Skip to main content

Brassinosteroids In Plant Developmental Biology And Stress Tolerance

In Order to Read Online or Download Brassinosteroids In Plant Developmental Biology And Stress Tolerance Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Brassinosteroids in Plant Developmental Biology and Stress Tolerance

Brassinosteroids in Plant Developmental Biology and Stress Tolerance Book
Author : Jing-Quan Yu,Golam Jalal Ahammed,Priti Krishna
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-11
ISBN : 9780128132272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Brassinosteroids in Plant Developmental Biology and Stress Tolerance presents the mechanisms of Brassinosteroid-regulated plant developmental biology and stress tolerance that cover various biochemical, physiological, genetic and molecular studies. As unprecedented climate change threatens global food security, studies reveal that BRs could not only protect plants from stresses to ensure food security, but also reduce toxic compounds in edible plant parts. As the utilization of BRs in modern agriculture is of great significance in the context of global climate change, this book presents key information on how to develop eco-friendly growth regulators and understand the importance of brassinosteroids in safe food production. Presents the multifaceted roles of brassinosteroids as phytohormones in plant growth, development and response to biotic and/or abiotic stresses Unveils the physiological and molecular mechanisms controlling plant stress response to biotic and abiotic stress Discusses developmental processes relating to environmental adaptations that are mediated by brassinosteroids Brings together recent works of experts studying brassinosteroid crosstalk with other signals, including hormones, sugars, redox and light signals

Brassinosteroids Plant Growth and Development

Brassinosteroids  Plant Growth and Development Book
Author : Shamsul Hayat,Mohammad Yusuf,Renu Bhardwaj,Andrzej Bajguz
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-02
ISBN : 9811360588
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The entire range of the developmental process in plants is regulated by a shift in the hormonal concentration, tissue sensitivity and their interaction with the factors operating around the plants. Phytohormones play a crucial role in regulating the direction of plant in a coordinated fashion in association with metabolism that provides energy and the building blocks to generate the form that we recognize as a plant. Out of the recognized hormones, attention has largely been focused on Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene and more recently on Brassinosteroids. In this book we are providing the information about a brassinosteroids that again confirm its status as phytohormones because it has significant impact on various aspects of the plant life and its ubiquitous distribution throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are generating a significant impact on plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport, induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure. This book is not an encyclopedia of reviews but includes a selected collection of newly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of brassinosteroids. The aim of this book is to tell all about brassinosteroids, by the present time. The various chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects and may serve as baseline information for future researches through which significant development is possible. It is intended that this book will be useful to the students, teachers and researchers, both in universities and research institutes, especially in relation to biological and agricultural sciences.

Plant Growth Regulators

Plant Growth Regulators Book
Author : Tariq Aftab,Khalid Rehman Hakeem
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-03-26
ISBN : 9783030611521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Agriculture faces many challenges to fulfil the growing demand for sustainable food production and ensure high-quality nutrition for a rapidly growing population. To guarantee adequate food production, it is necessary to increase the yield per area of arable land. A method for achieving this goal has been the application of growth regulators to modulate plant growth. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are substances in specific formulations which, when applied to plants or seeds, have the capacity to promote, inhibit, or modify physiological traits, development and/or stress responses. They maintain proper balance between source and sink for enhancing crop yield. PGRs are used to maximize productivity and quality, improve consistency in production, and overcome genetic and abiotic limitations to plant productivity. Suitable PGRs include hormones such as cytokinins and auxins, and hormone-like compounds such as mepiquat chloride and paclobutrazol. The use of PGRs in mainstream agriculture has steadily increased within the last 20 years as their benefits have become better understood by growers. Unfortunately, the growth of the PGR market may be constrained by a lack of innovation at a time when an increase in demand for new products will require steady innovation and discovery of novel, cost-competitive, specific, and effective PGRs. A plant bio-stimulant is any substance or microorganism applied to plants with the aim to enhance nutrition efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance and/or crop quality traits, regardless of its nutrients content. Apart from traditional PGRs, which are mostly plant hormones, there are a number of substances/molecules such as nitric oxide, methyl jasmonate, brassinosteroids, seaweed extracts, strigolactones, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria etc. which act as PGRs. These novel PGRs or bio-stimulants have been reported to play important roles in stress responses and adaptation. They can protect plants against various stresses, including water deficit, chilling and high temperatures, salinity and flooding. This book includes chapters ranging from sensing and signalling in plants to translational research. In addition, the cross-talk operative in plants in response to varied signals of biotic and abiotic nature is also presented. Ultimately the objective of this book is to present the current scenario and the future plan of action for the management of stresses through traditional as well as novel PGRs. We believe that this book will initiate and introduce readers to state-of-the-art developments and trends in this field of study.

Brassinosteroids Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health

Brassinosteroids  Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health Book
Author : Adaucto Bellarmino Pereira-Netto
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1608052982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Brassinosteroids: Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview on the practical applications of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant biology (including stress tolerance, growth and development) and human health (anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity). The book assures readers a high-quality review of practical applications with a selection of contributions from an international panel of expert researchers. The book suggests new opportunities for professionals to effectively increase the supply of quality food and other plant-derived product.

Brassinosteroids

Brassinosteroids Book
Author : Akira Sakurai,Takao Yokota,Steven D. Clouse
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1999-03-01
ISBN : 9784431702146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Brassinosteroids are plant-growth-promoting natural products similar in structure to animal and insect steroid hormones. Considered a new class of plant hormone, along with auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene, brassinosteroids are present throughout the plant kingdom. They show distinct physiological effects on plant growth including improvement of stress tolerance in crop production. These discoveries, together with advances in molecular and biosynthetic studies of brassinosteroids, open new aspects of research in understanding the growth and development of plants. This book presents a comprehensive view of the related chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, agricultural applications, and most recent research in molecular biology. Written by scientists who are active in these fields, Brassinosteroids is a vital source of information for plant and agricultural science researchers with an interest in plant hormones.

Molecular Stress Physiology of Plants

Molecular Stress Physiology of Plants Book
Author : Gyana Ranjan Rout,Anath Bandhu Das
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-02-12
ISBN : 8132208072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Crop growth and production is dependent on various climatic factors. Both abiotic and biotic stresses have become an integral part of plant growth and development. There are several factors involved in plant stress mechanism. The information in the area of plant growth and molecular mechanism against abiotic and biotic stresses is scattered. The up-to-date information with cited references is provided in this book in an organized way. More emphasis has been given to elaborate the injury and tolerance mechanisms and growth behavior in plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. This book also deals with abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, molecular mechanism of stress resistance of photosynthetic machinery, stress tolerance in plants: special reference to salt stress - a biochemical and physiological adaptation of some Indian halophytes, PSII fluorescence techniques for measurement of drought and high temperature stress signal in crop plants: protocols and applications, salicylic acid: role in plant physiology & stress tolerance, salinity induced genes and molecular basis of salt tolerance mechanism in mangroves, reproductive stage abiotic stress tolerance in cereals, calorimetry and Raman spectrometry to study response of plant to biotic and abiotic stresses, molecular physiology of osmotic stress in plants and mechanisms, functions and toxicity of heavy metals stress in plants, submergence stress tolerance in plants and adoptive mechanism, Brassinosteroid modulated stress responses under temperature stress, stress tolerant in plants: a proteomics approach, Marker-assisted breeding for stress resistance in crop plants, DNA methylation associated epigenetic changes in stress tolerance of plants and role of calcium-mediated CBL-CIPK network in plant mineral nutrition & abiotic stress. Each chapter has been laid out with introduction, up-to-date literature, possible stress mechanism, and applications. Under abiotic stress, plant produces a large quantity of free radicals, which have been elaborated. We hope that this book will be of greater use for the post-graduate students, researchers, physiologist and biotechnologist to sustain the plant growth and development.

Mechanism of Plant Hormone Signaling under Stress

Mechanism of Plant Hormone Signaling under Stress Book
Author : Girdhar K. Pandey
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-03-24
ISBN : 1118888766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Plant hormone signaling plays an important role in many physiological and developmental processes including stress response. With the advent of new post-genomic molecular techniques, the potential for increasing our understanding of the impact of hormone signaling on gene expression and adaptive processes has never been higher. Unlocking the molecular underpinnings of these processes shows great promise for the development of new plant biotechnologies and improved crop varieties. The topics included in this book emphasize on genomics and functional genomics aspects, to understand the global and whole genome level changes upon particular stress conditions. With the functional genomics tools, the mechanism of phytohormone signaling and their target genes can be defined in a more systematic manner. The integrated analysis of phytohormone signaling under single or multiple stress conditions may prove exceptional to design stress tolerant crop plants in the field conditions. Bringing together the latest advances, as well as the work being done to apply these findings to plant and crop science, Mechanism of Plant Hormone Signaling Under Stress will prove extremely useful to plant and stress biologists, plant biotechnology researchers, as well as students and teachers.

Brassinosteroids

Brassinosteroids Book
Author : Shamsul Hayat,Aqil Ahmad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401709483
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The entire range of the developmental processes in plants is regulated by the shift in the hormonal concentration, tissue sensitivity and their interaction with the factors operating around the plants. Out of the recognized hormones, attention has largely been focused on five (Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinin, Abscisic acid and Ethylene). However, in this book, the information about the most recent group of phytohormones (Brassinosteroids) has been compiled by us. It is a class of over 40 polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives, ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. A large portion of these steroids is restricted to the reproductive organs (pollens and immature seeds). Moreover, their strong growth-inducing capacity, recognized as early as prior to their identification in 1979, tempted the scientists to visualize the practical importance of this group of phytohormones. The brassin solution, from rape pollen, was used in a collaborative project by the scientists of Brazil and U. S. A. in a p- sowing seed treatment to augment the yield. This was followed by large-scale scientific programmes in U. S. , Japan, China, Germany and erstwhile U. S. S. R. , after the isolation of the brassinosteroids. This approach suits best in today’s context where plants are targeted only as producers and hormones are employed to get desired results. Chapter 1 of this book (which embodies a total of 10 chapters), gives a comprehensive survey of the hitherto known brassinosteroids, isolated from lower and higher plants.

Phytohormones A Window to Metabolism Signaling and Biotechnological Applications

Phytohormones  A Window to Metabolism  Signaling and Biotechnological Applications Book
Author : Lam-Son Phan Tran,Sikander Pal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-01
ISBN : 1493904914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes. At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. Additionally, the signal transduction component(s) of one hormonal pathway may interplay with the signaling component(s) of other hormonal pathway(s). Together these and other research findings have revolutionized the concept of phytohormonal studies in plants. Importantly, genetic engineering now enables plant biologists to manipulate the signaling pathways of plant hormones for development of crop varieties with improved yield and stress tolerance. This book, written by internationally recognized scholars from various countries, represents the state-of-the-art understanding of plant hormones’ biology, signal transduction and implications. Aimed at a wide range of readers, including researchers, students, teachers and many others who have interests in this flourishing research field, every section is concluded with biotechnological strategies to modulate hormone contents or signal transduction pathways and crosstalk that enable us to develop crops in a sustainable manner. Given the important physiological implications of plant hormones in stressful environments, our book is finalized with chapters on phytohormonal crosstalks under abiotic and biotic stresses.

Molecular Stress Physiology of Plants

Molecular Stress Physiology of Plants Book
Author : Gyana Ranjan Rout,Anath Bandhu Das
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-23
ISBN : 9788132228578
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Crop growth and production is dependent on various climatic factors. Both abiotic and biotic stresses have become an integral part of plant growth and development. There are several factors involved in plant stress mechanism. The information in the area of plant growth and molecular mechanism against abiotic and biotic stresses is scattered. The up-to-date information with cited references is provided in this book in an organized way. More emphasis has been given to elaborate the injury and tolerance mechanisms and growth behavior in plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. This book also deals with abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, molecular mechanism of stress resistance of photosynthetic machinery, stress tolerance in plants: special reference to salt stress - a biochemical and physiological adaptation of some Indian halophytes, PSII fluorescence techniques for measurement of drought and high temperature stress signal in crop plants: protocols and applications, salicylic acid: role in plant physiology & stress tolerance, salinity induced genes and molecular basis of salt tolerance mechanism in mangroves, reproductive stage abiotic stress tolerance in cereals, calorimetry and Raman spectrometry to study response of plant to biotic and abiotic stresses, molecular physiology of osmotic stress in plants and mechanisms, functions and toxicity of heavy metals stress in plants, submergence stress tolerance in plants and adoptive mechanism, Brassinosteroid modulated stress responses under temperature stress, stress tolerant in plants: a proteomics approach, Marker-assisted breeding for stress resistance in crop plants, DNA methylation associated epigenetic changes in stress tolerance of plants and role of calcium-mediated CBL-CIPK network in plant mineral nutrition & abiotic stress. Each chapter has been laid out with introduction, up-to-date literature, possible stress mechanism, and applications. Under abiotic stress, plant produces a large quantity of free radicals, which have been elaborated. We hope that this book will be of greater use for the post-graduate students, researchers, physiologist and biotechnologist to sustain the plant growth and development.

Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Israel Journal of Plant Sciences Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Israel Journal of Plant Sciences book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plant Environment Interaction

Plant Environment Interaction Book
Author : Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz,Parvaiz Ahmad
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-01-26
ISBN : 1119080991
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The increase in global population, urbanization and industrialization is resulting in the conversion of cultivated land into wasteland. Providing food from these limited resources to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that present agriculturalists and plant scientists are facing. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Plants on which mankind is directly or indirectly dependent exhibit various mechanisms for their survival. Adaptability of the plants to changing environment is a matter of concern for plant biologists trying to reach the goal of food security. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to withstand these environmental extremes. Using new technological approaches has become essential and imperative. Plant-Environment Interaction: Responses and Approaches to Mitigate Stress throws light on the changing environment and the sustainability of plants under these conditions. It contains the most up-to-date research and comprehensive detailed discussions in plant physiology, climate change, agronomy and forestry, sometimes from a molecular point of view, to convey in-depth understanding of the effects of environmental stress in plants, their responses to the environment, how to mitigate the negative effects and improve yield under stress. This edited volume is written by expert plant biologists from around the world, providing invaluable knowledge to graduate and undergraduate students in plant biochemistry, food chemistry, plant physiology, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, and environmental sciences. This book updates scientists and researchers with the very latest information and sustainable methods used for stress tolerance, which will also be of considerable interest to plant based companies and institutions concerned with the campaign of food security.

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Australian Journal of Agricultural Research book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cold Tolerance in Plants

Cold Tolerance in Plants Book
Author : Shabir Hussain Wani,Venura Herath
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-24
ISBN : 3030014150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Cold stress is one of the prevalent environmental stresses affecting crop productivity, particularly in temperate regions. Numerous plant types of tropical or subtropical origin are injured or killed by non-freezing low temperature, and display a range of symptoms of chilling injury such as chlorosis, necrosis, or growth retardation. In contrast, chilling tolerant species thrive well at such temperatures. To thrive under cold stress conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms to identify peripheral signals that allow them to counter varying environmental conditions. These mechanisms include stress perception, signal transduction, transcriptional activation of stress-responsive target genes, and synthesis of stress-related proteins and other molecules, which help plants to strive through adverse environmental conditions. Conventional breeding methods have met with limited success in improving the cold tolerance of important crop plants through inter-specific or inter-generic hybridization. A better understanding of physiological, biochemical and molecular responses and tolerance mechanisms, and discovery of novel stress-responsive pathways and genes may contribute to efficient engineering strategies that enhance cold stress tolerance. It is therefore imperative to accelerate the efforts to unravel the biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying cold stress tolerance in plants. Through this new book, we intend to integrate the contributions from plant scientists targeting cold stress tolerance mechanisms using physiological, biochemical, molecular, structural and systems biology approaches. It is hoped that this collection will serve as a reference source for those who are interested in or are actively engaged in cold stress research.

Plant Breeding Abstracts

Plant Breeding Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Plant Breeding Abstracts book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brassinosteroids

Brassinosteroids Book
Author : Adaucto Bellarmino Pereira-Netto
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018-02-13
ISBN : 9781608056545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Brassinosteroids: Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview on the practical applications of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant biology (including stress tolerance, growth and development) and human health (anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity). The book assures readers a high-quality review of practical applications with a selection of contributions from an international panel of expert researchers. The book suggests new opportunities for professionals to effectively increase the supply of quality food and other plant-derived products, and to improve human health. This book is a reference guide for the performance and interpretation of applications of brassinosteroids to agronomists, chemists, physicians and plant physiologists.

Bibliography of Agriculture

Bibliography of Agriculture Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Bibliography of Agriculture book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Current Advances in Fern Research

Current Advances in Fern Research Book
Author : Helena Fernández
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-03-24
ISBN : 3319751034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Ferns, collectively, represent an ancient species of vascular plant which has a direct connection to the beginning of life on Earth. Today they are valued for their ornamental appeal, environmental benefit or as sources of health benefiting metabolites. Current pteridology, the study of fern, encompasses a wide range of research activities including, but not limited to, plant physiology, stress tolerance, genetics and genomics. The goal of this book is to compile the most relevant research done with ferns during the last decade. It is organized into four parts: I, Biology and Biotechnology; II, Evolution and Conservation; III, Metabolism and Genetic Resources, and IV, Environment. Each section reveals the utilization of ferns as a tool to explore challenges unique to plant development and adaptation. This project represents our collective effort to raise the awareness of ferns as a model system to study higher plant functions. Among the distinctive features of our proposed book are: (i) a wide range of topics with contributing researchers from all around the world, and (ii) recent advances of theoretic and applied knowledge with implications to crop species of economic value.

Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology

Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology Book
Author : Russell L. Jones
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999-06
ISBN : 9780824306502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology book written by Russell L. Jones, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Advances in Plant Physiology Vol 15

Advances in Plant Physiology  Vol 15  Book
Author : A. Hemantaranjan
Publisher : Scientific Publishers
Release : 2014-12-01
ISBN : 9386102927
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In view of changes in the global environment, it is important to determine and developing technologies to ameliorate metabolic limitations by biological processes most sensitive to abiotic stress factors warning crop productivity. It is reaffirmed that publishing the important Treatise Series has been undertaken with a view to identify the inadequacies under varied environments and to scientifically extend precise and meaningful research so that the significant outcomes including new technologies are judiciously applied for requisite productivity, profitability and sustainability of agriculture. Besides this, meticulous research in some of the very sensible and stirring areas of Plant Physiology-Plant Molecular Physiology are indispensably needed for holistic development of agriculture and crop production in different agro-climatic zones. Ardently, this is also to focus upon excellent new ideas ensuring the best science done across the full extent of modern plant biology, in general, and plant physiology, in particular. In Volume 14, with inventive applied research, attempts have been made to bring together much needed eighteen remarkable review articles distributed in three appropriate major sections of Nutriophysiology and Crop Productivity, Plant Responses to Changing Environment and Environmental Stresses and Technological Innovations in Agriculture written by thirty four praiseworthy contributors of eminence in unequivocal fields mainly from premier institutions of India and abroad. In reality, the Volume 14 of the Treatise Series is wealth for interdisciplinary exchange of information particularly in the field of nutriophysiology and abiotic stresses for planning meaningful research and related education programmes in these thrust areas. Apart from fulfilling the heightened need of this kind of select edition in different volumes for research teams and scientists engaged in various facets of research in Plant Physiology/Plant Sciences in traditional and agricultural universities, institutes and research laboratories throughout the world, it would be tremendously a productive reference book for acquiring advanced knowledge by post-graduate and Ph.D. scholars in response to the innovative courses in Plant Physiology, Plant Biochemistry, Plant Molecular Biology, Plant Biotechnology, Environ-mental Sciences, Plant Pathology, Microbiology, Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Botany.