .

Wetland Carbon and Environmental Management

Wetland Carbon and Environmental Management Book
Author : Ken W. Krauss,Zhiliang Zhu,Camille L. Stagg
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-10-13
ISBN : 1119639336
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explores how the management of wetlands can influence carbon storage and fluxes Wetlands are vital natural assets, including their ability to take-up atmospheric carbon and restrict subsequent carbon loss to facilitate long-term storage. They can be deliberately managed to provide a natural solution to mitigate climate change, as well as to help offset direct losses of wetlands from various land-use changes and natural drivers. Wetland Carbon and Environmental Management presents a collection of wetland research studies from around the world to demonstrate how environmental management can improve carbon sequestration while enhancing wetland health and function. Volume highlights include: Overview of carbon storage in the landscape Introduction to wetland management practices Comparisons of natural, managed, and converted wetlands Impact of wetland management on carbon storage or loss Techniques for scientific assessment of wetland carbon processes Case studies covering tropical, coastal, inland, and northern wetlands Primer for carbon offset trading programs and how wetlands might contribute The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems Book
Author : Krishna Kumar Choudhary,Ajay Kumar,Amit Kishore Singh
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-05-04
ISBN : 0128175222
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems explains the causative factors of climate change related to agriculture, soil and plants, and discusses the relevant resulting mitigation process. Agricultural ecosystems include factors from the surrounding areas where agriculture experiences direct or indirect interaction with the plants, animals, and microbes present. Changes in climatic conditions influence all the factors of agricultural ecosystems, which can potentially adversely affect their productivity. This book summarizes the different aspects of vulnerability, adaptation, and amelioration of climate change in respect to plants, crops, soil, and microbes for the sustainability of the agricultural sector and, ultimately, food security for the future. It also focuses on the utilization of information technology for the sustainability of the agricultural sector along with the capacity and adaptability of agricultural societies under climate change. Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems incorporates both theoretical and practical aspects, and serves as base line information for future research. This book is a valuable resource for those working in environmental sciences, soil sciences, agricultural microbiology, plant pathology, and agronomy. Covers the role of chemicals fertilizers, environmental deposition, and xenobiotics in climate change Discusses the impact of climate change on plants, soil, microflora, and agricultural ecosystems Explores the mitigation of climate change by sustainable methods Presents the role of computational modelling in climate change mitigation

Advances in Energy Environment and Materials Science

Advances in Energy  Environment and Materials Science Book
Author : Yeping Wang,Jianhua Zhao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-11-22
ISBN : 1315640562
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The International Conference on Energy, Environment and Materials Science (EEMS2015) was held in Guangzhou, China, from August 25 - 26, 2015. EEMS2015 provided a platform for academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results within the fields of energy science, energy technology, environmental science, environmental engineering, motivation, automation and electrical engineering, material science and engineering, the discovery or development of energy, and environment and materials science.

Soil Science Fundamentals to Recent Advances

Soil Science  Fundamentals to Recent Advances Book
Author : Amitava Rakshit,S.K Singh,P.C. Abhilash,Asim Biswas
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-30
ISBN : 9811609179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This compilation has been designed to provide a comprehensive source of theoretical and practical update for scientists working in the broad field of soil science. The book explores all possible mechanisms and means to improve nutrient use efficiencies involving developing and testing of nanofertilizers, developing consortia based microbial formulations for mobilization of soil nutrients, and engineering of nutrient efficient crops using molecular biology and biotechnological tools. This is an all-inclusive collection of information about soil science. This book is of interest to teachers, researchers, soil scientists, capacity builders and policymakers. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, quantitative ecology, earth sciences, GIS and geodetic sciences, as well as geologists, geomorphologists, hydrologists and landscape ecology. National and international agriculture and soil scientists, policy makers will also find this to be a useful read.

Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety

Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety Book
Author : Ahmed Abdelhafez,Mohamed Abbas
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-07-22
ISBN : 178985895X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced from the pyrolysis of organic materials from agricultural and forestry biomass at a relatively low temperature in the absence of oxygen. As such, it has potential for solving many agricultural and environmental problems.This book is divided into five sections: “Introduction,” “Production and Legislation of Biochar,” “Applications of Biochar for Soil Fertility Improvement,” “Role of Biochar for Soil Remediation and Ameliorating Salinity Effects” and “Applications of Biochar for Water Treatment.” Chapters address topics such as the pros and cons of biochar, its production, and its role in remediating and treating contaminated soils and water.

A Blue Carbon Primer

A Blue Carbon Primer Book
Author : Lisamarie Windham-Myers,Stephen Crooks,Tiffany G. Troxler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-11-16
ISBN : 0429787774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Key features: Captures the historic context and recent developments in science and policy arenas that address the potential for coastal wetlands to be considered as significant contributors to carbon sequestration Links multiple levels of science (biogeochemistry, geomorphology, paleoclimate, etc.) with blue carbon concepts (science, policy, mapping, operationalization, economics) in a single compendium Concludes with a discussion of future directions which covers integrated scientific approaches, impending threats and specific gaps in current knowledge Includes 7 case studies from across the globe that demonstrate the benefits and challenges of blue carbon accounting Written by over 100 leading global blue carbon experts in science and policy. Blue Carbon has emerged as a term that represents the distinctive carbon stocks and fluxes into or out of coastal wetlands such as marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses. The Blue Carbon concept has rapidly developed in science literature and is highly relevant politically, as nations and markets are developing blue carbon monitoring and management tools and policies. This book is a comprehensive and current compendium of the state of the science, the state of maps and mapping protocols, and the state of policy incentives (including economic valuation of blue carbon), with additional sections on operationalizing blue carbon projects and 7 case studies with global relevance.

Eutrophication Causes Consequences and Control

Eutrophication  Causes  Consequences and Control Book
Author : Abid A. Ansari,Sarvajeet Singh Gill
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-19
ISBN : 9400778147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Eutrophication continues to be a major global challenge and the problem of eutrophication and availability of freshwater for human consumption is an essential ecological issue. The global demand for water resources due to increasing population, economic developments, and emerging energy development schemes has created new environmental challenges for global sustainability. Accordingly, the area of research on eutrophication has expanded considerably in recent years. Eutrophication, acidification and contamination by toxic substances are likely to pose increasing threats to freshwater resources and ecosystems. The consequences of anthropogenic-induced eutrophication of freshwaters are severe deterioration of surface waters and growing public concern, as well as new interest among the scientific community. “Eutrophication: causes, consequences & control” provides the latest information on many important aspects of the processes of natural and accelerated eutrophication in major aquatic ecosystems around the world. This book offers a cutting-edge resource for researchers and students alike who are studying eutrophication in various ecosystems. It presents the latest trends and developments in the field, including: global scenarios and local threats to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems, economics of eutrophication, eutrophication in the great lakes of the Chinese pacific drainage basin, photoautotrophic productivity in eutrophic ecosystems, eutrophication’s impacts on natural metal remediation in salt marshes, phytoplankton assemblages as an indicator of water quality in seven temperate estuarine lakes in southeast Australia, biogeochemical indicators of nutrient enrichments in wetlands – the microbial response as a sensitive indicator of wetland eutrophication, and ultraviolet radiation and bromide as limiting factors in eutrophication processes in semi-arid climate zones. Written by respected experts and featuring helpful illustrations and photographs, “Eutrophication: causes, consequences & control” provides a concise and practical update on the latest developments in eutrophication.

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-03-08
ISBN : 0309484553
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, "negative emissions technologies" (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide emissions directly from large point sources such as coal power plants, NETs remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Storing the carbon dioxide from NETs has the same impact on the atmosphere and climate as simultaneously preventing an equal amount of carbon dioxide from being emitted. Recent analyses found that deploying NETs may be less expensive and less disruptive than reducing some emissions, such as a substantial portion of agricultural and land-use emissions and some transportation emissions. In 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed NETs and sequestration technologies. This report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on NETs and recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of NETs from fundamental science to full-scale deployment. To address this need, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assesses the benefits, risks, and "sustainable scale potential" for NETs and sequestration. This report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.

Blue Carbon

Blue Carbon Book
Author : Daniel M. Alongi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-18
ISBN : 331991698X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work summarizes the science and management of a rapidly expanding topic in climate science, namely adaptation and mitigation. The term 'blue carbon' refers to the rates, pathways and volumes of greenhouse carbon sequestered in coastal estuarine and marine ecosystems such as salt marshes, mangroves and seagrass meadows. Blue carbon and its vital role in climate change mitigation are central to this book. Readers find summaries and analysis of both the basic scientific data and data from blue carbon field projects, and a practical guide on how to manage a successful blue carbon field project. There is a discussion on how to maximize the carbon sequestration and consideration of whether blue carbon projects make a difference. The work is not only of interest to scholars involved in climate science, but also those in the marine sciences, and those in ecosystem ecology, biogeochemistry; geochemistry; estuarine and marine plant ecology.

Environment Climate Plant and Vegetation Growth

Environment  Climate  Plant and Vegetation Growth Book
Author : Fahad Shah,Mirza Hasanuzzaman,Mukhtar Alam,Hidayat Ullah,Muhammad Saeed,Imtiaz Ali Khan,Muhammad Adnan,Muḥammad ʻAdnān Kātibī
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020
ISBN : 3030497321
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an up-to-date account of the current understanding of climate change and global warming related to environment, climate, plant and vegetation growth. The aim of this book is to provide a platform for scientists and academics world-wide to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in the area of plant and vegetation growth related to climate change. Over the next decades, it is predicted that billions of people, particularly those in developing countries, face shortages of water and food and greater risks to health and life as a result of climate change. Concerted global action is needed to enable developing countries to adapt to the effects of climate change that are happening now and will worsen in the future. The book will also enhance the understanding on issues related to climate change, giving a clear indication of a looming global warming crisis. Addressing global climate change is a monumental battle that can only be fought by the leaders of tomorrow, but future leaders are molded through education and shaped by the leaders of today.

SALINIZATION IMPACTS ON HISTORICALLY FRESHWATER BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES

SALINIZATION IMPACTS ON HISTORICALLY FRESHWATER BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES  Book
Author : Alexandra Lynn Stucy
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microorganisms regulate the movement of energy and nutrients through ecosystems. When environmental changes influence the composition of microbial communities, associated biogeochemical cycles can change in potentially unpredictable ways. Salinization is a widespread environmental concern for both inland and coastal wetlands. Sea level rise is a long-term problem, with salinization occurring gradually. Storm surge, drought, and geomorphology alterations can also cause salinization events. This saltwater intrusion is known to reduce freshwater wetland ecosystem functions such as decreased inorganic nitrogen removal and carbon storage. Though both fresh and salt water microbial communities have been studied, it is unclear how historically freshwater wetland microbial communities will respond to increased salinization and to the influx of saltwater microbial communities. Salinization is a strong environmental filter and with increased salinity, microbial communities will shift due to the inability of freshwater species to quickly adapt to saline conditions and compete with saltwater microbes. I hypothesized that bacterial communities will decrease in taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as salinity is increased, and microbial communities will differ in composition according to salinity and colonization of saline communities. Salinity-induced shifts in microbial community composition will directly influence rates of decomposition and CO2 respiration. I used a combination of an experimental mesocosm and bioinformatics approaches to examine how salinity and dispersal of aquatic communities impact bacterioplankton community structure and function. Findings indicate that salinity, but not dispersal, reduced bacterial taxonomic (i.e., based on species identify and abundance) and phylogenetic (based on relatedness of species) diversity and community composition changed along the experimental salinity gradient. The compositional shifts were accompanied by changes in carbon mineralization rates. A unique group of bacterial taxa, many of which were unable to be classified, represented each salinity environment. Together, changes in bacterial community composition were associated with changes in carbon cycling functions. Possible impacts to carbon cycling and storage, and biogeochemical cycles in general, include reduced storage potential and slowed cycling rates. By considering microbial community responses, it may be possible to manage freshwater wetland communities to promote carbon storage for climate change mitigation.

Labile Organic Matter

Labile Organic Matter Book
Author : Zhongqi He
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-01-22
ISBN : 0891189629
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Because of its dynamic nature, labile organic matter is a key player in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Editors Zhongqi He and Fengchang Wu include contributions from more than 30 senior researchers and innovative junior investigators from six countries. With issue-oriented comprehensive reviews and problem-solving case studies, this collection brings together soil and aquatic scientists to provide a comprehensive understanding for managing the sources and fates of labile organic matter. A timely synthesis of recent research, this collection illustrates the remarkable range of advanced techniques and approaches for labile organic matter research. This book will serve as a valuable reference for university faculty, graduate students, soil scientists, ecologists, limnologists, marine scientists, environmental scientists, agricultural engineers, and any who work with various aspects of labile organic matter in the environment."

Plant Responses to Soil Pollution

Plant Responses to Soil Pollution Book
Author : Pratibha Singh,Sunita Kumari Singh,Sheo Mohan Prasad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9811549648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil is a vital support system for all life forms, and is directly or indirectly exposed to various pollutants and harmful chemicals. Any pollutant entering the soil system not only affects the quality of the soil, but also the plants and crops growing in it. Further, soil pollution has far-reaching impacts, since harmful chemicals can become biomagnified and enter the food chain, causing severe health concerns. Degraded soils can adversely affect various plant systems by creating biotic and abiotic stress, which increases the chances of biochemical and physiological disorders. Chronic diseases and lower yield have been reported as consequences of soil pollution. Drawing on decades of soil-related research, this book focuses on soil pollution, types of soil pollutants, and their impacts on plant physiological and biochemical systems, along with crop productivity. The book begins with a brief introduction to soil pollution and continues with a discussion of the different types and their effects, together with remediation methods. It highlights various sources of soil pollution such as herbicides, acidification, chemical fertilizers, sewage sludge, heavy metals, and radioactive pollutants. It also covers plant responses to combinations of pollutants, effects of pollutants on plant ultrastructure, interactions between pollutants and plant diseases, and interactions between pollutants and agricultural practices. In closing, it addresses the challenges involved in the restoration of degraded land, side effects of agricultural practices in the form of greenhouse gases, and strategies for mitigating these effects. Plant Responses to Soil Pollution offers an essential guide for students, environmental consultants, researchers and other professionals involved in soil and plant-related research.

Dynamic Sedimentary Environments of Mangrove Coasts

Dynamic Sedimentary Environments of Mangrove Coasts Book
Author : Friess Daniel,Frida Sidik
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-12-05
ISBN : 0128175109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dynamic Sedimentary Environments of Mangrove Coasts provides knowledge on the importance of sedimentary dynamics in managing mangrove forests. In the first part of the book, the editors seamlessly offer a general introduction of mangrove sedimentary dynamics. This leads into more in-depth information on soil surface elevation change, sea level rise, and the importance of sedimentary dynamics in the loss or gain of blue carbon. The book concludes the discussion of mangrove sedimentary dynamics by addressing the issues of climate change (e.g. sea level rise and blue carbon) on mangrove restoration and sediment. This book will assist coastal managers and academics in addressing the gaps in mangrove restoration and coastal management. As such, it will be a valuable reference for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, academics in the field of coastal restoration, and coastal management practitioners. Provides a state-of-the-art summary of research into sedimentary dynamics in mangrove forests Includes updates on issues of climate change-relevant to mangroves, such as blue carbon and sea level rise Presents scientific background and successful case studies for mangrove restoration that can solve problems relating to mangrove management

Wetland Ecosystems

Wetland Ecosystems Book
Author : William J. Mitsch
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-04-13
ISBN : 047028630X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Responding to the growing importance of, and interest in, wetland ecosystems, here is a complete introduction to wetland ecosystem types and modeling. Drawn from Bill Mitsch's encyclopedic Wetlands, this text provides a basic introduction to ecosystems, wetland ecosystems, and systems ecology and modeling. Revising original chapters and adding new content to include the latest research finding and regulatory requirements, the book presents in-depth coverage of the seven dominant wetland ecosystem types found worldwide. With foundational information on every aspect of wetland ecosystems, this is an ideal supplemental text for advanced courses as well as introductory ecology courses.

The Science of Wetland Definition and Delineation

The Science of Wetland Definition and Delineation Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Environment
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Science of Wetland Definition and Delineation book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Environment, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Functional Comparison of Created and Natural Wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta Louisiana

Functional Comparison of Created and Natural Wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta  Louisiana Book
Author : Stephen P. Faulkner,Matthew E. Poach
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability of created wetlands to function as natural systems has been questioned because most wetlands studied have been new created wetlands instead of old natural wetlands. Quantitative data were needed to verify functional equivalency in wetlands of similar ages. One natural and one created wetland was selected for each of three age classes. An additional natural 'old' wetland was added to ensure a valid comparison. Soils were evaluated for bulk density, pH, moisture content, particle size, carbon, phosphorus content, and nitrogen content.