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Brain Lipids In Synaptic Function And Neurological Disease

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Brain Lipids in Synaptic Function and Neurological Disease

Brain Lipids in Synaptic Function and Neurological Disease Book
Author : Jacques Fantini,Nouara Yahi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-05-12
ISBN : 0128004924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lipids are the most abundant organic compounds found in the brain, accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight. The brain lipidome includes several thousands of distinct biochemical structures whose expression may greatly vary according to age, gender, brain region, cell type, as well as subcellular localization. In synaptic membranes, brain lipids specifically interact with neurotransmitter receptors and control their activity. Moreover, brain lipids play a key role in the generation and neurotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins involved in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The aim of this book is to provide for the first time a comprehensive overview of brain lipid structures, and to explain the roles of these lipids in synaptic function, and in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s and Parkinson’s. To conclude the book, the authors present new ideas that can drive innovative therapeutic strategies based on the knowledge of the role of lipids in brain disorders. Written to provide a "hands-on" approach for readers Biochemical structures explained with molecular models, and molecular mechanisms explained with simple drawings Step-by-step guide to memorize and draw lipid structures Each chapter features a content summary, up-to-date references for additional study, and a key experiment with an explanation of the technique

Beneficial Effects of Fish Oil on Human Brain

Beneficial Effects of Fish Oil on Human Brain Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-14
ISBN : 9781441905437
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is becoming increasingly evident that the deficiency of n-3 fatty acids in diet is not only associated with cardiovascular diseases, but also involved in stroke, epilepsy and other neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and peroxisomal diseases. In his newest book, Beneficial Effects of Fish Oil on Human Brain, Dr. Akhlaq A. Farooqui expands on the status and therapeutic importance of n-3 fatty acids (major components of fish oil) and their mediators in normal brain and those with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Farooqui presents the benefits of n-3 fatty acids on Western diet, which is enriched in n-6 fatty acids (major components of vegetable oil) and may promote the above neurological disorders. The book will present readers with cutting edge and comprehensive information on metabolism and roles of neural membrane n-3 fatty acids.

Neurochemical Aspects of Neurotraumatic and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurochemical Aspects of Neurotraumatic and Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-02
ISBN : 9781441966520
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collectively, neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic and progressive loss of neurons in discrete areas of the brain, producing debilitating symptoms such as dementia, loss of memory, loss of sensory or motor capability, decreased overall quality of life eventually leading to premature death. Two types of cell death are known to occur during neurodegeneration: (a) apoptosis and (b) necrosis. The necrosis is characterized by the passive cell swelling, intense mitochondrial damage with rapid loss of ATP, alterations in neural membrane permeability, high calcium influx, and disruption of ion homeostasis. This type of cell death leads to membrane lysis and release of intracellular components that induce inflammatory reactions. Necrotic cell death normally occurs at the core of injury site. In contrast, apoptosis is an active process in which caspases (a group of endoproteases with specificity for aspartate residues in protein) are stimulated. Apoptotic cell death is accompanied by cell shrinkage, dynamic membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering, loss of phospholipids asymmetry, low ATP levels, and mild calcium overload. This type of cell death normally occurs in penumbral region at the ischemic injury site and in different regions in various neurodegenerative diseases.

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 0128119608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Disease provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of all components of the Mediterranean diet on the brain, along with its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. It covers topics on neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, (PD) Huntington disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also providing information on how cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome become risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. This book focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases as well as signal transduction. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat and processed meat products. High consumption of dietary fiber, low glycemic index and glycemic load, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant compounds may act together to produce favorable effects on health status. Collective evidence suggests that Mediterranean diet not only increases longevity by lowering cardiovascular disease, inhibiting cancer growth, but also by protecting the body from age-dependent cognitive decline. Comprehensively provides an overview of the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the brain and its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases Discusses the relationship among Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease, and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on normal aging, longevity, and other neurodegenerative diseases Focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease

Lipid Mediators and Their Metabolism in the Brain

Lipid Mediators and Their Metabolism in the Brain Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-08-12
ISBN : 9781441999405
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lipid Mediators and Their Metabolism in the Brain presents readers with cutting edge and comprehensive information not only on the synthesis and degradation of glycerophospholipid-, sphingolipid-, and cholesterol-derived lipid mediators, but also their involvement in neurological disorders. It is hoped that this monograph will be useful not only to postgraduate student and their teachers, but also to research scientists and physicians, who are curious about the generation and roles of lipid mediators in the brain.

Curcumin for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

Curcumin for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-03-16
ISBN : 0128154624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Curcumin for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurochemical and Pharmacological Properties focuses on the different molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated beneficial effects in neurological diseases. The book's editors discuss the neurochemical and pharmacological properties of curcumin, followed by the effect of curcumin in neurotraumatic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. The book also offers a perspective on future studies on the treatment of neurological disorders. The beneficial effects of curcumin have been observed both in cultured cells and in animal models, thus paving the way for ongoing present and future human clinical trials. Curcumin produces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects not only by blocking oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurotraumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, but also by restoring cellular homeostasis and rebalancing redox equilibrium. Identifies molecular mechanisms of curcumin effects in neurological diseases Includes effects on neurotraumatic, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases Covers the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of curcumin Examines curcumin’s potential in developing new therapeutic drugs

Pharmacological Modification of Excitatory Hippocampal Ca1 Synapses in Pathological Models of Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer s Disease

Pharmacological Modification of Excitatory Hippocampal Ca1 Synapses in Pathological Models of Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer s Disease Book
Author : Keng-Yu Chang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"An integral component of synaptic transmission is the capacity of synapses to adjust their structural and functional properties in response to the activities of other neurons in a process called synaptic plasticity. Changes in excitatory synapses can occur on dendritic spines, postsynaptic sites of the majority of excitatory synapses in the brain. In many neurodegenerative diseases, dendritic spine dysgenesis is observed; thus knowing what causes spine abnormalities will aid the development of therapies against these diseases. Recent studies suggest that neuroinflammation contributes to many neurological disorders such as, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, targeting neuroinflammation may be a viable way against different neurodegenerative diseases in addition to the use of cognitive enhancers. The goal of my thesis is to understand how spines are affected in neurodegenerative diseases and develop effective methods to prevent and promote the recovery in diseased brains. To address this problem, I have used a multidisciplinary approach to examine structural and functional changes of the CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses in the hippocampus during neuroinflammation and the addition of cognitive enhancing compound. The specific aims of my doctoral thesis work are as follows:AIM 1: To understand effect of lipid homeostasis on synaptic structure and function in a neuroinflammation model. Since neuroinflammation is an important contributor of various neurological diseases, I focused on how the neuronal circuitry will be affected during incidences of neuroinflammation and how can this be corrected. I found that in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated model of neuroinflammation, there is an abnormal lipid aggregation in the form of lipid bodies (LBs), disruption in mitochondrial function, changes in spine morphology and synaptic transmission. The addition of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexanoic acid (DHA) prevents LPS-associated deficits. My findings suggest that DHA supplementation may provide an attractive multiple-pronged approach in counteracting cellular damage caused by neuroinflammation. AIM 2: To understand effect of pharmacological inhibition of aromatase on synaptic structure and function in during oligomeric beta-amyloid42 (Abeta42)-mediated toxicity. Epidemiological studies revealed that pharmacological inhibition of estrogen synthesis through the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as letrozole, for the post-operative treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer also increases the incidences of cognitive decline in patients with unknown reasons. Interestingly, I found that inhibition of hippocampal local estrogen synthesis with letrozole disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and decreases dendritic spines and synaptic proteins. These deficits are exacerbated in the presence of oligomeric Abeta42-mediated toxicity. My findings may explain why letrozole users have higher chances of cognitive impairments and that off-target effects of aromatase inhibition in the brain must be carefully considered. AIM 3: To study the effect of long-term pharmacological cognitive enhancement using ampakines on synaptic structure and function. In line with current believes, direct enhancement of synaptic transmission can be used as a therapeutic method to target ailing neuronal communication observed in neurodegenerative diseases. I found that chronically enhancing AMPA receptors using the ampakine, CX546, surprisingly causes a decrease in dendritic spine densities and excitatory synaptic transmission that is accompanied by a concurrent enhancement of synaptic efficacy and plasticity. My findings provide a mechanistic explanation, at the synaptic structural and functional level, for the cognitive enhancing ability of chronic ampakine treatment.Findings presented in my doctoral thesis contribute to our understanding how the brain responds to neuroinflammation pathologies and cognitive enhancing compounds." --

Insulin Resistance As a Risk Factor in Visceral and Neurological Disorders

Insulin Resistance As a Risk Factor in Visceral and Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03
ISBN : 0128196033
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Insulin Resistance as a Risk Factor in Visceral and Neurological Disorders provides an overview on the risk factors for insulin resistance in visceral and neurological disorders. The book focuses on molecular mechanisms and signal transduction processes associated with the links. The comprehensive information in this monograph will not only help in the early detection of insulin resistance related visceral and neurological disorders, but also promote the discovery of new drugs which may block or delay onset in elderly patients. Understanding these processes is important not only for patients, caregivers and health professionals, but also for health policymakers who must plan for national resources.

Hot Topics in Neural Membrane Lipidology

Hot Topics in Neural Membrane Lipidology Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-05
ISBN : 9780387096933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators facilitate the transfer of messages not only from one cell to another but also from one subcellular organelle to another. These molecules are not only components of neural membranes but also storage depots for lipid mediators. Information on the generation and involvement of lipid mediators in neurological disorders is scattered throughout the literature in the form of original papers and reviews. This book will provide readers with a comprehensive description of glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid and cholesterol-derived lipid mediators and their involvement in neurological disorders.

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-08-08
ISBN : 9780128036037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors" explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases. Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders. Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disordersEdited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage availableProvides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems"

Neuroinflammation Resolution and Neuroprotection in the Brain

Neuroinflammation  Resolution  and Neuroprotection in the Brain Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-10-01
ISBN : 032388461X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroinflammation, Resolution, and Neuroprotection in the Brain discusses the molecular aspects of neuroinflammation in neurological disorders. The book examines the effect of diet and exercise on neuroinflammatory diseases. Chapters focus on bioactive lipids, cytokines and chemokines, as well as the involvement of neuroinflammation, resolution and neuroprotection in neurotraumatic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. The comprehensive information in this monograph will help readers understand molecular cross-talk among mediators of phospholipid, sphingolipid and cholesterol metabolism. The book's goal is to jumpstart more studies on molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic aspects of neurological disorders in human subjects. Discusses the molecular aspects of neuroinflammation, resolution and neuroprotection Examines the role of diet and exercise on neuroinflammatory diseases Provides cutting-edge research on signal transduction processes Explores the treatment of neurological disorders caused by neuroinflammation

The Role of Glycosylation in Health and Disease

The Role of Glycosylation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Gordan Lauc
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-09-26
ISBN : 3030701158
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Role of Glycosylation in Health and Disease book written by Gordan Lauc, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration Neuroprotection and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration  Neuroprotection  and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-07
ISBN : 0128217014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration, Neuroprotection, and Regeneration in Neurological Disorders presents readers with comprehensive and cutting-edge information on the neurochemical mechanisms of various types of neurological disorders. The book covers information on signal transduction processes associated with neurochemistry of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, neurotraumatic, and neuropsychiatric disorders. The book also discusses risk factors, symptoms, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and the potential treatments of neurological disorders. The comprehensive information in this monograph may not only help in early detection of various neurological disorders, but will also promote the discovery of new drugs. Provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular aspects of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuro-regeneration, along with therapeutic strategies for various types of neurological disorders Provides cutting-edge research information on the signal transduction processes associated with the neurochemistry of neurological disorders Discusses risk factors, symptoms, pathogenesis, biomarkers, and the potential for treatments of neurological disorders

Gut Microbiota in Neurologic and Visceral Diseases

Gut Microbiota in Neurologic and Visceral Diseases Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-24
ISBN : 0128210400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gut Microbiota in Neurologic and Visceral Diseases presents readers with comprehensive information on the involvement of microbiota in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Chapters cover the effect of microbiota on the development of visceral (obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease) and neurological disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, depression, anxiety, and autism). Sections focus on the molecular mechanisms and signal transduction processes associated with the links among microbiota-related visceral and neurological disorders. It is hoped that this discussion will not only integrate and consolidate knowledge in this field but will also jumpstart more studies on the involvement of microbiota in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Reviews the relationship between gut microbiome, diseases and disorders Discusses the relationship between diet, microbiota and inflammation Includes neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders Covers diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders Identifies molecular mechanisms and signal transduction processes Encompasses dietary fiber, fat, prebiotics and probiotics

Sterol Regulation of Ion Channels

Sterol Regulation of Ion Channels Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-08-29
ISBN : 0128096209
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sterol Regulation of Ion Channels, Volume 80, the latest in the Current Topics in Membranes series provides outstanding content to the scientific community on relevant topics that relate to the broad field of membranes. Topics of note in this new release include Membrane structure and general mechanisms of sterol regulation of ion channels, the Regulation of ion channels by sterols as boundary lipids, the Differential effects of sterols on ion channels: specific vs. non-specific interactions, the Structural determinants of cholesterol-ion channels interactions, and the Regulation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels by cholesterol and bile acids via distinct channel subunits and sites, amongst other specialized chapters. The serial is targeted towards scientists and researchers in biochemistry and molecular and cellular biology, providing the necessary membrane research to assist them in discovering the current state of a particular field. The authors and editors associated with the Current Topics in Membranes series are recognized as world-renowned scientists in their respective fields, making CTM one of the premier serials on membranes Contains original material, both textual and illustrative, that make it a very relevant reference Presented in a very comprehensive manner Ideal for both researchers in the field and general readers

Molecular Organization of Membranes Where Biology Meets Biophysics

Molecular Organization of Membranes  Where Biology Meets Biophysics Book
Author : Marek Cebecauer,David Holowka
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-02-07
ISBN : 2889454096
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological membranes protect cells and organelles from the surrounding environment, but serve also as organising platforms for physiological processes such as cell signalling. The hydrophobic core of membranes is composed of lipids and proteins influencing each other. Local membrane composition and properties define its molecular organisation and, in this way, regulate the function of all associated molecules. Therefore, studying interactions of components, biophysical properties and overall membrane dynamics provides essential information on its function in the context of cell activities. Such knowledge can contribute to biomedical fields such as pharmacology, immunology, neurobiology and many others. The goal of the Research Topic entitled ‘Molecular organisation of membranes: where biology meets biophysics’ was to provide a comprehensive platform for publishing articles, reviews and opinions focused on membrane organisation and the forces behind its heterogeneous and dynamic structure. We collected 11 works which cover topics as diverse as general membrane organisation models, membrane trafficking and signalling regulation, biogenesis of caveolae, protein-lipid interactions and the importance of membrane-associated tetraspanins networks. The prevalent theme was the existence of membrane nanodomains. To this point, new emerging technologies are presented which own the power to bring a novel insight on how membrane nanodomains are formed and maintained and what is their function. We believe that the collection of works in this Research Topic brings forward some important questions which will stimulate further research in this difficult but exciting field.

Cell and molecular signaling and transport pathways involved in growth factor control of synaptic development and function

Cell and molecular signaling  and transport pathways involved in growth factor control of synaptic development and function Book
Author : Akira Yoshii,Martha Constantine-Paton,Nancy Y. Ip
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-08-31
ISBN : 2889196437
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain derived neurotophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling has been extensively studied for its roles in the central nervous system (CNS) ranging from cell survival, axonal and dendritic growth and synapse formation. Intracellular signaling pathways triggered by BDNF activate gene transcription, translation, post-translational functions, trafficking of key synaptic proteins, and synaptic release mechanism. BDNF-TrkB signaling mediates long-lasting activity-modulated synaptic changes on excitatory and inhibitory neurons and plays significant roles in circuit development and modulation. Furthermore, this pathway is critical for learning, memory, sensory processing and other cognitive functions, and is implicated in neurological and psychiatric diseases. In addition to BDNF, more recent studies have identified new “growth” factors that play important roles in the development, maturation and maintenance and modulation of synaptic function. However, details of the cytoplamic signaling systems downstream of these synaptogenic factors are often less understood than conventional neurotophin signaling. This e-Book has collected original studies and review articles that present cellular and molecular mechanisms concerning activity-dependent synapse formation and their implications for behavior and brain disorders. It is our hope that readers will perceive this volume as a showcase for diversity and complexity of synaptogenic growth factors, and will stimulate further studies in this field.

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-12
ISBN : 0128036168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases. Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders. Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disorders Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage available Provides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 9780128119594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Disease provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of all components of the Mediterranean diet on the brain, along with its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. It covers topics on neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, (PD) Huntington disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also providing information on how cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome become risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. This book focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases as well as signal transduction. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat and processed meat products. High consumption of dietary fiber, low glycemic index and glycemic load, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant compounds may act together to produce favorable effects on health status. Collective evidence suggests that Mediterranean diet not only increases longevity by lowering cardiovascular disease, inhibiting cancer growth, but also by protecting the body from age-dependent cognitive decline. Comprehensively provides an overview of the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the brain and its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases Discusses the relationship among Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease, and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on normal aging, longevity, and other neurodegenerative diseases Focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease

Drosophila Glia

Drosophila Glia Book
Author : LinFang Wang,Honglei Wang,Margaret S. Ho
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2019-03-18
ISBN : 1615047980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glia, the non-neuronal cells in the nervous systems, are both passive and active participants in diverse arrays of neuronal function. The diversity of glial cells in various animal species appears to be correlated with the complexity of brains. In the animal Drosophila melanogaster, glia are similarly categorized to their mammalian counterparts in morphology and function. Surface glia cover the outermost surface of the brain and function as a blood-brain-barrier to protect the nervous system. Cortex glia, similar to mammalian astrocytes, enwrap around the neuronal cell bodies and provide trophic support. Neuropil glia, similar to mammalian astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are closely associated with the synapse-enriched neuropils and regulate synapse formation, synaptic function, and underlie the mechanism of circuit and behavior. This short monograph focuses on Drosophila glia, discusses the classification of different glial subtypes and their developmental origins, and provides an overview of different glial-mediated activity crucial for the development and function of the nervous system. This context serves as a general introduction to the molecular and cellular basis of glial function in normal and pathological brains.