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Cancer Genomics

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Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Graham Dellaire,Jason N Berman,Robert J. Arceci
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0123972744
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Genomics addresses how recent technological advances in genomics are shaping how we diagnose and treat cancer. Built on the historical context of cancer genetics over the past 30 years, the book provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The dramatic increase in cancer genomics research and ever-increasing availability of genomic testing are not without significant ethical issues, which are addressed in the context of the return of research results and the legal considerations underlying the commercialization of genomic discoveries. Finally, the book concludes with "Future Directions", examining the next great challenges to face the field of cancer genomics, namely the contribution of non-coding RNAs to disease pathogenesis and the interaction of the human genome with the environment. Tools such as sidebars, key concept summaries, a glossary, and acronym and abbreviation definitions make this book highly accessible to researchers from several fields associated with cancer genomics. Contributions from thought leaders provide valuable historical perspective to relate the advances in the field to current technologies and literature.

Cancer Genomics for the Clinician

Cancer Genomics for the Clinician Book
Author : Ramaswamy Govindan, MD,Ashiq Masood, MD
Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
Release : 2019-01-28
ISBN : 082616868X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Genomics for the Clinician is a practical guide to cancer genomics and its application to cancer diagnosis and care. The book begins with a brief overview of the various types of genetic alterations that are encountered in cancer, followed by accessible and applicable information on next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics; tumor heterogeneity; whole genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing; epigenomics; and data analysis and interpretation. Each chapter provides essential explanations of concepts, terminology, and methods. Also included are tips for interpreting and analyzing molecular data, as well as a discussion of molecular predictors for targeted therapies covering hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The final chapter explains the use of FDA-approved genomic-based targeted therapies for breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcomas, gastrointestinal cancers, urologic cancers, head and neck cancer, thyroid cancer, and many more. Assembled in an accessible format specifically designed for the non-expert, this book provides the clinical oncologist, early career practitioner, and trainee with an essential understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of cancer and the clinical aspects that have led to advancements in diagnosis and treatment. With this resource, physicians and trainees will increase their breadth of knowledge and be better equipped to educate patients and families who want to know more about their genetic predispositions to cancer and the targeted therapies that could be considered and prescribed. Key Features: Describes how cancer genomics and next generation sequencing informs cancer screening, risk factors, therapeutic options, and clinical management across cancer types Explains what mutations are, what tests are needed, and how to interpret the results Provides information on FDA-approved targeted therapies that are being used in the clinic Covers different sequencing platforms and technologies and how they perform in research settings Includes access to the fully searchable eBook

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics Book
Author : Narendra Wajapeyee
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2016-09-17
ISBN : 9781493946549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition includes methods for the analyses of cancer genome and proteome that have illuminated us about the changes in cancer cells. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Cancer Genomics and Proteomics: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in the further study into various aspects of tumor initiation and progression.

Collaborative Genomics Projects A Comprehensive Guide

Collaborative Genomics Projects  A Comprehensive Guide Book
Author : Margi Sheth,Julia Zhang,Jean C Zenklusen
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-02-24
ISBN : 0128023686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collaborative Genomics Projects: A Comprehensive Guide contains operational procedures, policy considerations, and the many lessons learned by The Cancer Genome Atlas Project. This book guides the reader through methods in patient sample acquisition, the establishment of data generation and analysis pipelines, data storage and dissemination, quality control, auditing, and reporting. This book is essential for those looking to set up or collaborate within a large-scale genomics research project. All authors are contributors to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Program, a NIH- funded effort to generate a comprehensive catalog of genomic alterations in more than 35 cancer types. As the cost of genomic sequencing is decreasing, more and more researchers are leveraging genomic data to inform the biology of disease. The amount of genomic data generated is growing exponentially, and protocols need to be established for the long-term storage, dissemination, and regulation of this data for research. The book's authors create a complete handbook on the management of research projects involving genomic data as learned through the evolution of the TCGA program, a project that was primarily carried out in the US, but whose impact and lessons learned can be applied to international audiences. Establishes a framework for managing large-scale genomic research projects involving multiple collaborators Describes lessons learned through TCGA to prepare for potential roadblocks Evaluates policy considerations that are needed to avoid pitfalls Recommends strategies to make project management more efficient

Essentials of Cancer Genomic Computational Approaches and Precision Medicine

 Essentials of Cancer Genomic  Computational Approaches and Precision Medicine Book
Author : Nosheen Masood,Saima Shakil Malik
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 9811510679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book concisely describes the role of omics in precision medicine for cancer therapies. It outlines our current understanding of cancer genomics, shares insights into the process of oncogenesis, and discusses emerging technologies and clinical applications of cancer genomics in prognosis and precision-medicine treatment strategies. It then elaborates on recent advances concerning transcriptomics and translational genomics in cancer diagnosis, clinical applications, and personalized medicine in oncology. Importantly, it also explains the importance of high-performance analytics, predictive modeling, and system biology in cancer research. Lastly, the book discusses current and potential future applications of pharmacogenomics in clinical cancer therapy and cancer drug development.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Ulrich Pfeffer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-02-12
ISBN : 9400758421
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The combination of molecular biology, engineering and bioinformatics has revolutionized our understanding of cancer revealing a tight correlation of the molecular characteristics of the primary tumor in terms of gene expression, structural alterations of the genome, epigenetics and mutations with its propensity to metastasize and to respond to therapy. It is not just one or a few genes, it is the complex alteration of the genome that determines cancer development and progression. Future management of cancer patients will therefore rely on thorough molecular analyses of each single case. Through this book, students, researchers and oncologists will obtain a comprehensive picture of what the first ten years of cancer genomics have revealed. Experts in the field describe, cancer by cancer, the progress made and its implications for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. The deep impact on the clinics and the challenge for future translational research become evident.

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics Book
Author : Paul B. Fisher
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2007-09-27
ISBN : 9781588295040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics provides a compendium of techniques and applications in gene identification and function. The approaches described in detail are state-of-the art and can be tailored to individual ongoing or planned research projects. This volume is a valuable laboratory resource for designing experiments to identify and analyze genes that are relevant to complex biological phenomena.

Cancer Genetics and Genomics for Personalized Medicine

Cancer Genetics and Genomics for Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Il-Jin Kim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-04-11
ISBN : 1315341107
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers almost all fields of cancer genetics and genomics for personalized medicine. Targeted therapy, or precision medicine, or personalized medicine is becoming a standard treatment for many diseases, including cancer. However, how much do we know about the personalized medicine approach? This lucid book helps undergraduate and graduate students, professional researchers, and clinicians to better understand the key concept of personalized medicine. The most up-to-date topics on personalized medicine in this book cover the recent trends in and updates on lung, gastric, liver, breast, and other types of cancers. Circulating tumor cell, cell-free circulating DNA, and microRNAs are discussed as new diagnostic and prognostic markers for cancer. The avatar mouse model is also discussed for maximizing treatment efficacy and prognosis prediction, and so is microenvironment as a drug resistance mechanism. With classical and new pathological approaches, the book provides a systemic overview of personalized immunotherapies and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, followed by new emerging fields of hereditary cancer, thereby equipping readers to eventually contribute in developing more advanced tools and therapies for curing cancer.

Understanding Genomic and Hereditary Cancer Risk

Understanding Genomic and Hereditary Cancer Risk Book
Author : Suzanne M. Mahon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 9781635930498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Collecting a family medical history is a regular component of the nursing assessment process that often includes information on familial cancer diagnoses, and patients may fear that they or their loved ones might be at increased risk for developing cancer because of hereditary factors. Although true inherited risk for developing cancer is much less common than acquired risk for developing cancer, approximately 10% of cancer diagnoses can be attributed to inherited risk. The identification of families exhibiting hereditary cancer syndromes enables individuals at risk to engage in increased surveillance and, in some cases, risk-reducing surgery and other preventive measures, which ultimately lead to decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with a cancer diagnosis. The role of the nurse in helping patients to understand and manage hereditary cancer risk requires specialized knowledge of genetics and genomics concepts. Understanding Genomic and Hereditary Cancer Risk: A Handbook for Oncology Nurses provides background on basic genetic and genomic concepts, particularly those related to hereditary risk for developing cancer, to aid nurses in knowing when and why to refer patients. It also provides reliable information about how and why genetic and genomic testing can both aid in treatment decisions and also guide recommendations for cancer prevention and early detection. The nurse's role in genetic testing and counseling are discussed, as are questions and answers about types of testing, including direct-to-consumer genetic testing. Following genetic testing, most genetics professionals provide detailed information about recommendations for care, including recommendations for ongoing prevention and early detection. For patients who are found to have a harmful mutation, these recommendations can be extensive and are based on the personal and family medical history, as well as the specific variant. This book provides quick overviews of many of the more common hereditary variants as well as resources for more information. This handbook provides nurses with the essentials to understand genomic and hereditary cancer risk, to assist in facilitating interprofessional care with genetics and other oncology professionals, and to provide their patients with accurate and reassuring information"--

Computational Genomics with R

Computational Genomics with R Book
Author : Altuna Akalin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-12-16
ISBN : 1498781861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational Genomics with R provides a starting point for beginners in genomic data analysis and also guides more advanced practitioners to sophisticated data analysis techniques in genomics. The book covers topics from R programming, to machine learning and statistics, to the latest genomic data analysis techniques. The text provides accessible information and explanations, always with the genomics context in the background. This also contains practical and well-documented examples in R so readers can analyze their data by simply reusing the code presented. As the field of computational genomics is interdisciplinary, it requires different starting points for people with different backgrounds. For example, a biologist might skip sections on basic genome biology and start with R programming, whereas a computer scientist might want to start with genome biology. After reading: You will have the basics of R and be able to dive right into specialized uses of R for computational genomics such as using Bioconductor packages. You will be familiar with statistics, supervised and unsupervised learning techniques that are important in data modeling, and exploratory analysis of high-dimensional data. You will understand genomic intervals and operations on them that are used for tasks such as aligned read counting and genomic feature annotation. You will know the basics of processing and quality checking high-throughput sequencing data. You will be able to do sequence analysis, such as calculating GC content for parts of a genome or finding transcription factor binding sites. You will know about visualization techniques used in genomics, such as heatmaps, meta-gene plots, and genomic track visualization. You will be familiar with analysis of different high-throughput sequencing data sets, such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and BS-seq. You will know basic techniques for integrating and interpreting multi-omics datasets. Altuna Akalin is a group leader and head of the Bioinformatics and Omics Data Science Platform at the Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrück Center, Berlin. He has been developing computational methods for analyzing and integrating large-scale genomics data sets since 2002. He has published an extensive body of work in this area. The framework for this book grew out of the yearly computational genomics courses he has been organizing and teaching since 2015.

Precision Cancer Medicine

Precision Cancer Medicine Book
Author : Sameek Roychowdhury,Eliezer M. Van Allen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-02
ISBN : 3030236374
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genomic sequencing technologies have augmented the classification of cancer beyond tissue of origin and towards a molecular taxonomy of cancer. This has created opportunities to guide treatment decisions for individual patients with cancer based on their cancer’s unique molecular characteristics, also known as precision cancer medicine. The purpose of this text will be to describe the contribution and need for multiple disciplines working together to deliver precision cancer medicine. This entails a multi-disciplinary approach across fields including molecular pathology, computational biology, clinical oncology, cancer biology, drug development, genetics, immunology, and bioethics. Thus, we have outlined a current text on each of these fields as they work together to overcome various challenges and create opportunities to deliver precision cancer medicine. As trainees and junior faculty enter their respective fields, this text will provide a framework for understanding the role and responsibility for each specialist to contribute to this team science approach.

Genome Chaos

Genome Chaos Book
Author : Henry H. Heng
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-25
ISBN : 0128136367
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genome Chaos: Rethinking Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Medicine transports readers from Mendelian Genetics to 4D-genomics, building a case for genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, and positing that the genome, rather than individual genes, defines system inheritance and represents a clear unit of selection for macro-evolution. In authoring this thought-provoking text, Dr. Heng invigorates fresh discussions in genome theory and helps readers reevaluate their current understanding of human genetics, evolution, and new pathways for advancing molecular and precision medicine. Bridges basic research and clinical application and provides a foundation for re-examining the results of large-scale omics studies and advancing molecular medicine Gathers the most pressing questions in genomic and cytogenomic research Offers alternative explanations to timely puzzles in the field Contains eight evidence-based chapters that discuss 4d-genomics, genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, genome chaos and macro-cellular evolution, evolutionary cytogenetics and cancer, chromosomal coding and fuzzy inheritance, and more

Cytogenomics

Cytogenomics Book
Author : Thomas Liehr
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-05-25
ISBN : 0128235802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytogenomics demonstrates that chromosomes are crucial in understanding the human genome and that new high-throughput approaches are central to advancing cytogenetics in the 21st century. After an introduction to (molecular) cytogenetics, being the basic of all cytogenomic research, this book highlights the strengths and newfound advantages of cytogenomic research methods and technologies, enabling researchers to jump-start their own projects and more effectively gather and interpret chromosomal data. Methods discussed include banding and molecular cytogenetics, molecular combing, molecular karyotyping, next-generation sequencing, epigenetic study approaches, optical mapping/karyomapping, and CRISPR-cas9 applications for cytogenomics. The book’s second half demonstrates recent applications of cytogenomic techniques, such as characterizing 3D chromosome structure across different tissue types and insights into multilayer organization of chromosomes, role of repetitive elements and noncoding RNAs in human genome, studies in topologically associated domains, interchromosomal interactions, and chromoanagenesis. This book is an important reference source for researchers, students, basic and translational scientists, and clinicians in the areas of human genetics, genomics, reproductive medicine, gynecology, obstetrics, internal medicine, oncology, bioinformatics, medical genetics, and prenatal testing, as well as genetic counselors, clinical laboratory geneticists, bioethicists, and fertility specialists. Offers applied approaches empowering a new generation of cytogenomic research using a balanced combination of classical and advanced technologies Provides a framework for interpreting chromosome structure and how this affects the functioning of the genome in health and disease Features chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

Oncogenomics

Oncogenomics Book
Author : Franco Dammacco,Franco Silvestris
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-30
ISBN : 0128117869
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Oncogenomics: From Basic Research to Precision Medicine offers a thorough survey of precision medicine and its diagnostic and therapeutic applications in oncology. Gathering contributions from leading international researchers in the field, chapters examine recent translational advances in oncogenomic methods and technologies, detailing novel molecular classifications of tumors as well as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for various types of cancers including pancreatic, gastrointestinal, breast, hematological, lung, osteotropic, genitourinary, and skin cancers. This book provides a foundation for clinical oncologists, human geneticists, and physicians to develop new targeted cancer treatments and incorporate genomic medicine into clinical practice, with particular attention paid to noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as the liquid biopsy and molecular characterization of solid malignancies. Provides clinical oncologists, human geneticists, physicians, and students with a thorough understanding of current diagnostic and prognostic applications of genomic methods and technologies to a variety of solid malignancies Employs current knowledge in oncogenomics towards developing therapeutic interventions for various cancer types Features a team of internationally recognized researchers and physicians in clinical oncology, oncogenomics and precision medicine

Personalised Cancer Medicine

Personalised Cancer Medicine Book
Author : Anne Kerr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-02-23
ISBN : 9781526141026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Personalised Cancer Medicine book written by Anne Kerr, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Michael Fraser,Alejandro Berlin,Veronique Ouellet,Fred Saad,Robert G. Bristow
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0128061111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the Western world. In North America, more than 275000 men are diagnosed annually whereby approximately 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with CaP in their lifetime, and 1 in 34 men will die from castrate-resistant metastatic disease. Unfortunately, current clinical prognostic factors explain only a proportion of the observed variation in clinical outcome from patient to patient. Furthermore, over-treatment of indolent and low-risk cancers leads to inappropriate morbidity following radiotherapy or surgery. As such, better predictors of individualized prognosis and treatment response are urgently needed to triage patients to customized and intensified CaP treatment. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing have made it possible to identify prognostic and predictive signatures based on genomic profiles. Herein, we review the recent genetic data pertaining to prostate cancer carcinogenesis, progression, castrate-resistance and metastases. We discuss the genetic basis of CaP progression from localized to systemic disease (e.g. point mutations, copy number alterations and structural variants) and important considerations for CaP biology including intra- and inter-prostatic heterogeneity, multifocality and multiclonality, TMPRSS2–ERG and other ETS-family gene fusions and the role of the tumor microenvironment (e.g. hypoxia and the contribution of caner-associated stroma). Finally, we focus on the use of genomic markers as prognostic factors for local failure and for systemic disease, as novel risk stratification tools, in triaging patients to existing treatment options and, ultimately, the potential of genomics for the identification of molecular targets for CaP therapy. We conclude by summarizing selected outstanding questions in CaP biology that can be addressed effectively through international cooperation between genome sequencing projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC).

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Matthew Parker,Erin Hedlund,Jinghui Zhang
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0128061073
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The vast amount of genomic data being produced by the research community is becoming readily accessible to biomedical researchers and clinicians to apply to their cancer(s) of interest. The major cancer genome projects, among others, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project (PCGP) are contributing to this genomic data goldmine by sequencing hundreds to thousands of cancer genomes and supplementing these data with analyses such as gene expression and methylation. In addition to the raw data that are being made available through large data warehouses, “Data Portals” are becoming the norm for accessing and analyzing these data by third parties. We describe key features of some of these portals and other tools for the analysis of next-generation sequencing and other genomic data.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Shile Zhang,Jun S. Wei,Javed Khan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0128061014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The complexity of the transcriptome has been appreciated in recent years in light of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project. While less than 3% of the genome is annotated with protein-coding genes, 62% of the genome is long RNA molecules (>200 nucleotides). With an increasing sequencing throughput and a decreasing cost, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is becoming a frequently used technology in transcriptome research. This chapter summarizes the advantages of RNA-seq compared to hybridization-based microarrays, the RNA-seq experiment workflow and reviews current applications of RNA-seq in the field of cancer research. With advantages in expression analysis of non-coding genes, fusion genes, investigation of expressed allelic imbalance, pseudogenes, viral integrated genes, and post-transcriptional regulation analysis including splicing, polyadenylation as well as RNA editing, RNA-seq technology has a tremendous potential to elucidate the complexity of the transcriptome and its working mechanisms in the initiation and development of cancer. Along with expression and pathway analysis, RNA-seq data can clarify the functional consequences of any potential genomic (DNA) variances and thus help to distinguish “driver” from “passenger” genomic events. In summary, RNA-seq allows a genome-wide interrogation of complex transcriptomes and will help elucidate important biological mechanisms linked to cancer phenotypes. In addition, the non-protein-coding transcriptome has the potential to provide novel biomarkers for early detection, diagnostics, prognostics and targets for therapy.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Hye-Jung E. Chun,Jaswinder Khattra,Martin Krzywinski,Samuel A. Aparicio,Marco A. Marra
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0128060999
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer results from accumulated mutations in the genome. Sequencing is an accurate method to detect mutations. Second-generation sequencing technology, commonly referred to as next-generation sequencing technology, enables rapid, efficient and affordable DNA sequencing, and is transforming the scale and scope of cancer research. The technology is sufficiently flexible and affordable to allow sequencing of many cancer genomes, and thus facilitates both sequencing of samples from large patient cohorts and during disease progression in individual cancer patients. The high depths of redundant sequence coverage that can be obtained using some second-generation sequencing technologies, along with sequencing reads amplified from single DNA molecules, facilitate detection of subclones of cells in tumors. Large-scale genome sequencing of hundreds or even thousands of cancer samples is being conducted by several groups that aim to identify and characterize cancer driver mutations. Goals of such work, previously infeasible with Sanger sequencing instruments, are to use this information to improve cancer prognosis, diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. The speed of data analysis is rate limiting, and investigators are struggling to accommodate and interpret the data deluge produced by second-generation technologies. In this chapter, we discuss cancer properties that are revealed by sequencing and the implication of such properties in experimental design and data interpretation. We describe past, current and upcoming sequencing technologies and the application of second-generation sequencing technologies in cancer genomics. Finally, we discuss the impact of second-generation sequencing technology in shaping personalized medicine.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics Book
Author : Hui Ling,George A. Calin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0128061227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) involvement in cancer a decade ago, and the more recent findings of long non-coding RNAs in human diseases, challenged the long-standing view that RNAs without protein-coding potential are simply “junk” transcription within the human genome. These findings evidently changed the dogma that “DNA makes RNA makes protein” by showing that RNAs themselves can be essential regulators of cellular function and play key roles in cancer development. MiRNAs are evolutionarily conserved short single-stranded transcripts of 19–24 nucleotides in length. They do not code for proteins, but change the final output of protein-coding genes by regulating their transcriptional and/or translation process. Ultraconserved genes (UCGs) are non-coding RNAs with longer length (>200bp) that are transcribed from the ultraconserved genomic region. Both miRNAs and UCGs are located within cancer-associated genomic regions (CAGRs) and can act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In this chapter, we present principles and concepts that have been identified over the last decade with respect to our understanding of the function of non-coding RNAs, and summarize recent findings on the role of miRNAs and UCGs in cancer development. Finally, we will conclude by discussing the translational potential of this knowledge into clinical settings such as cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.