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Caldera Volcanism

Caldera Volcanism Book
Author : Joachim Gottsmann,Joan Marti
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-09-22
ISBN : 0080558976
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume aims at providing answers to some puzzling questions concerning the formation and the behavior of collapse calderas by exploring our current understanding of these complex geological processes. Addressed are problems such as: - How do collapse calderas form? - What are the conditions to create fractures and slip along them to initiate caldera collapse and when are these conditions fulfilled? - How do these conditions relate to explosive volcanism? - Most products of large caldera-forming eruptions show evidence for pre-eruptive reheating. Is this a pre-requisite to produce large volume eruptions and large calderas? - What are the time-scales behind caldera processes? - How long does it take magma to reach conditions ripe enough to generate a caldera-forming eruption? - What is the mechanical behavior of magma chamber walls during caldera collapse? Elastic, viscoelastic, or rigid? - Do calderas form by underpressure following a certain level of magma withdrawal from a reservoir, or by magma chamber loading due to deep doming (underplating), or both? - How to interpret unrest signals in active caldera systems? - How can we use information from caldera monitoring to forecast volcanic phenomena? In the form of 14 contributions from various disciplines this book samples the state-of-the-art of caldera studies and identifies still unresolved key issues that need dedicated cross-boundary and multidisciplinary efforts in the years to come. * International contributions from leading experts * Updates and informs on all the latest developments * Highlights hot topic areas and identifies and analyzes unresolved key issues

Volcanoes of North America

Volcanoes of North America Book
Author : Charles A. Wood,Jurgen Kienle (ed)
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1992-11-27
ISBN : 9780521438117
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volcanoes of North America capitalises on the vast body of volcano literature now available to present, in a single source, detailed information about volcanoes found in North America. It contains brief accounts, written by leading experts in volcanology, of over 250 volcanoes and volcanic fields formed during the last 5 million years. The volcanoes of the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Canada are described. The precise location of each volcano is given, and the volcano is classified by type. Information about composition and eruptive history is also included. Each narrative description is accompanied by a photograph, a map of each location, and an extremely helpful statement on how to reach each volcano. The entries are mostly written at a level understandable by lay readers, but technical terms are also used and a background in geology is advantageous. Volcanoes of North America will be a standard reference work for practising volcanologists, petrologists, and geochemists, and to some extent, geographers. In addition, the maps and the 'How to get there' sections make this a highly valuable book for anyone interested in natural history or fascinated by volcanoes.

Volcanism

Volcanism Book
Author : Hans-Ulrich Schmincke
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642189520
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field. Based on over 300 color figures and the model of plate tectonics, the book offers insight into the generation of magmas and the occurrence and origin of volcanoes. The analysis and description of volcanic structures is followed by process oriented chapters discussing the role of magmatic gases as well as explosive mechanisms and sedimentation of volcanic material. The final chapters deal with the forecast of eruptions and their influence on climate. Students and scientists of a broad range of fields will use this book as an interesting and attractive source of information. Laypeople will find it a highly accessible and graphically beautiful way to acquire a state-of-the-art foundation in this fascinating field. "Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features... "I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism... I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists. Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book – and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005) "Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004) "The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book’s paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one. I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact—the book’s binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it! Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany’s Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book. However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text’s overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan’s Unzen volcano and Indonesia’s Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. " ( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)

Geodetic And Geophysical Effects Associated With Seismic And Volcanic Hazards

Geodetic And Geophysical Effects Associated With Seismic And Volcanic Hazards Book
Author : José Fernandez
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-06-25
ISBN : 9783764370442
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The topics included in this issue deal with many aspects of volcanic and seismic activity, two of the natural hazards of geological origin that have the greatest impact and pose the predominant risk to society. This book comprises eighteen papers, most of which were presented at an international seminar organized and held at the Complutense University of Madrid in October 2001. The papers address geodetic, geophysical and geochemical effects caused by seismic and volcanic activity; monitoring of volcanic and seismic processes using space and terrestrial techniques; complementarity of these techniques; theoretical modelling of volcanic and seismic processes; inverse problem; interpretation of observations; hazards; seismicity patterns and application.

Volcanism in the Campania Plain

Volcanism in the Campania Plain Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-08-24
ISBN : 9780080481661
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book deals with the study of three important volcanisms in the Campania Plain: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ignimbrites. The knowledge of the volcanic evolution of Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei has a particular relevance because of the hazards that these volcanoes pose to the about 1.5 million people living in the Neapolitan area. The contributors to the volume bring new data (experiments on volatile solubility, fluid-melt inclusions, tectonic, geophysical, isotope, geochronology), which are helpful in the creation of new models for a better understanding of the behaviour of the volcanic systems. In particular a hydrothermal model is used to explain the ground movements (bradyseism) at Campi Flegrei. To develop such a model, the authors use an analogue for the evolving Campi Flegrei sub-volcanic system, the model of the porphyry mineralized systems. For Campanian Ignimbrite the authors highlight the impact crystal-liquid separation has on melt compositional evolution and particularly focus on trace element and Th isotope evidence for open-system processes in the magma body associated with the Campanian Ignimbrite. The authors, for their interpretations, utilize thermodynamic and quantitative mass balance modelling of major and trace element data and semi-quantitative limits on Th and Sr isotopes to evaluate the role of crytal-melt separation, magma-fluid interaction, and assimilation of wallrock on the geochemical evolution of the Campamian Ignimbrite.

Windows into the Earth

Windows into the Earth Book
Author : Robert B. Smith,Lee J. Siegel
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2000-05-25
ISBN : 9780195355604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Millions of years ago, the North American continent was dragged over the world's largest continental hotspot, a huge column of hot and molten rock rising from the Earth's interior that traced a 50-mile wide, 500-mile-long path northeastward across Idaho. Generating cataclysmic volcanic eruptions and large earthquakes, the hotspot helped lift the Yellowstone Plateau to more than 7,000 feet and pushed the northern Rockies to new heights, forming unusually large glaciers to carve the landscape. It also created the jewel of the U.S. national park system: Yellowstone. Meanwhile, forces stretching apart the western U.S. created the mountainous glory of Grand Teton National Park. These two parks, with their majestic mountains, dazzling geysers, and picturesque hot springs, are windows into the Earth's interior, revealing the violent power of the dynamic processes within. Smith and Siegel offer expert guidance through this awe-inspiring terrain, bringing to life the grandeur of these geologic phenomena as they reveal the forces that have shaped--and continue to shape--the greater Yellowstone-Teton region. Over seventy illustrations--including fifty-two in full color--illuminate the breathtaking beauty of the landscape, while two final chapters provide driving tours of the parks to help visitors enjoy and understand the regions wonders. Fascinating and informative, this book affords us a striking new perspective on Earth's creative forces.

Volcanic and Tectonic Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

Volcanic and Tectonic Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Facilities Book
Author : Charles B. Connor,Neil A. Chapman,Laura J. Connor
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2009-08-27
ISBN : 0521887976
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A summary of the current state-of-the-art in volcanic and tectonic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities for researchers, geologists and engineers.

Glencoe Caldera Volcano Scotland

Glencoe Caldera Volcano  Scotland Book
Author : B. Peter Kokelaar,Ian Douglas Moore
Publisher :
Release : 2006
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to accompany the 1: 25 000 Glen Coe geology map

Volcanoes

Volcanoes Book
Author : Richard V. Fisher,Grant Heiken,Jeffrey Hulen
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 1998-10-04
ISBN : 9780691002491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Assisting readers in experiencing this geological phenomena, the authors draw upon actual encounters with volcanoes, often through firsthand accounts of those who have witnessed eruptions and miraculously survived the terrifying aftermath. 46 line illustrations. 85 halftones.

Ancient Lake Creede

Ancient Lake Creede Book
Author : Philip Martin Bethke,Richard LeRoy Hay
Publisher : Geological Society of America
Release : 2000-01-01
ISBN : 9780813723464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stratigraphy and Geology of Volcanic Areas

Stratigraphy and Geology of Volcanic Areas Book
Author : Gianluca Groppelli,Lothar Viereck-Goette
Publisher : Geological Society of America
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0813724643
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accompanying CD-ROM, entitled Supplementary materials to Stratigraphy and geology of volcanic areas, includes three geologic maps in Adobe Acrobat PDF files.