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Bloodstain Pattern Evidence

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence Book
Author : Anita Y. Wonder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-08-29
ISBN : 9780080549712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In Bloodstain Pattern Evidence, the concepts introduced in the author's first book, Blood Dynamics, are updated and applied to provide essential answers in the resolution of actual crimes. The book is accessible to all levels of investigators, regardless of academic background, and allows readers to develop a fundamental understanding of the underlying scientific principles behind bloodstain pattern evidence. Bloodstain Pattern Evidence builds on the fundamental ideas brought about by an understanding of Non-Newtonian dynamics, and illustrates through case work the practical forensic science applications of these principles to the analysis of bloodstain patterns. Extensive case examples provide practical application of essential pattern analysis principles Extensively illustrated with over 350 photos and line drawings Takes a unique and scientific approach to bloodstain pattern analysis by exploring the fundamentals of fluid behavior

Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns Book
Author : Anita Y. Wonder
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-01-07
ISBN : 0124159656
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bloodstain Patterns: Identification, Interpretation and Application combines material from Blood Dynamics (2001) and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence (2007) with updated case work and scientific advances from medical and hard sciences. The text expands coverage of such areas as arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications and problems from both sides of the bench, and extending teaching and training to those outside criminal justice. With violent offenders more aware of crime scene investigation techniques and attempting to frame others, the text expands outdated basic training programs that are insufficient to identify attempts to confuse the investigation. This book clarifies previous understandings as well as bridges the gap toward future advance courses. Based on the work of Paul Leland Kirk, the book’s focus is on first line investigators’ accuracy in identifying specific bloodstain patterns, correctly interpreting and applying them to casework. Combines and updates material from Blood Dynamics and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence into one comprehensive reference Covers new topics, including arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications, and problems from both sides of the bench More than 300 full color photographs, some with line overlays showing the objective criteria which identify patterns

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction Book
Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-04-08
ISBN : 1420052721
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Objective establishment of the truth is the goal of any good crime scene investigator. This demands a consideration of all evidence available using proven scientific methodologies to establish objective snapshots of the crime. The majority of forensic disciplines shed light on thewho of a crime, bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most imp

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Book
Author : Stuart H. James,Paul E. Kish,T. Paulette Sutton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-05-26
ISBN : 1420039466
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bloodstain evidence has become a deciding factor in the outcome of many of the world's most notorious criminal cases. As a result, substantiation of this evidence is crucial to those on either side of the courtroom aisle. The challenge is to obtain an authoritative reference that provides the latest information in a comprehensive and effective manner. Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice presents an in-depth investigation of this important subject matter. A multidisciplinary approach is presented throughout the book that uses scene and laboratory examinations in conjunction with forensic pathology, forensic serology, and chemical enhancement techniques. Emphasis is on a thought process based on taxonomic classification of bloodstains that takes into account their physical characteristics of size, shape, and distribution, and the specific mechanisms that produce them. Individual chapters analyze case studies, with two chapters specifically discussing the details of legal issues as they pertain to bloodstain pattern analysis. Information highlighted throughout the book includes an examination of bloodstained clothing and footwear and information on bloodstain interpretation for crime scene reconstruction. Dramatic color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes are also presented to compliment the technical content of this resource. Features § Provides 500 full color photographs - the first bloodstain pattern book presenting dramatic full color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes § Contains appendices with scientific data that includes trigonometric tables and metric equivalents, as well as crime scene and laboratory check lists, and biohazard safety precautions § Discloses court decisions relating to bloodstain pattern analysis and presumptive blood testing § Written by authors with many years of experience in the field, and features chapters contributed by qualified and respected forensic scientists and attorneys

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Book
Author : Stuart H. James,Paul E. Kish,T. Paulette Sutton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-05-26
ISBN : 9780849320149
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bloodstain evidence has become a deciding factor in the outcome of many of the world's most notorious criminal cases. As a result, substantiation of this evidence is crucial to those on either side of the courtroom aisle. The challenge is to obtain an authoritative reference that provides the latest information in a comprehensive and effective manner. Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice presents an in-depth investigation of this important subject matter. A multidisciplinary approach is presented throughout the book that uses scene and laboratory examinations in conjunction with forensic pathology, forensic serology, and chemical enhancement techniques. Emphasis is on a thought process based on taxonomic classification of bloodstains that takes into account their physical characteristics of size, shape, and distribution, and the specific mechanisms that produce them. Individual chapters analyze case studies, with two chapters specifically discussing the details of legal issues as they pertain to bloodstain pattern analysis. Information highlighted throughout the book includes an examination of bloodstained clothing and footwear and information on bloodstain interpretation for crime scene reconstruction. Dramatic color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes are also presented to compliment the technical content of this resource. Features § Provides 500 full color photographs - the first bloodstain pattern book presenting dramatic full color images of bloodletting injuries, bloodstains, and crime scenes § Contains appendices with scientific data that includes trigonometric tables and metric equivalents, as well as crime scene and laboratory check lists, and biohazard safety precautions § Discloses court decisions relating to bloodstain pattern analysis and presumptive blood testing § Written by authors with many years of experience in the field, and features chapters contributed by qualified and respected forensic scientists and attorneys

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation Book
Author : Stuart H. James
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-02-06
ISBN : 1351417525
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since 1955 when Dr. Paul Kirk first presented a bloodstain evidence affidavit in State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard, expert testimony on bloodstain interpretation has gained wide acceptance in U.S. courts. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation brings together some of the most respected and noted experts in forensic science, the law, and bloodstain interpretation to provide a comprehensive overview of the discipline. It discusses research, applications, and the current view of bloodstain pattern interpretation within the legal system at the trial and appellate court levels, as well as scientific approaches and developments in the field. Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation will help attorneys who are questioning and cross-examining expert witnesses have a good working knowledge of bloodstain interpretation. Included is a full-color atlas of bloodstains, in conjunction with a glossary of terms and an outline of basic laboratory experiments that are commonly used in the discipline. Among the outstanding contributions in this volume you will find: An excellent chapter by Carol Henderson discusses the legal and ethical aspects of bloodstain pattern evidence in detail. A post-conviction analysis by Marie Elena Saccoccio evaluates how bloodstain evidence can play a role in the appeal process. Misinterpretation and overinterpretation of bloodstain evidence can occur in our courts of law-be prepared to effectively analyze the evidence and the testimony with Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation.

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook

Crime Scene Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Workbook Book
Author : N. Leroy Parker
Publisher : Author House
Release : 2014-01
ISBN : 1491848219
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This workbook is designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in documenting bloodstained patterns that are located at the crime scene or on bloodstained items that are submitted for an analysis. It is also designed to assist the Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator in reconstructing or analyzing a bloodstained crime scene or a bloodstained item for which a bloodstain pattern analysis is requested The documentation could be accomplished with overall, midrange photographs and close-up photographs with 2, 3 or 6 centimeter stick-on tapes that should be placed in the center of each rectangular area. The documentation should also consist of notes and rough sketches with measurements. The close-up photographs of the rectangular areas with the 2, 3 or 6 inches stick-on tapes that were placed in the center of those areas should be taken with a parallel film /camera plane. The stick-on tapes should be labeled according to the surface on which they would be placed. Example: West wall of living room #1 (ww of lr #1) and west wall of living room #2 (ww of lr #2) etc. The number of close-up photographs would be determined by the number of rectangular areas with the stick-on tapes. Example: At least ten (10) close-up photographs should be taken if ten (10) stick-on tapes were placed on the bloodstained surface. The bloodstain pattern reconstruction or analysis should be done by first recognizing and or identifying the many different types of patterns in a bloodstained scene or on a bloody item. The next step should involve the reconstruction of the points or areas of convergence and origin and then a determination of how the other patterns were most likely created. The workbook contains several tasks and assignments that would provide the student with the tools to accomplish the documentation and analysis. The Crime Scene Analyst, Technician or Investigator after successfully completing the workbook / workshop should be aware that: 1.0 Single drops of blood in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the surface from which the blood fell (the volume); the diameter, the shape, the impact angle, the scalloping of the perimeter and the direction of travel of the dropped blood that impacted the target surface (the volume, the height from which the blood fell, the texture of the target surface on which the blood fell, the angle of the targeted bloodstained surface and the horizontal speed of the source that issued the blood). 2.0 Numerous drops of blood in the same pattern in a crime scene or on an item were influenced by the force or the impact (less than 25 feet per second - dropped blood and cast-off bloodstain); (25 to 100 feet per second - medium velocity bloodstain); (over 100 feet per second - high velocity bloodstain); projected blood (arterial bleeding); transfer of blood from one object to another (contact or transfer bloodstains, imprint bloodstains, smears or swipes and wipes); large volumes of blood (splashed or pooled blood) 3.0 The reconstruction or analysis of the points or areas of origin could be determined by strings, scaled drawings or calculations. The interpretation of the other patterns (non impact) along with the Medical Examiner's autopsy report should allow the crime scene analyst, technician or Investigator to complete a bloodstain pattern analysis report and if possible explain and or testify to the sequence of events that occurred at the crime scene.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction Third Edition

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction  Third Edition Book
Author : Tom Bevel,Ross M. Gardner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-04-08
ISBN : 9781420052688
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Objective establishment of the truth is the goal of any good crime scene investigator. This demands a consideration of all evidence available using proven scientific methodologies to establish objective snapshots of the crime. The majority of forensic disciplines shed light on the “who” of a crime, bloodstain pattern analysis is one of the most important disciplines to address “what” happened. Understanding the discipline, its underlying scientific basis, and how best to apply this knowledge is crucial in the investigator’s quest for the truth. Internationally known experts in crime scene analysis, Tom Bevel and Ross M. Gardner explore bloodstain pattern analysis in depth, explaining what it is, how it is used, and the practical methodologies employed to achieve defensible results. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction, Third Edition: Presents a specific and detailed taxonomy of bloodstain pattern characteristics Offers a full-color fold-out Decision Map to guide analysts through the classification process Uses full-color photos and diagrams to illustrate concepts Describes the theory, principles, and methodology for crime scene reconstruction Details proven, applicable scientific methodologies Emphasizes observable and reproducible results to mitigate accusations of subjectivity in evidence and testimony Provides more than 60% new or significantly revised information Offering practical advice and tips for novices and experienced professionals, this book employs clear, lucid, and reasoned scientific arguments to provide the tools to guide and focus any investigative effort. Captain Tom Bevel is a 27-year veteran of the Oklahoma City Police Department, retiring in 1996 as Commander of the Homicide, Robbery, Missing Persons, and Unsolved Homicide units. He is held in high esteem as a qualified expert in crime scene reconstruction and bloodstain pattern analysis in state, federal, and foreign courts. His knowledge and expertise as a crime scene consultant has been sought after in 45 US states and 11 foreign countries. He owns a forensic education and consulting company in his home state of Oklahoma. Ross M. Gardner retired as a Command Sergeant Major and Special Agent in 1999 after serving a total of 24 years in US Army law enforcement. Certified by the International Association for Identification as a Senior Crime Analyst for the past 16 years, Gardner is an active instructor and consultant throughout the United States in crime scene analysis, bloodstain pattern analysis, and crime scene investigation.

Canadian Society of Forensic Science journal

Canadian Society of Forensic Science journal Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Canadian Society of Forensic Science journal book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Book
Author : Jennifer Paige Saifi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781267969590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) has traditionally involved qualitative characterizations that rely primarily on the visual aspects of a particular stain. Because of this reliance on visual assessment, BPA has been criticized for perceived subjectivity, lack of scientific support, and susceptibility to context bias. One major source of controversy involves the differentiation between so-called "medium velocity" and "high velocity" patterns, the legacy terminology often associated with stains generated by blunt instrument and gunshot impacts respectively. Despite the clear forensic value in assessing the type of impact that generated a particular spatter pattern, the controversy surrounding this differentiation has led most analysts to avoid such assessments. To date, no data or guidelines exist to specify under what conditions medium or high velocity bloodstain patterns can be reliably identified. In this work, we present a double-blind investigation of the error rates associated with identification of impact velocity based on visual assessments of bloodstain patterns. Two cohorts of individuals, ten highly trained BPA analysts and ten forensic science graduate students, both visually assessed the same set of 100 bloodstain patterns created in a controlled environment with known impact velocities and target distances; in this manner, we investigated the accuracy of 2,000 unique bloodstain pattern assessments. We find that the "high velocity" patterns generated by gunshot were identified with high accuracy, yielding an error rate of only 0.21% amongst the trained BPA analysts. In contrast, the "medium velocity" patterns generated by blunt instrument impacts were much more problematic, yielding analyst error rates as high as 38%. We demonstrate that it is statistically more likely for the blunt instrument spatter patterns to be incorrectly identified as "high velocity" bloodstains when there is a preponderance of small drops located near the pattern's center, thus mimicking one of the key visual cues for a high velocity pattern. Moreover, we find that the respondents had on average a 30% probability of unknowingly changing their assessment when presented with the same medium velocity pattern simply rotated 180 degrees, indicating that the error rates had a significant stochastic aspect. Our findings suggest that great caution should be exercised when assessing the impact velocity for a spatter pattern in the absence of secondary indicia, and highlight the need for more objective criteria for interpreting bloodstain spatter patterns.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Crime Scenarios

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Crime Scenarios Book
Author : Kacper Choromanski
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-01-13
ISBN : 9813344288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces the core concepts of bloodstain pattern analysis that help to understand and make independent contributions to crime scenes accurately. It presents a bridge between new research results and the practical work field of crime scene investigation in bloodstain pattern analysis, by showing and detailing reports of two different scenarios. The scenarios presented have an extensive description of gathered evidence and are diversified with real crime scene photography and sketches. This kind of case report is rare in scientific books, but the author, as a researcher, has permission from the authorities to present the cases. The book finally concludes with the main problems of modern bloodstain pattern analysis and discusses the way forward.

Investigating the Quantitative Characteristics of Drip Bloodstain Patterns Construction of a Novel Brachial Artery Device

Investigating the Quantitative Characteristics of Drip Bloodstain Patterns   Construction of a Novel Brachial Artery Device Book
Author : Stacey Dillon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last three decades, several high-profile exonerations have shattered the individualisation fallacy of the traditional feature-comparison forensic sciences. These cases exposed severe shortcomings in the scientific reliability and validity of the pattern evidence disciplines and prompted a fundamental shift in the paradigm of the pattern evidence disciplines—including bloodstain pattern analysis. In order for the discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis to successfully shift its approach from subjective to objective methodologies, quantitative data from high-quality and reliable empirical research is needed. In this work, a collection of drip bloodstain patterns was generated for a range of droplet fall heights, number of droplets applied to the impact site and distances between the impact site and vertical targets. The data derived from image analyses of the generated patterns indicated imposed variation in these parameters influenced the quantitative characteristics of the resulting drip patterns, with differences observed in the stain number, size, distribution and shape. Accordingly, this thesis makes a significant and original contribution towards quantification of drip bloodstain patterns and the parameters that govern their appearance. Furthermore, this thesis contains material concerning the development and testing of a brachial artery device for the purposes of generating arterial spurt patterns resembling those observed in casework. A limited number of patterns created during preliminary attempts at validation suggested the device was capable of producing different spurt-like patterns through modification of its individual components. Additionally, these patterns were found to resemble bloodstain patterns from crime scenes classified by analysts as resulting from arteriallyprojected mechanisms.

Scientific Evidence

Scientific Evidence Book
Author : Paul C. Giannelli
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Scientific Evidence book written by Paul C. Giannelli, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Bloodstain Patterns

Bloodstain Patterns Book
Author : Herbert Leon MacDonell
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Bloodstain Patterns book written by Herbert Leon MacDonell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Proceedings of the Annual Conference Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

Proceedings of the     Annual Conference  Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Book
Author : Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the Annual Conference Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies book written by Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

What are the Features of a Bloodstain Pattern

 What are the Features of a Bloodstain Pattern   Book
Author : Ravishka Marishi Arthur
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discipline of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is founded on the visual evaluation of the diagnostic properties of bloodstain patterns and an interpretation of the mechanistic cause(s) leading up to their deposition at scenes of violent crime. The lack of objective bloodstain pattern measures and the often subjective opinions of bloodstain pattern analysts are among some of the main criticisms of the discipline. It is also argued, that the process of characterising the main properties of a bloodstain pattern is tantamount to assigning a cause to the bloodstain pattern. These persisting issues reflect the dire need for an established and discipline-standard BPA methodology. In light of this, an argument exists for the development of a completely new method of bloodstain pattern characterisation, that is based on objective and measurable pattern features. In this thesis, it is proposed that leveraging on technology could potentially assist with the development of specific solutions to problems associated with the interpretation of bloodstain patterns. To that end, the role of digital image-processing, eye tracking technology and pattern recognition were each considered in three important areas of bloodstain pattern characterisation. These areas were: data collection, understanding the mindset of the BPA analyst and the development of an automated bloodstain pattern recognition system. One of the major outcomes of this research, and an original contribution to the discipline, is the validation of an automated system capable of distinguishing bloodstain patterns. This system is fundamentally reliant on the extraction of bloodstain pattern features. Upto now, this has remained a process confined to the opinions and subjective experience of a bloodstain pattern analyst. These features, based on common spatter bloodstain pattern properties, were extracted using a comprehensive image-processing methodology. It is noteworthy to mention that this thesis provides a unique insight into the mindset of the bloodstain pattern analyst. To do this, eye tracking technology was used to capture the viewing behaviour of BPA analysts during a pattern classification task. The eye tracking study demonstrated that BPA analysts tend to focus greater attention on distinct regions of a bloodstain pattern. It is shown that these regions may reflect properties that are crucial in forming a pattern classification. An understanding of the properties as they related to these diagnostic regions formed an important outcome of this study. Overall, this research exposes the immense possibilities that technology could contribute to improving objectivity and consistency in the discipline.

The Assassination Chronicles

The Assassination Chronicles Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Dr Henry Lee s Forensic Files

Dr  Henry Lee s Forensic Files Book
Author : Henry C. Lee,Jerry Labriola
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Resource added for the Criminal Justice - Law Enforcement 105046 and Professional Studies 105045 programs.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Book
Author : Sonya Ching-Ying Siu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781267969736
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) provides significant evidentiary value in crime scene interpretation and reconstruction, but many aspects of BPA are controversial due to the heavy reliance on qualitative and subjective interpretation. For example, the differentiation between so-called "medium" and "high" velocity impact spatter patterns - legacy terminology typically associated with blunt instrument and gunshot impacts, respectively - has traditionally relied on visual assessment of the average drop size in the pattern. Because this methodology is subjective and susceptible to context bias, most BPA organizations recommend against even attempting to describe the velocity that creates a spatter pattern, despite the clear forensic value of such determinations in crime scene interpretation. In this work, we develop a quantitative methodology using digital image analysis techniques to differentiate medium and high velocity impact spatter patterns in an objective manner. Bloodstain spatter patterns were created under controlled conditions by impacting either blunt instruments or bullets into blood-soaked sponges. The impact velocities were determined using high-speed video, and the resulting spatter patterns were digitally imaged at high resolution then analyzed using custom image analysis algorithms. Our analysis of 72 unique spatter patterns, comprising more than 490,000 individual droplets, indicates that the mean drop size in a gunshot spatter pattern is at most 30% smaller than the mean drop size in blunt instrument patterns. In contrast, we demonstrate that the spatially-dependent size distribution of droplets - i.e. drop sizes as a function of position in the pattern - significantly differs between bullet and blunt instrument patterns, with a spatially-dependent metric as much as 400% larger for bullet impacts. Our findings suggest that quantitative metrics involving the spatial distribution of droplets within a spatter pattern can be useful for objective differentiation between blunt instrument and gunshot spatter patterns.

Bloodstain Size Shape and Formation

Bloodstain Size  Shape and Formation Book
Author : Mark Reynolds
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

[Truncated abstract] Bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are some of the most common forms of physical evidence encountered during the forensic investigation of incidents involving violence against a person. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline that integrates these physical evidence records into complex forensic matrices with a view to offering reconstructive dialogue on events where blood has been shed. Whilst fingerprint or DNA analysis can supply information on "who" may have been involved in a violent event, BPA can provide information on "how" they were involved. Impact spatter patterns are formed when force applied to a source of blood results in the distribution of small blood droplets through the air that subsequently land on adjacent surfaces. Using a fundamental mathematical relationship that exists between the length and width axis of these spattered bloodstains and the angle at which the blood droplet impacted the surface, it is possible to determine within a 3D spatial context the location of the contributing blood source. The level of confidence that can be held in any such blood source determination is dependant upon two criteria; selection of the most physically appropriate bloodstains; being those caused by fast upward moving droplets, and the accurate measurement of those bloodstains selected. ... Following the analysis of bloodstains created by small droplets falling vertically onto angled surfaces and spatter deposited on vertical surfaces following an impact to a blood source, an apparent shift in the relative influence of inertia, surface tension and viscosity on the formation of small bloodstains was detected. As the angle of droplet-surface impact angle became increasingly oblique vi (