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Brittle Matrix Composites 10

Brittle Matrix Composites 10 Book
Author : A M Brandt,M A Glinicki,J Olek,C K Y Leung
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0857099892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The subjects of the symposia are on composite materials behaving as brittle, normal and special conditions of exploitation. Brittle matrix composites are applied in various domains and the series of symposia are closely related to their applications in civil engineering. In the last decades their importance is increasing along with their variety and the use of most advanced methods of testing. Papers include concretes, fibre concretes and ceramics, particularly their composition, microstructure and fracture processes. Various new and advanced engineering problems are presented in the papers.

Brittle Matrix Composites 10

Brittle Matrix Composites 10 Book
Author : A. M. Brandt,M. A. Glinicki,J. Olek,Christopher Leung
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-11-13
ISBN : 9780081016657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The subjects of the symposia are on composite materials behaving as brittle, normal and special conditions of exploitation. Brittle matrix composites are applied in various domains and the series of symposia are closely related to their applications in civil engineering. In the last decades their importance is increasing along with their variety and the use of most advanced methods of testing. Papers include concretes, fibre concretes and ceramics, particularly their composition, microstructure and fracture processes. Various new and advanced engineering problems are presented in the papers.

Brittle Matrix Composites 9

Brittle Matrix Composites 9 Book
Author : A M Brandt,J Olek,I H Marshall
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-11-30
ISBN : 085709307X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The subjects of the symposia are on composite materials with matrices behaving as brittle in normal or special conditions. Brittle matrix composites are applied in various domains (civil engineering, mechanical equipment and machinery, vehicles, etc.) and in the last decades their importance is increasing together with their variety. Papers include: aggregate-binder composites (concretes, fibre concretes, rocks); sintered materials (ceramics); high strength composites with brittle matrices. In principle, the general problems of structures made of composite materials are not included in the papers. Various approaches to the material engineering problems are presented in the papers.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Christopher K. Y. Leung,Dongwei Hou
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090189
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Steel corrosion is a major problem with concrete structures. For concrete structures exposed to chlorides, once a critical chloride concentration is reached at the steel surface, corrosion starts to occur. For a given cover thickness, the corrosion initiation time depends on the chloride diffusivity. For different kinds of concrete, the diffusivity Do at the un-cracked state has been measured. However, in reinforced concrete design, concrete members are allowed to crack in tension. Once cracking occurs, chloride can also diffuse through the crack at a faster rate governed by the crack diffusivity Dcr. Recent experiments have shown that Dcr is a function of the crack width. In the present study, finite element analysis is performed to study the effect of cracking on corrosion initiation in concrete with different values of Do. For various crack width and cover thickness, the time for critical chloride concentration to be reached at steel intersected by the crack is determined. Based on the simulation results, we will derive the empirical equation for an effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) which can be employed directly in the solution of the one-dimensional diffusion equation to calculate the corrosion initiation time. The study will provide a convenient but accurate approach for predicting corrosion initiation under real world situations where cracks are present in a concrete structure.

Brittle Matrix Composites 7

Brittle Matrix Composites 7 Book
Author : A M Brandt,V C Li,I H Marshall
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2003-10-01
ISBN : 085709310X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The International Symposium in Brittle Matrix Composites October 13-15, 2003 covers a wide spectrum of topics including cement based composites, ceramic composites and brittle polymer matrix composites. In the papers various topics and issues are considered such as: analytical and numerical studies related to the design of composites, prediction of behaviour and verification of strength and stability, testing methods, manufacturing processes and repair, environmental effects and durability assessment. The present volume of 55 papers proves that there are still many problems in the field of brittle matrix composites deserving theoretical and experimental investigations and that new solutions to these problems are needed for practical application in civil engineering, industrial structures, machinery and other domains.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Huan He,Piet Stroeven,Eric Pirard,Luc Courard
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete’s properties is large. The sieve curve traditionally defines the aggregate size range. Another essential property is grain shape. Both, size and shape influence workability and the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. On the other hand, the shape of cement particles plays also an important role in the hydration process due to surface dissolution in the hardening process. Additionally, grain dispersion, shape and size govern the pore percolation process that is of crucial importance for concrete durability Discrete element modeling (DEM) is commonly employed for simulation of concrete structure. To be able doing so, the assessed grain shape should be implemented. The approaches for aggregate and cement structure simulation by a concurrent algorithm-based DEM system are discussed in this paper. Both aggregate and cement were experimentally analyzed by X-ray tomography method recently. The results provide a real experimental database, e.g. surface area versus volume distribution, for simulation of particles in concrete technology. Optimum solutions are obtained by different simplified shapes proposed for aggregate and cement, respectively. In this way, reliable concepts for aggregate structure and fresh cement paste can be simulated by a DEM system.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : M. Maalej,S.T. Quek,J. Zhang,V.W J. Lin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090413
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This paper reviews the results of recent laboratory research studies focusing on the behavior of hybrid fiber Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) panels subjected to low- and high-velocity projectile impact. The reviewed laboratory studies include high-velocity (300-700m/s) small-size projectiles impact tests conducted on 0.30×0.17m hybrid fiber ECC prismatic panels of various thicknesses (representing a section of a door or wall), low-velocity large projectile impact tests conducted on both full scale hybrid fiber ECC blast/shelter panels (2.0×1.0×0.05-0.1m), and 1/3 scale hybrid fiber ECC strengthened masonry wall panels (1.0 x 1.0 x 0.1m). Recent results obtained from dynamic tensile tests of hybrid fiber ECC coupon specimens are also reviewed to assess the effect of strain rate on the material uniaxial tensile behavior. The reviewed test results demonstrate the potential value of hybrid fiber ECC for providing better functionality as protective material in aspects such as increased shatter resistance with damage reduction due to scabbing and spalling, as well as significantly-improved cracking behavior, resistance against multiple impacts, and energy absorption associated with distributed microcracking in comparison to concrete.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Agnieszka Ślosarczyk
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090251
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compared to concrete, the compressive strength is not a very important property of cement mortar. It is very important that mortar forms a complete, strong, and durable bond with the building material elements, because it is used as an adhesive and sealant material. The physical and mechanical properties of cement mortar, especially flexural strength, toughness, tensile strength, reduction of plastic as well as drying shrinkage, can be enhanced by the use of randomly dispersed fibres, such as steel, carbon or polymer. In the present research there were investigated cement mortars modified with randomly dispersed polypropylene and steel fibres in different volume fraction used both separately and in a hybrid system. The conducted research proved that the low modulus polypropylene fibres with good flexibility added to cement matrix resulted in good properties of fresh mortar and caused the reduction of early age cracking. The beneficial effects of flexible fibres could be attributed to their high aspect ratio and increased fibre availability at a given volume fraction due to their low density. Because of low stiffness, these fibres are particularly effective in controlling the propagation of micro-cracks. It was found that the hybrid combination of metallic and nonmetallic fibres can offer potential advantages in improving cement matrix properties, such as the ultimate strength and toughness of composites.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Karolina Gibas,Michał A. Glinicki
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of caleerous fly ash from brown coal combustion in Belchatow Power Plant in Poland as additive to concrete mix was studied. The strength and the resistance to chloride penetration into concrete was investigated at water to binder ratio from 0.45 to 0.60. Caleerous fly ash both in unprocessed form and grinded to specified specific surface was used for partial replacement of cement up to 30% of mass. To evaluate the concrete resistance to chloride ion penetration the standard method of determination of chloride migration coefficient from non-steady-state migration test according to NT Build 492 was used. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride penetration into concrete containing calcerous fly ash. The resistance was higher for increased replacement level and decreased water-to-cement ratio.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Chiara Villani,Robert Spragg,Mohammad Pour-Ghaz,W. Jason Weiss
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090197
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The drying of cementitious materials is of interest in volume change (i.e., shrinkage) research. However, the movement of water due to drying and wetting also plays a significant role in many durability related problems (e.g., corrosion, alkali silica reactivity, freezing and thawing). Many factors can influence the drying and wetting process in concrete including: pore structure, environmental conditions, and liquid properties. This paper describes the influence of the liquid properties on the drying process. Specifically, this work examines the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient that is used in a differential equation that describes drying. This paper describes how the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient is influenced by the presence of deicing salts solutions. The relationship between the equilibrium relative humidity and the solution properties is also discussed in this paper. A higher degree of saturation was observed for the samples containing deicing salt solutions, as compared to the plain samples at any given humidity. The presence of deicing salt causes a shift of the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient as a function of relative humidity. The non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient curves have near zero rates of drying at low relative humidity with a rapid increase in drying rate as the relative humidity is increased (especially near the equilibrium relative humidity) followed by diffusion coefficient of 0 between RHeq and 100% RH.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Waldemar Pichór,Maksymilian Frąc
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The electric resistance and thermoelectric properties of cement composites with addition of expanded graphite were. The expanded graphite was obtained from intercalated graphite by rapid heating in different conditions. The influence of thermal treatment on thermoelectric properties was measured. The cement pastes were prepared in the two different ways, either by mixing together expanded graphite and cement, or by rubbing compounds together in order to obtain smaller particles of graphite (even nanometric size) during mixing. The bulk density and electric and thermoelectric properties of cement pastes with addition of expanded graphite were measured. The results of investigations show that the electric properties of composites are strongly influenced by the conditions of thermal expansion as well as by the technique of preparation.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Teresa zych,Krasodomski Wojciech
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The results of research concerning flexural strength, work of fracture and compressive strength of basalt fibre reinforced cement mortars as well as basalt fibre resistance in alkaline environment are presented in the paper. Basalt fibres, 5mm and 12mm long, with the amount of 0.4kg/m3, 1kg/m3, 2kg/m3 were used as the reinforcement of 3, 7 and 28-day mortars. It was found that the addition of fibres caused the increase in flexural strength (up to 20%), the reduction in compressive strength (up to 15%) and the properties tested were determined by the length of fibres whereas the influence of the fibre content was insignificant. The examination of basalt fibre resistance in alkaline environment (10% sodium hydroxide solution at 60°C during 10 days) pointed out the chemical degradation of basalt fibres in the form of reduction of fibre diameter and formation of the deposit on the surface of fibre. The microscopic observations and ED XRF spectra did not confirm the presence of any polymer coating on the surface of fibres that could enable the effective anchorage (bond) of basalt fibres to the matrix and could protect fibres against the destruction in the alkaline environment of cement matrix.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Mariusz Dabrowski,Michal A. Glinicki
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090383
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The influence of aggregate type on the compressive strength, the resistance to chloride penetration and the scaling resistance with de-icing salts of concrete made with blended cements with calcerous fly ash was investigated. The range of investigation included the air entrained concrete with water to cement ratio w/c=0.45 with the prototype blended cements containing the additives of calcerous fly ash, siliceous fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. Concrete specimens were cured during first 3 days in water and then in the air of 40% RH until 28 and 90 days. Frost-salt scaling tests were performed using 3% NaCl solution. The air void microstructure was quantitatively evaluated. The results revealed the influence of blended cement type on the properties of concrete with different type of aggregates.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Nghi L.B. Le,Piet Stroeven
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Portland cement (PC) production contributes by about 6% to global emissions of C02. Reduction of the PC content in the binder exerts therefore a direct positive effect on such emissions. Partial replacement of the Portland cement by pozzolanic mineral admixtures has been proven a possible option. The green character is even reinforced by making use of incinerated vegetable waste, such as rice husk ash (RHA). Moreover, as a result of the gap-grading effect on particle packing density with RHA as the fine component, high strength concrete can be achieved with RHA-blended cement. This has been published earlier, so the paper only briefly covers these aspects. Characteristics of the capillary pores developed in the hydrating binder have direct impact on the transport-based durability properties. However, assessment of such pore characteristics of the RHA-blended cement constitutes a complicated problem, especially in experimental approaches. This paper, therefore, presents a new economic approach to conduct such investigation on the realistically produced cementitious materials in virtual reality. The fresh packed state of the paste’s particles is simulated by a discrete element modeling (DEM) system, HADES. The hydration of a (blended) cement is simulated by a so-called ‘extended integrated particle kinetics model’ (XIPKM). Pore characteristics, such as topology, location distribution, degree of percolation and fraction of main channels in the pore network, are explored by a new modern approach named ‘double random multi-tree structuring’ (DraMuTS). The size distribution of throats that significantly limit the transport in the pore network system is derived from star volume measurements. Four examples of plain PC and of RHA-blended PC with two w/b ratios are presented. The expected positive effects on transport-based durability issues due to RHA-blending are discussed.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Hiroshi Akita,Hideo Koide,Hirozo Mihashi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090405
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the uniaxial tension test of concrete, inevitably some secondary flexures occur. However the characteristics of the secondary flexures are not well understood among others because of the complexity of performing the uniaxial tension test without the flexures. In this paper the uniaxial tension test in which secondary flexures are minimized, by a specially developed device, are compared to the tests where secondary flexures are left to develop freely. Experimental results and theoretical calculations are shown for the influence of secondary flexures on load-deformation curves, tensile strength and strain energy of the specimen. Plural flexures which grow finally plural cracks were also analyzed concerning to an experimental result. It is concluded that secondary flexures should be minimized, because they produce considerable error to the load-deformation curve and tensile strength. Furthermore, secondary flexures should be controlled continuously during the test because the minimized state is an unstable equilibrium of strain energy in the specimen. And the flexures can only be minimized by using a notched specimen because plural flexures occur in an un-notched specimen.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Joseph J. Biernacki,Narendar R. Mogula,Jordan K. Dunne,Rajavardhan R. Nagolu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Samples of a typical Class-F fly ash were sintered in various oxygen partial pressure atmospheres including argon, 21% O2 in argon, air and 50% O2 in argon. A three-mechanism sintering model was proposed along with physiochemical kinetic transformations that cause the mechanism of sintering to naturally change as time and temperature progress. When used to interpret the experimental data, it was found that even trace amounts of carbon can alter the sintering kinetics, although atmosphere does not affect sintering rates as long as carbon is volatilized prior to the onset of sintering. Both a two and three mechanism model provide a good fit; however, a three mechanism model with thermal expansion was found to provide a more natural fit to the data. A global multi-dataset optimization strategy was used. In addition, the sintered products were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the crystalline phases present in the fly ash samples. The main crystalline phases present in fly ash are mullite and quartz, although, different crystalline structures and amounts were observed in the sintered samples.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Jitendra A. Jain,Jan Olek,Kho P. Verian,Nancy Whiting
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disposal of aged concrete pavements involves great cost and (due to volumes involved) can be detrimental to environment when all of this material is deposited in landfills. It is therefore cost-effective to recycle crushed concrete as coarse aggregates (referred hereafter as RCA) to replace natural aggregates (NA) during construction of new concrete pavements. This approach reduces the need for quarrying of natural aggregates and saves space in the landfills. The main focus of this study was on determining the chloride penetration resistance of pavement concretes containing various levels (0, 30 and 100%) of RCA as a replacement for NA. All concrete mixtures used in this study were designed to meet the fresh properties and flexural strength requirements specified for pavements by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT). The resistance to chloride ion penetration was determined using two electrical migration tests: rapid chloride permeability (RCP) test (as per ASTM C1202) and non-steady state migration test (as per NT BUILD 492). Before the initiation of the RCP test, all specimens were first subjected to 250mVAC potential scan using SolartronTM 1260 gain-phase impedance analyzer. The impedance spectra (collected over a frequency range of 0.1Hz to 10MHz) were used to obtain bulk resistance (Rb) of the concrete. The steady state diffusion coefficients were calculated using RCP test data in Nernst-Plank and empirical equations. The general trends obtained from the chloride penetration resistance results indicate that initial current values from RCP test can be used to predict the performance of concretes containing RCA. Mixtures with 30% RCA performed similar to 0% RCA mixture while the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete with 100% RCA was somewhat reduced.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Andrzej Marek Brandt,Ian H. Marshall
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Brittle Matrix Composites book written by Andrzej Marek Brandt,Ian H. Marshall, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures

Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures Book
Author : Günther Meschke,Bernhard Pichler,Jan G. Rots
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-01-31
ISBN : 1351726765
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The EURO-C conference series (Split 1984, Zell am See 1990, Innsbruck 1994, Badgastein 1998, St. Johann im Pongau 2003, Mayrhofen 2006, Schladming 2010, St. Anton am Arlberg 2014, and Bad Hofgastein 2018) brings together researchers and practising engineers concerned with theoretical, algorithmic and validation aspects associated with computational simulations of concrete and concrete structures. Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures reviews and discusses research advancements and the applicability and robustness of methods and models for reliable analysis of complex concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete structures in engineering practice. The contributions cover both computational mechanics and computational modelling aspects of the analysis and design of concrete and concrete structures: Multi-scale cement and concrete research: experiments and modelling Aging concrete: from very early ages to decades-long durability Advances in material modelling of plain concrete Analysis of reinforced concrete structures Steel-concrete interaction, fibre-reinforced concrete, and masonry Dynamic behaviour: from seismic retrofit to impact simulation Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures is of special interest to academics and researchers in computational concrete mechanics, as well as industry experts in complex nonlinear simulations of concrete structures.

Brittle Matrix Composites

Brittle Matrix Composites Book
Author : Mònica Ardanuy,Josep Clarmunt,Romildo D Toledo Filho
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2012-11-12
ISBN : 0128090138
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this work, the evaluation of the durability to wet-dry cycling exposure of cement composites reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose comparing the results with composites reinforced with conventional cellulose fibres at the micro-scale level has been performed. For this purpose, cement mortar composites reinforced with cellulose fibres from conventional sisal pulp and cellulose nanofibres prepared by the application of a high intensity refining process have been prepared. The mechanical performance of the composites prepared was tested after 7 days of cure treatment and after 5 wet-dry cycles. The cement mortar composites reinforced with the nanofibrillated cellulose exhibited higher flexural strenght and flexural modulus but lower values of fracture energy than the ones reinforced with the conventional sisal fibres. No significant improvements of the durability were found for the composites prepared with nanofibrillated cellulose.