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Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Book
Author : K.-H. Park
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-09-23
ISBN : 1845695755
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnology have enabled significant progress in basic research on carbohydrate-active enzymes and advances in their effective application. The mechanism of catalytic reaction of carbohydrate-active enzymes is not fully understood, though, as they often show unusual substrate specificity and modes of action. This comprehensive collection summarises some of the most important research in the field of carbohydrate-active enzymes, focusing on the enzymatic reaction mechanism, structure-function relationship and role in the living organism The book is based on papers presented in the 2008 Agricultural Biotechnology Symposium Carbohydrate-active enzymes: structure, function and applications held on September 26th-27th 2008 in Seoul National University, Korea. This symposium was organized by the Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Korea, which has organized symposia on agricultural biotechnology annually since 1990. Many important results on new types of carbohydrate-active enzymes and their applications have been reported at these meetings. Papers in Part one of this collection focus on structure-function relationships of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Papers in Part two discuss functions and applications of carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as enzymes for grain processing and glycosidases and their mutants as useful tools for glycoside synthesis. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Carbohydrate-active enzymes: structure, function and applications is an essential reference for research scientists, post-graduate students and those in the food industry with an interest in enzymes. Summarises some of the most important research in the field of carbohydrate-active enzymes Covers topics ranging from enzyme classification and structural elucidation to applications of enzymes in food processing and other industries

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Book
Author : Stefano Benini
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 3039360906
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and the breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They are involved in many metabolic pathways; in the biosynthesis and degradation of various biomolecules, such as bacterial exopolysaccharides, starch, cellulose and lignin; and in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and enzymes with auxiliary activities (CAZy database, www.cazy.org). Glycosyltransferases synthesize a huge variety of complex carbohydrates with different degrees of polymerization, moieties and branching. On the other hand, complex carbohydrate breakdown is carried out by glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. Their interesting reactions have attracted the attention of researchers across scientific fields, ranging from basic research to biotechnology. Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers—which is highly relevant in biotechnology—but also because they are involved in bacterial biofilm formation, and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids, with important health implications. This book gathers new research results and reviews to broaden our understanding of carbohydrate-active enzymes, their mutants and their reaction products at the molecular level.

Carbohydrate Chemistry

Carbohydrate Chemistry Book
Author : Amelia Pilar Rauter,Markus Sperandio
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-06-18
ISBN : 1849735875
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this volume, glycochemistry and glycobiology have been combined to demonstrate the contribution of organic chemistry, modern analytics, biological and biochemical expertise to the increasingly important field of glycomics. A polysaccharide immunomodulator with therapeutic implications, carbohydrate vaccines, new findings emphasizing the influence of carbohydrate decoration on the regulation of inflammatory response and new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, recent progress on glycoengineering based on a glycosylation strategy to optimize protein drugs, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and key aspects of the glycosylation changes associated with bladder cancer are amongst the subjects presented in this volume. The contribution of glycochemistry to innovation in glycosciences is shown with chapters covering highly functionalized exo-glycals for the generation of molecular diversity in a chemoselective manner, imino sugar glycosidase inhibitors, carbasugars, multivalent glycoconjugates, including glycodendrimers, glyconanotubes, and glyconanoparticles, and their uses in medicinal chemistry, as well as artificial saccharide-based and saccharide-functionalized gene delivery systems. Siderophores based on monosaccharides (which have proven effective for Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria), and the so-called smart materials, (which can modulate and control cell behaviour), complete the volume. Volume 39 of Carbohydrate Chemistry - Chemical and Biological Approaches contains contributions ranging from glycochemistry to glycobiology. This collection demonstrates in a meaningful way how the interdisciplinary approach of an international glyconetwork can advance the field of carbohydrate research in Europe and worldwide.

Carbohydrate Bioengineering

Carbohydrate Bioengineering Book
Author : Tuula T Teeri,B Svensson,H J Gilbert,T Feizi
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2007-10-31
ISBN : 1847550320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbohydrate bioengineering is a rapidly expanding field with many applications in medicine and industry. Presenting state-of-the-art research, Carbohydrate Bioengineering: Interdisciplinary Approaches brings together international experts on many different aspects of this burgeoning topic. Coverage includes: the engineering of glycosidases for constructive purposes; structure-function studies and protein engineering of carbohydrate-active enzymes; chemo-enzymatic carbohydrate synthesis; and trends emerging from comprehensive work on genomes and glycomes. This timely publication will be welcomed by all those needing access to the latest research in the field, including practitioners in the medicinal, chemical, food and pharmaceutical areas.

Carbohydrate Bioengineering

Carbohydrate Bioengineering Book
Author : S.B. Petersen,B. Svensson,S. Pedersen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1995-12-08
ISBN : 9780080528519
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Carbohydrate Bioengineering Meeting held in Elsinore, Denmark, April 23-26, 1995, gathered 230 scientists, mostly from Europe, with interest in carbohydrate analysis and structure; carbohydrates in medicine and glycopathology; structure, function, application, and protein engineering of carbohydrate active enzymes; oligo- and polysaccharides of industrial interest; and production of carbohydrate containing new materials. The first chapters address glycoconjugates as modulatory and recognition molecules, structure determination using NMR and mass spectrometry, and microdialysis-chip enzyme-based sensors. Active site mutations coupled with crystal structures and synthetic substrate analogue interactions as well as new three-dimensional structures and binding domains for biotechnological applications are included in the chapters. Carbohydrate active enzymes turned out to be a predominant topic. The rapid development in glycobiology and glycotechnology has resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge on the structure conversion, and application of carbohydrates in industry and medicine.

Carbohydrate Chemistry

Carbohydrate Chemistry Book
Author : Amelia Pilar Rauter,Thisbe Lindhorst
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-06-17
ISBN : 1849737177
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this volume, glycochemistry and glycobiology have been combined to demonstrate the contribution of organic chemistry, modern analytics, biological and biochemical expertise to the increasingly important field of glycomics. A polysaccharide immunomodulator with therapeutic implications, carbohydrate vaccines, new findings emphasizing the influence of carbohydrate decoration on the regulation of inflammatory response and new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, recent progress on glycoengineering based on a glycosylation strategy to optimize protein drugs, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and key aspects of the glycosylation changes associated with bladder cancer are amongst the subjects presented in this volume. The contribution of glycochemistry to innovation in glycosciences is shown with chapters covering highly functionalized exo-glycals for the generation of molecular diversity in a chemoselective manner, imino sugar glycosidase inhibitors, carbasugars, multivalent glycoconjugates, including glycodendrimers, glyconanotubes, and glyconanoparticles, and their uses in medicinal chemistry, as well as artificial saccharide-based and saccharide-functionalized gene delivery systems. Siderophores based on monosaccharides (which have proven effective for Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria), and the so-called smart materials, (which can modulate and control cell behaviour), complete the volume. Volume 39 of Carbohydrate Chemistry - Chemical and Biological Approaches contains contributions ranging from glycochemistry to glycobiology. This collection demonstrates in a meaningful way how the interdisciplinary approach of an international glyconetwork can advance the field of carbohydrate research in Europe and worldwide.

Genome wide Analysis of Carbohydrate Active Enzyme Diversity and Expression in Eucalyptus Grandis

Genome wide Analysis of Carbohydrate Active Enzyme Diversity and Expression in Eucalyptus Grandis Book
Author : Desré Pinard
Publisher :
Release : 2013
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The woody biomass derived from tree species forms a vital part of the world’s economy, and a thorough understanding of the processes of carbon sequestration and carbohydrate metabolism in trees is paramount in ensuring efficient and sustainable use of this biomass. To date, there is still much to be learnt about wood formation and polysaccharide deposition in plant cell walls. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis, degradation, and modification of polysaccharides and glycosidic bonds are known as Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZymes) are organized into functional classes and families based on amino acid sequence. CAZymes in plant genomes can be analyzed using the functional protein domains that form the proteins in order to better understand the functional potential of the carbohydrate metabolism strategy employed by plants. The glycosyltransferase (GT) class of CAZyme domains is responsible for the synthesis of glycosidic bonds, and the glycosylhydrolases (GH), polysaccharide lyase (PL), and carbohydrate esterase (CE) CAZyme domain classes degrade and modify these bonds. The final class of CAZyme domains is the non-enzymatic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which act to increase the activity of the enzymatic CAZyme domain classes via specific binding to polysaccharides, disruption of the cell wall polysaccharide matrix, and proximity effects when appended to enzymatic CAZyme domains in complex CAZyme domain containing proteins. In this project, we used comparative genomics and transcriptomics of CAZyme domains to analyze the functional building blocks of plant carbohydrate metabolism to gain insight into the process of wood formation, with a specific focus on the biomass feedstock crop, Eucalyptus grandis. The aim of this project was to compare the CAZyme domain frequency, diversity and complexity across plant genomes representative of the major land plant lineages and green algae species to identify any delineating factors that contribute to wood formation in tree species. In addition, we analyzed the expression levels of CAZyme domains in the transcriptomes of source and sink tissues in E. grandis and Populus trichocarpa to better understand the expression investment in carbohydrate metabolism in different tissues of divergent tree species. The results show conservation of a fundamental functional strategy for carbohydrate metabolism across land plant evolution. The ratio of CAZyme domain frequency is maintained in land plants, with GTs contributing ?40% of the genomic CAZyme domain content, highlighting the importance of polysaccharide synthesis in plants. The diversity of CAZyme domain families within each class cannot be used to differentiate the genomes of major land plant lineages (lycophytes and bryophytes, monocots, and dicots) from one another, however, species-specific differences in CAZyme domain family diversity are observed. The complexity of CAZyme domain containing proteins shows that CAZyme domains are not very promiscuous, repeated CAZyme domains within a protein are more common than unique combinations of CAZyme domains within a protein, which are also conserved for the most part. The analysis of CAZyme domain expression in six tissues in E. grandis showed that in the wood forming tissue, immature xylem, GT domain families responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis formed the majority of the transcript abundance, a pattern not seen in the other tissues analyzed. This pattern was conserved in P. trichocarpa, highlighting the conserved mechanism for wood formation between divergent tree species. The results of this study reveal the conservation of the fundamental functional machinery responsible for carbohydrate metabolism in land plants, and highlight the importance of differential regulation of this machinery to wood formation. The long-term goal of improving the production of lignocellulosic biomass from trees will be achieved by fully understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling the concerted expression of these CAZyme domain-containing genes.

Handbook of Industrial Biocatalysis

Handbook of Industrial Biocatalysis Book
Author : Ching T. Hou
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-06-09
ISBN : 1420027964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until now, no comprehensive handbook on industrial biocatalysis has been available. Soliciting chapters on virtually every aspect of biocatalysis from international experts most actively researching the field, the Handbook of Industrial Biocatalysis fills this need. The handbook is divided into three sections based on types of substrates. T

Cellulose Science and Technology

Cellulose Science and Technology Book
Author : Jean-Luc Wertz,Olivier Bédué,Jean P. Mercier
Publisher : EPFL Press
Release : 2010-06-21
ISBN : 9781420066883
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An ideal reference for scientists in natural and synthetic polymer research, this book applies basic biology as well as polymer and sugar chemistry to the study of cellulose, and it provides key requirements for understanding this complex science.

Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Esterases

Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Esterases Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Carbohydrate esterases (CEs) catalyze the de-O or de-N-acylation by removing the ester decorations from carbohydrates. CEs are currently classified in 15 families in the Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme (CAZy) database, which classifies a large variety of enzymes that assemble, modify and breakdown carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. CEs have significant importance as biocatalysts in a variety of bioindustrial processes and applications. Thus, the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in CE catalysis is essential. However, despite a rather large number of enzymes classified as CEs, just a few have been studied biochemically and only a handful has their three-dimensional structures determined and analyzed. Here, we present a brief overview of all currently classified CE families, mainly focusing on the structures and enzymatic activities of CEs.

Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-11-25
ISBN : 0123855195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical and integrating articles written by research specialists that bring together industrial, analytical and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. The articles provide a definitive interpretation of the current status and future trends in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Features contributions from leading authorities and industry experts Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Extremophiles Handbook

Extremophiles Handbook Book
Author : Koki Horikoshi,Garabed Antranikian,Alan T. Bull,Frank T. Robb,Karl O. Stetter
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-12-08
ISBN : 4431538976
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Extremophiles Handbook brings together the rapidly growing and often scattered information on microbial life in the whole range of extreme environments. This book will be a useful reference for finding clues to the origin of life and for exploring the biotechnology potential of these fascinating organisms.

Annual Plant Reviews Plant Polysaccharides

Annual Plant Reviews  Plant Polysaccharides Book
Author : Peter Ulvskov
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-11-18
ISBN : 9781444391008
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Polysaccharides, an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell’s successful Annual Plant Reviews series, covers the polysaccharides and proteins that form the fundamental architecture of the plant cell wall, and the genes that encode the cellular machinery that synthesizes them. The volume focuses on the evolution of the many families of genes whose products are required to make a particular kind of polysaccharide, bringing attention to the specific biochemical properties of the proteins to the level of kinds of sugar linkages they make. Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this exceptional new volume provides cutting edge up-to-date information on such important topics as cell wall biology, composition and biosynthesis, glycosyltransferases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, enzymatic modification of plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycan engineering in transgenic plants, and polysaccharide nanobiotechnology. Drawing together some of the world’s leading experts in these areas, the editor, Peter Ulvskov, has provided a landmark volume that is essential reading for plant and crop scientists, biochemists, molecular biologists and geneticists. All libraries in universities and research establishments where plant sciences, agriculture, biological, biochemical and molecular sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important volume.

Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology

Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-17
ISBN : 0128118776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology, Volume 109, the latest release in the Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology series, is an essential resource for protein chemists. Chapters in this new volume include Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Structure–Function Relationships: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Studies, Computational Glycobiology: Mechanistic Studies of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Implication for Inhibitor Design, Computational Biochemistry─Enzyme Mechanisms Explored, and A Paradigm for C─H Bond Cleavage: Structural and Functional Aspects of Transition State Stabilization by Mandelate Racemase. This series presents new information on protocols and analysis of proteins, with each volume guest edited by leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics. This volume presents state-of-the-art contributions, providing insights into the relationship between enzyme structure, catalysis, and function. Provides cutting-edge developments in protein chemistry and structural biology Features new information about protocols and analysis of proteins Contains chapters written by authorities in their respective fields Targeted to a wide audience of researchers, specialists and students

Bioinformatics for Glycobiology and Glycomics

Bioinformatics for Glycobiology and Glycomics Book
Author : Claus-Wilhelm von der Lieth,Thomas Luetteke,Martin Frank
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-10-01
ISBN : 9780470029602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the first to be dedicated to the bioinformatics of carbohydrates and glycoproteins. It provides an introduction to this emerging field of science both for the experimentalist working in glycobiology and glycomics, and also for the computer scientist looking for background information for the development of highly sophisticated algorithmic approaches. The book provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field, with reviews on databases, and the tools in use for analysis, interpretation, and prediction of the structures of complex carbohydrates, and demonstrates the value of bioinformatics for glycobiology. The availability of comprehensive databases and corresponding bioinformatics tools, to access and analyse the large amounts of experimental data relating to the structure of carbohydrates, will be a prerequisite for the success of the large-scale glycomics projects that aim to decipher new, so far unknown, biological functions of glycans. Efficient bioinformatics descriptions and tools can considerably enhance the efficiency of glycomics research, in terms of data quality, analysis and experimental costs. For a complete understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein–carbohydrate interactions and the impact of glycosylation on protein function, knowledge of the 3D structure of the carbohydrate, the protein–carbohydrate complex, or the glycoprotein is often indispensable. This book provides a thorough introduction into methods used for conformational analysis of carbohydrates. Key features: Describes bioinformatic approaches to handle carbohydrate-active enzymes and glycosylation. Provides an overview on bioinformatics tools that facilitate analysis of carbohydrate structures. Gives introduction into molecular modelling of carbohydrate 3D structure and carbohydrates contained in the Protein Databank. Assumes only a basic knowledge of biology and bioinformatics.

Carbohydrate Binding Modules

Carbohydrate Binding Modules Book
Author : Susana Moreira,Miguel Gama
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2010-04-01
ISBN : 9781608769797
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbohydrates play an important role in many biological and biochemical processes, including the fertilization, cell differentiation and maturation, protein folding and degradation[6]. Carbohydrates are also involved in a variety of recognition events, such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Many of these are immunologically relevant processes, namely inflammation host-pathogen interactions, immune response and health disorders, such as arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, among others. Carbohydrate-active enzymes(CAZymes) play key roles in glycobiology. They are involved in the synthesis and degradation of complex carbohydrates and glyco-conjugates.

Glycome Informatics

Glycome Informatics Book
Author : Kiyoko F. Aoki-Kinoshita
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-11-19
ISBN : 1420083341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Focused, State-of-the-Art Overview of This Evolving Field Presents Various Techniques for Glycoinformatics The development and use of informatics tools and databases for glycobiology and glycomics research have increased considerably in recent years. In addition to accumulating well-structured glyco-related data, researchers have now developed semi-automated methods for the annotation of mass spectral data and algorithms for capturing patterns in glycan structure data. These techniques have enabled researchers to gain a better understanding of how these complex structures affect protein function and other biological processes, including cancer. One of the few up-to-date books available in this important area, Glycome Informatics: Methods and Applications covers all known informatics methods pertaining to the study of glycans. It discusses the current status of carbohydrate databases, the latest analytical techniques, and the informatics needed for rapid progress in glycomics research. Providing an overall understanding of glycobiology, this self-contained guide focuses on the development of glycome informatics methods and current problems faced by researchers. It explains how to implement informatics methods in glycobiology. The author includes the required background material on glycobiology as well as the mathematical concepts needed to understand advanced mining and algorithmic techniques. She also suggests project themes for readers looking to begin research in the field.

Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions

Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions Book
Author : Francis Martin,Sophien Kamoun
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-01-03
ISBN : 0470958227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants and microbes interact in a complex relationship that canhave both harmful and beneficial impacts on both plant andmicrobial communities. Effectors, secreted microbial molecules thatalter plant processes and facilitate colonization, are central tounderstanding the complicated interplay between plants andmicrobes. Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactionsunlocks the molecular basis of this important class of microbialmolecules and describes their diverse and complex interactions withhost plants. Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions is divided intofive sections that take stock of the current knowledge on effectorsof plant-associated organisms. Coverage ranges from the impact ofbacterial, fungal and oomycete effectors on plant immunity andhigh-throughput genomic analysis of effectors to the function andtrafficking of these microbial molecules. The final section looksat effectors secreted by other eukaryotic microbes that are thefocus of current and future research efforts. Written by leading international experts in plant-microbeinteractions, Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions, willbe an essential volume for plant biologists, microbiologists,pathologists, and geneticists.