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Carbon Capture And Storage In International Energy Policy And Law

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Carbon Capture and Storage in International Energy Policy and Law

Carbon Capture and Storage in International Energy Policy and Law Book
Author : Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros Costa,Carolina Arlota
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-10-13
ISBN : 0323853706
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon Capture and Storage in International Energy Policy and Law identifies the main contemporary regulatory requirements, challenges and opportunities involving CCS from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. It draws on the scholarship of renowned researchers across the fields of international energy law and policy to address CCS regulation and its impact on climate change, sustainable development, and related consequences for energy transition. In this vein, the book aims to address issues related to energy, energy justice and climate changes (including CCS technology). Contributors discuss the main challenges and advantages concerning international energy and the forms CCS may contribute to energy security, climate change, adaptation and mitigation of GHG emissions and sustainable development. In this light, the book discusses CCS as a bridge that integrates international energy, climate change and sustainable development. Covers contemporary regulatory command-and-control and market incentive instruments across the local, regional and/or international spheres in-depth and in comparison Reviews deregulatory impacts, modern financing of CCS, liability of the involved parties, and pertinent environmental issues Addresses sociotechnical aspects of CCS and its specific impact on the international arena Discusses the interplay of carbon capture and storage, renewables and the overall energy transition, current pathways to sustainable development

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Capture and Storage Book
Author : Michael Gebert Faure,Roy A. Partain
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2017-04-14
ISBN : 0262035596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A theoretical and practical analysis of the complex liability issues raised by carbon capture and storage systems for containing greenhouse gases. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems inject highly compressed carbon dioxide gas deep into geological formations in order to contain the gas, and its harmful effects on the planet, for the foreseeable future and beyond—for centuries or even millennia. Used effectively, CCS could lessen the impact of climate change while carbon-free energy sources are developed. And yet CCS is not widely deployed. In this book, Michael Faure and Roy Partain offer a theoretical and practical discussion of one of the main obstacles to CCS adoption: complex liability and compensation issues. Faure and Partain point out that current liability rules are unclear in their application to CCS. Causation is complicated, and the timeline of hundreds of years goes beyond the lifetimes of people or corporations. Examining the subject from legal and economic perspectives, they consider whether rules of civil liability can govern CCS risk; how a liability system might address the open-ended timeline; what role public and private regulatory measures could play; and whether compensation should be provided from public or private resources. They investigate the utility of different forms of insurance and of such financial tools as guarantees, deposits, and catastrophe bonds. They offer not only a rigorous framework for assessing policy but also a summary of policy recommendations they develop from their findings.

Decarbonisation and the Energy Industry

Decarbonisation and the Energy Industry Book
Author : Tade Oyewunmi,Penelope Crossley,Frédéric Gilles Sourgens,Kim Talus
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2020-11-26
ISBN : 1509932917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This timely collection of essays examines the legal and regulatory dynamics of energy transitions in the context of emerging trends towards decarbonisation and low-carbon energy solutions. The book explores this topic by considering the applicable energy law and policy frameworks in both: (i) highly industrialised and major economies such as the US, EU, China and Australia; (ii) resource-rich developing countries such as Nigeria and regions like Southern Africa. Comprising 16 chapters, the book delves into the tradeoffs and regulatory complexities of carbon-constraints in conventional energy supply systems, while maintaining a reliable and secure energy system that is equally sustainable (ie decarbonised). It highlights the importance of ensuring affordable access to energy services in developing economies as the energy transitions unfold and explores the potentials of emerging technologies such as hydrogen networks, power-to-gas and Carbon Capture and Storage. Additionally, the book also considers the international investment law implications of energy decarbonisation. Focusing on the nexus between law, regulation and institutions, it adopts a contextual approach to examine how and to what extent institutions can effectively facilitate more reliable, sustainable and secure energy supply systems in the twenty-first century. This book portrays the conventional hydrocarbon-based energy supply industry in a largely international and interconnected context. It highlights the costs, benefits and losses that may arise as the transition towards decarbonisation unfolds depending on the pathways and solutions adopted. With chapters written by leading experts in energy law and policy, the reader-friendly style and engaging discussions will benefit an international audience of policymakers, academics, students and advisers looking for a more incisive understanding of the issues involved in energy transitions and the decarbonisation of energy systems.

Climate change and the adoption of renewable energy sources The case of Italy

Climate change and the adoption of renewable energy sources  The case of Italy Book
Author : Roberto Cui
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2014-10-22
ISBN : 3656820937
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Essay from the year 2014 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Environmental Policy, grade: 2A, University of Stirling (School of Arts and Humanities - Division of Law and Philosophy), course: LLM International Energy Law and Policy, language: English, abstract: As almost unanimously acknowledged, human activities, such as industrial production, agriculture, household heating and cooling, transportation, and – last but not least – energy generation, are the main cause of climate change. The United Nations – just to cite an eminent international institution which is dealing with the issue, recently recognised that: “Global warming is unequivocal, human influence has been the dominant cause since the mid-20th century, and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases [...] will persist for many centuries.” The Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report, states that “human activities are continuing to affect the Earth’s energy budget by changing the emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols and by changing land surface properties.” All the human activities mentioned above produce a negative externality: they release Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions to the atmosphere. At the international level, thirty-nine countries signed the Kyoto Protocol on 11 December 1997, which entered to force on 16 February 2005 and sets internationally binding emission reduction targets. In December 2012, the parties adopted an amendment to the Protocol, and seven other nations joined the previous signatories. The obligatoriness of the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol has not been completely fulfilled by the countries which agreed to them. The principal reason, as highlighted by the Harvard Magazine in 2002, is that the way the Protocol was drafted is “economically inefficient, unobjective, inequitable, and – worst of all – ineffective. [...] The original agreement outlined in Kyoto committed individual countries to reduce their CO2 emissions to below-1990 levels. But the choice of 1990 immediately introduced inequities into the ensuing political process to determine who should cut how much.” Nowadays, the Protocol is joined by 192 parties. The European Union has been implementing climate change tackling policies since 1991, when the first “Community Strategy to limit Carbon Dioxide emissions and improve energy efficiency” was issued. The first European Climate Change Programme, issued in order to enhance the possibilities to fulfil the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol was launched in 2000 and it lasted until 2004. The aim of this work is to analyse the fundamental actions implemented by Italy as regards Climate Change policy. As a

Carbon Capture and Storage in Developing Countries

Carbon Capture and Storage in Developing Countries Book
Author : Natalya Kulichenko,Eleanor Ereira
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2012-06-26
ISBN : 0821396102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology could provide a technological bridge for achieving near to midterm GHG emission reduction goals. Integrated CCS technology is still under development and has noteworthy challenges, which would be possible to overcome through the implementation of large-scale demonstration projects. In order to assist developing countries to better understand issues related to potential technology deployment, there is a need to start analyzing various numerous challenges facing CCS within the economic and legal context of developing countries and countries in transition. This report is the first effort of the World Bank Group to contribute to a deeper understanding of (a) the integration of power generation with CCS technologies, as well as their costs; (b) regulatory barriers to the deployment of CCS; and (c) global financing requirements for CCS and applicable project finance structures involving instruments of multilateral development institutions. This report does not provide prescriptive solutions to overcome these barriers, since action must be taken on a country-by-country basis, taking account of different circumstances and national policies. Individual governments should decide their priorities on climate change mitigation and adopt appropriate measures accordingly. The analyses presented in this report may take on added relevance, depending on the future direction of international climate negotiations and domestic legal and policy measures in both developed and developing countries, and how they serve to encourage carbon sequestration. We expect that this report will provide insights for policy makers, stakeholders, private financiers, and donors in meeting the challenges of the deployment of climate change mitigation technologies and CCS in particular.

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Capture and Storage Book
Author : Michael Gebert Faure,Roy Partain
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017-04-07
ISBN : 9780262337311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A theoretical and practical analysis of the complex liability issues raised by carbon capture and storage systems for containing greenhouse gases. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems inject highly compressed carbon dioxide gas deep into geological formations in order to contain the gas, and its harmful effects on the planet, for the foreseeable future and beyond--for centuries or even millennia. Used effectively, CCS could lessen the impact of climate change while carbon-free energy sources are developed. And yet CCS is not widely deployed. In this book, Michael Faure and Roy Partain offer a theoretical and practical discussion of one of the main obstacles to CCS adoption: complex liability and compensation issues. Faure and Partain point out that current liability rules are unclear in their application to CCS. Causation is complicated, and the timeline of hundreds of years goes beyond the lifetimes of people or corporations. Examining the subject from legal and economic perspectives, they consider whether rules of civil liability can govern CCS risk; how a liability system might address the open-ended timeline; what role public and private regulatory measures could play; and whether compensation should be provided from public or private resources. They investigate the utility of different forms of insurance and of such financial tools as guarantees, deposits, and catastrophe bonds. They offer not only a rigorous framework for assessing policy but also a summary of policy recommendations they develop from their findings. es, they consider whether rules of civil liability can govern CCS risk; how a liability system might address the open-ended timeline; what role public and private regulatory measures could play; and whether compensation should be provided from public or private resources. They investigate the utility of different forms of insurance and of such financial tools as guarantees, deposits, and catastrophe bonds. They offer not only a rigorous framework for assessing policy but also a summary of policy recommendations they develop from their findings.

Entrepreneurship for Social Change

Entrepreneurship for Social Change Book
Author : Bruno S. Sergi,Cole C. Scanlon,Luke R. I. Heine
Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
Release : 2021-08-02
ISBN : 1800712103
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Social entrepreneurship is revolutionizing the way societal challenges are being approached and solved. Instead of waiting for government or big business to take action, individuals across the world are developing and implementing innovative, effective, and sustainable solutions to some of our most pressing social and environmental challenges.

EU Environmental Law and Policy

EU Environmental Law and Policy Book
Author : David Langlet,Said Mahmoudi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-09-02
ISBN : 0191068675
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An accessible and comprehensive resource, EU Environmental Law and Policy explains the structure and logic of EU environmental law and enables readers to quickly gain a thorough understanding of the different areas of EU secondary law pertaining to the protection of the environment. This volume explores the institutional, constitutional, and historical premises for the adoption and application of substantive EU environmental law and further expounds upon the dynamics between EU Member States and the EU. The book additionally provides an introduction to the specific subject areas of EU environmental law through thematic chapters that analyse important topics such as climate and energy, water, and biological diversity. Each area is explained in detail, including a discussion of the specific features that characterize each area and an overview of the main legal acts and case law relevant to the particular area.

A Critical Review of Scottish Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Policy

A Critical Review of Scottish Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Policy Book
Author : Geoffrey Wood,Keith Baker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-14
ISBN : 3319568981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers comprehensive coverage of current energy policy in Scotland focussing on non-fossil fuel energy options: renewables, nuclear power and energy efficiency. Covering issues of policy and practice, planning, legislation and regulation of a range of sustainable energy technologies in the context of devolved government, key experts explore these issues in terms of the ongoing Scottish independence debate, Brexit and further devolution in this vitally important and timely book. The book emphasises two further distinctive areas: constitutional change and the role of sub-national authorities in renewable and low carbon energy policy and practice. The clear focus on renewable and low carbon energy policy and practice and sub-national authority level of governance of energy means that it will be of particular relevance as a case study for those countries either in the process of deploying renewable and/or low carbon energy technologies or looking to do so. The authors discuss the many lessons to be learnt from the Scottish and UK experience. By providing a critical analysis of Scottish renewable and low carbon energy policy and practice, this book is invaluable to students, practitioners and decision-makers interested in renewable and low carbon energy transitions, energy planning and policy.

Meeting UK Energy and Climate Needs

Meeting UK Energy and Climate Needs Book
Author : Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Science and Technology Committee
Publisher : The Stationery Office
Release : 2006-02-09
ISBN : 9780215027351
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions around the world continue to grow. The UK is struggling to meet its targets of reducing CO2 emissions by 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010, and 60 per cent by 2050, while growing demand in countries such as India and China is expected to fuel a dramatic increase in global emissions in the future. Concern over security of energy supply is also a major feature of the current debate about energy policy. This reports finds significant scope for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to contribute to both reducing emissions and enhancing future security of energy supply. Costs of CCS are comparable to other low carbon approaches, with potential to reduce those costs substantially with technological development and economies of scale. Enhanced oil recovery, extending the life of the North Sea oil fields, could also offset the cost of CCS. Geological storage is relatively safe and secure, though the Government should clarify whether storage under the seabed is permissible under international law. Whilst UK industry is poised to make substantial investments in CCS and full scale demonstration projects, the Government needs to display much greater urgency and commitment, by increasing investment in research, development and demonstration, and by setting up a long-term incentive framework.

Mining and Energy Law

Mining and Energy Law Book
Author : Samantha Hepburn
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-08-17
ISBN : 1316334848
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mining and Energy Law is the only textbook available that encompasses a discussion of both the law and the policy of mining and resource regulation in existing and emergent areas, for the Commonwealth as well as for the states and territories in Australia. The book begins by examining the ownership framework underpinning natural resources within Australia and reviews the proprietary status and scope of mining tenements, and the regulation of offshore petroleum extraction. It goes on to explore the legal regimes that have emerged in response to more recent developments, such as coal seam gas, renewable energy and geo-sequestration. The book concludes with a discussion of the commercial and contractual arrangements commonly used by transacting parties operating in the sector. Mining and Energy Law is the ideal starting point for anyone seeking to understand the regulatory regimes and policy challenges relevant to one of Australia's most important industry sectors.

The Oxford Handbook of Law Regulation and Technology

The Oxford Handbook of Law  Regulation and Technology Book
Author : Roger Brownsword,Eloise Scotford,Karen Yeung
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-07-25
ISBN : 0191502227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The variety, pace, and power of technological innovations that have emerged in the 21st Century have been breathtaking. These technological developments, which include advances in networked information and communications, biotechnology, neurotechnology, nanotechnology, robotics, and environmental engineering technology, have raised a number of vital and complex questions. Although these technologies have the potential to generate positive transformation and help address 'grand societal challenges', the novelty associated with technological innovation has also been accompanied by anxieties about their risks and destabilizing effects. Is there a potential harm to human health or the environment? What are the ethical implications? Do this innovations erode of antagonize values such as human dignity, privacy, democracy, or other norms underpinning existing bodies of law and regulation? These technological developments have therefore spawned a nascent but growing body of 'law and technology' scholarship, broadly concerned with exploring the legal, social and ethical dimensions of technological innovation. This handbook collates the many and varied strands of this scholarship, focusing broadly across a range of new and emerging technology and a vast array of social and policy sectors, through which leading scholars in the field interrogate the interfaces between law, emerging technology, and regulation. Structured in five parts, the handbook (I) establishes the collection of essays within existing scholarship concerned with law and technology as well as regulatory governance; (II) explores the relationship between technology development by focusing on core concepts and values which technological developments implicate; (III) studies the challenges for law in responding to the emergence of new technologies, examining how legal norms, doctrine and institutions have been shaped, challenged and destabilized by technology, and even how technologies have been shaped by legal regimes; (IV) provides a critical exploration of the implications of technological innovation, examining the ways in which technological innovation has generated challenges for regulators in the governance of technological development, and the implications of employing new technologies as an instrument of regulatory governance; (V) explores various interfaces between law, regulatory governance, and new technologies across a range of key social domains.

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Capture and Storage Book
Author : Ian Havercroft,Richard Macrory,Richard Stewart
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2018-02-08
ISBN : 1509909605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly viewed as one of the most significant ways of dealing with greenhouse gas emissions. Critical to realising its potential will be the design of effective legal regimes at national and international level that can handle the challenges raised but without stifling a new technology of potential great public benefit. These include: long-term liability for storage; regulation of transport; the treatment of stored carbon under emissions trading regimes; issues of property ownership; and, increasingly, the sensitivities of handling the public engagement and perception. Following its publication in 2011, Carbon Capture and Storage quickly became required reading for all those interested in, or engaged by, the need to implement regulatory approaches to CCS. The intervening years have seen significant developments globally. Earlier legislative models are now in force, providing important lessons for future legal design. Despite these developments, the growth of the technology has been slower in some jurisdictions than others. This timely new edition will update and critically assess these updates and provide context for the development of CCS in 2018 and beyond.

The Social Dynamics of Carbon Capture and Storage

The Social Dynamics of Carbon Capture and Storage Book
Author : Nils Markusson,Simon Shackley,Benjamin Evar
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012-05-04
ISBN : 1136311246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged rapidly as a crucial technological option for decarbonising electricity supply and mitigating climate change. Great hopes are being pinned on this new technology but it is also facing growing scepticism and criticism. This book is the first to bring together the full range of social and policy issues surrounding CCS shedding new light on this potentially vital technology and its future. The book covers many crucial topics including the roles and positions that different publics, NGOs, industry, political parties and media are taking up; the way CCS is organised, supported and regulated; how CCS is being debated and judged; how innovation, demonstration and learning are occurring and being conceptualised and promoted; and the role of CCS in the transition to a low carbon energy future. The authors draw on a variety of approaches, concepts, methods and themes and provide a new understanding of innovation in the energy and climate change fields. It tackles the many issues in a way that speaks to those concerned not only to understand these developments, but to those who are involved in the scientific and technological work itself, as well as those charged with evaluating and making decisions relevant to the future of the technology.

Is there a future for Carbon Capture and Storage in Poland

Is there a future for Carbon Capture and Storage in Poland  Book
Author : Michal Drabik
Publisher : Graduate Institute Publications
Release : 2014-12-11
ISBN : 2940503656
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The climate is changing, the average temperature on Earth is rising, the EU is concerned and Poland is developing. Despite the fact that the country is trying to make up economically for lost time under Communism, it still has to comply with a demanding EU climate policy. The task is not easy, particularly keeping in mind how heavily coal-dependent the Polish economy is. Consequently, Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) appears to be a perfect solution. However, the closer the technology is examined, the more its charm fades away. This paper analyzes CCS technology in terms of the likelihood of its application in Poland. After placing CCS in the European context, examining attitudes held by Polish stakeholders, reviewing the Polish public debate, and scrutinizing Polish society’s beliefs about the technology, the paper concludes that chances for CCS implementation in Poland are virtually nonexistent. Read the interview of the author.

The Palgrave Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy

The Palgrave Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy Book
Author : Thijs Van de Graaf,Benjamin K. Sovacool,Arunabha Ghosh,Florian Kern,Michael T. Klare
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-05
ISBN : 1137556315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Handbook is the first volume to analyse the International Political Economy, the who-gets-what-when-and-how, of global energy. Divided into five sections, it features 28 contributions that deal with energy institutions, trade, transitions, conflict and justice. The chapters span a wide range of energy technologies and markets - including oil and gas, biofuels, carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and electricity - and it cuts across the domestic-international divide. Long-standing issues in the IPE of energy such as the role of OPEC and the ‘resource curse’ are combined with emerging issues such as fossil fuel subsidies and carbon markets. IPE perspectives are interwoven with insights from studies on governance, transitions, security, and political ecology. The Handbook serves as a potent reminder that energy systems are as inherently political and economic as they are technical or technological, and demonstrates that the field of IPE has much to offer to studies of the changing world of energy.

Modern Studies in Property Law

Modern Studies in Property Law   Book
Author : Warren Barr
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2015-08-27
ISBN : 1509901841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains a collection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Tenth Biennial Modern Studies in Property Law Conference held at the University of Liverpool in April 2014. It is the eighth volume to be published under the name of the Conference. The Conference and its published proceedings have become an established forum for property lawyers from around the world to showcase current research in the discipline. This collection reflects the diversity and contemporary relevance of modern research in property law. Incorporating a keynote address by Sir John Mummery, retired Lord Justice of Appeal, on 'Property in the Information Age', a number of chapters consider the contribution of property law to issues central to the human condition; the home, health and death. Other papers illustrate an enduring need to question and explore fundamental concepts of the subject as well as to consider the challenges of reforming the law. Collectively the chapters demonstrate the vibrancy and importance of property law in dealing with modern concerns across the common law world.

Sustainability and Law

Sustainability and Law Book
Author : Volker Mauerhofer,Daniela Rupo,Lara Tarquinio
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-07
ISBN : 3030426300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book discusses sustainability and law in a multifaceted way. Together, sustainability and law are an emerging challenge for research and science. This volume contributes through an interdisciplinary concept to its further exploration. The contributions explore this exciting domain with innovative ideas and replicable approaches. It combines a variety of authors, from both the public and the private sectors, and thereby guarantees a broad view that enshrines the more theoretical arguments from the academic side as well as stronger practical applicable perspectives. The book provides space for thoughtful expansions of established theories as well as the hopeful emergence of innovative ideas. Moreover, the combination of three to five contributions into the eleven parts respectively aims toward a compression of like minded thoughts. This should lead to an intensification of exchange of viewpoints from different angles on a similar theme. Readers therefore also have the opportunity to concentrate on single chapters, but receive comprised knowledge and a variety of thoughts for new ideas on a particular theme.

Research Handbook on International Energy Law

Research Handbook on International Energy Law Book
Author : Kim Talus
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2014-04-25
ISBN : 1781002207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

International energy law is an elusive but important concept. There is no body of law called Šinternational energy law�, nor is there any universally accepted definition for it, yet many specialised areas of international law have a direct relationship

The Law of Energy Underground

The Law of Energy Underground Book
Author : Donald N. Zillman,Aileen McHarg,Adrian Bradbrook,Lila Barrera-Hernandez
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-03-27
ISBN : 0191008257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While energy has been extracted from the ground for two centuries, recent years have seen transformative changes to how easy it is to access underground energy resources. This book investigates the key challenges and legal consequences of recent developments in the use of the subsurface as a source of energy. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the new technologies that have made this possible, such as the extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking. Further developments include the expanded use of geothermal energy, which has the potential to beome a major renewable energy source. The subsurface can also be utilised for long-term disposal or storage of environmentally harmful by-products of energy use, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear waste. Successful development of these technologies could enhance the use of fossil and nuclear energy by reducing the harm caused by the release of greenhouse gases and harmful radiation. The authors bring together a wide variety of expertise and knowledge to examine the legal implications of the development and control of these underground activities. They provide an invaluable understanding of the legal frameworks applicable to the extraction of underground energy, both at the international level and in a number of important national jurisdictions. Importantly, the book analyses the different regulatory responses to these developments across five continents, and assesses in detail the environmental impact of new energy extraction technologies.