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Black Liquor Gasification

Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Pratima Bajpai
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-03-06
ISBN : 0081000154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) is a first of its kind to guide chemical engineers, students, operators of paper plants, technocrats, and entrepreneurs on practical guidelines and a holistic techno-enviro-economic perspective applicable to their future or existing projects based on the treatment of black liquor for energy production. BLG describes the gasification process as a more efficient alternative to current processes for the conversion of black liquor biomass into energy. BLG operates largely in sync with other methods to improve pulp-making efficiency. This book explains how BLG offers a way to generate electricity and to reclaim pulping chemicals from black liquor, and why BLG would replace the Tomlinson recovery boiler for the recovery of spent chemicals and energy. Describes the utilization of black liquor as a source of energy Provides a detailed account of black liquor gasification processes for the production of energy and chemicals from black liquor Provides guidelines to chemical engineers for the treatment of black liquor

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the pulp and paper industry, black liquor gasification (BLG) can enable the recovery of pulping chemicals and production of syngas from the spent liquor accumulated in the pulping process. The syngas can be converted to value-added fuels, chemicals, and electricity, helping to boost the economics of the pulp mill.

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in better distribution of liquor in the reactor.

Gasification

Gasification Book
Author : Christopher Higman,Maarten van der Burgt
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-08-30
ISBN : 9780080560908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification is a process that if properly utilized can transform the world in which we live. Comprehensive in its coverage, this second edition continues the tradition of the first by providing engineers and scientists with an up-to-date overview of commercial processes and applications relevant to today's demands. Gasification, 2nd edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO2 capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term "CO2 capture ready" might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. All statistics, processes and projects, including descriptions of a number of processes not covered in the previous edition. *Up-to-date overview of commercial processes *Covers applications relevant to today's demands *Addresses the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting *Provides more detail on the integration issues for Integrated Gasification

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Christopher Michael Young
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper industry. Gasification of black liquor offers the possibility of higher thermal efficiencies than combustion, reducing manufacturing costs and creating new revenue streams through a forest biorefinery. Pressurizing the gasification reactor further enhances the efficiency advantage of gasification over combustion. This study uses a pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR) to study black liquor gasification behavior under pressures, temperatures, and heating rates similar to those of next-generation high-temperature black liquor gasifiers. The effects of pressure on black liquor char morphology, gasification rates, pyrolysis carbon yields, and sulfur phase distribution were studied. These characteristics were investigated in three main groups of experiments at 900oC: pyrolysis (100% N2), gasification with constant partial pressure (0.25 bar H2O and 0.50 bar CO2), and gasification with constant mole fraction (10% CO2, 2% H2O, 1.7% CO, 0.3% H2), under five, ten, and fifteen bar total pressure. It was found that pressure had an impact on the char physical characteristics immediately after the char entered the reactor. Increasing pressure had the effect of decreasing the porosity of the chars. Pressure also affected particle destruction and reagglomeration mechanisms. Surface areas of gasification chars decreased with increasing pressures, but only at low carbon conversions. The rate of carbon conversion in gasification was shown to be a function of the gas composition near the particle, with higher levels of inhibiting gases slowing carbon conversion. The same phenomenon of product gas inhibition observed in gasification was used to explain carbon conversions in pyrolysis reactions. Sulfur distribution between condensed and gas phases was unaffected by increasing total pressure in the residence times investigated. Significant amounts of sulfur are lost during initial devolatilization. With water present this gas phase sulfur forms H2S and did not return to the condensed phase.

Energy Research at DOE

Energy Research at DOE Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2001-12-12
ISBN : 0309074487
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In legislation appropriating funds for DOE's fiscal year (FY) 2000 energy R&D budget, the House Interior Appropriations Subcommittee directed an evaluation of the benefits that have accrued to the nation from the R&D conducted since 1978 in DOE's energy efficiency and fossil energy programs. In response to the congressional charge, the National Research Council formed the Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy. From its inception, DOE's energy R&D program has been the subject of many outside evaluations. The present evaluation asks whether the benefits of the program have justified the considerable expenditure of public funds since DOE's formation in 1977, and, unlike earlier evaluations, it takes a comprehensive look at the actual outcomes of DOE's research over two decades.

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping Process Simulation Economics and Potential Benefits

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping    Process Simulation  Economics and Potential Benefits Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The continuous efforts made in the area of black liquor gasification (BLG) are bringing this technology closer to commercial realization and potential wide-spread implementation. Research exploring the integration of BLG into the kraft process and the potential of BLG enabled modified pulping technologies on modern pulping operations is important to support this effort. The following effort is focused on such research, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. The implementation of gasification, functioning as the core of wood pulping recovery operations in a biorefinery, would enable the application of modified pulping technologies while creating a synthetic product gas that could be utilized in the production of value added products in addition to wood pulp. The evaluated modified pulping technologies have indicated the potential of yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLG.

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

Conceptual Design of a Black Liquor Gasification Pilot Plant

Conceptual Design of a Black Liquor Gasification Pilot Plant Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers Quarterly Report Phase 1a

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers  Quarterly Report  Phase 1a Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

Pulsed Combustion Process for Black Liquor Gasification

Pulsed Combustion Process for Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H2S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

Black Liquor Gasification

Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Gunnar Modig
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9789188360762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Black Liquor Gasification book written by Gunnar Modig, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Industrial Environmental Management

Industrial Environmental Management Book
Author : Tapas K. Das
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-01-23
ISBN : 1119591554
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides aspiring engineers with pertinent information and technological methodologies on how best to manage industry's modern-day environment concerns This book explains why industrial environmental management is important to human environmental interactions and describes what the physical, economic, social, and technological constraints to achieving the goal of a sustainable environment are. It emphasizes recent progress in life-cycle sustainable design, applying green engineering principles and the concept of Zero Effect Zero Defect to minimize wastes and discharges from various manufacturing facilities. Its goal is to educate engineers on how to obtain an optimum balance between environmental protections, while allowing humans to maintain an acceptable quality of life. Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy covers topics such as industrial wastes, life cycle sustainable design, lean manufacturing, international environmental regulations, and the assessment and management of health and environmental risks. The book also looks at the economics of manufacturing pollution prevention; how eco-industrial parks and process intensification will help minimize waste; and the application of green manufacturing principles in order to minimize wastes and discharges from manufacturing facilities. Provides end-of-chapter questions along with a solutions manual for adopting professors Covers a wide range of interdisciplinary areas that makes it suitable for different branches of engineering such as wastewater management and treatment; pollutant sampling; health risk assessment; waste minimization; lean manufacturing; and regulatory information Shows how industrial environmental management is connected to areas like sustainable engineering, sustainable manufacturing, social policy, and more Contains theory, applications, and real-world problems along with their solutions Details waste recovery systems Industrial Environmental Management: Engineering, Science, and Policy is an ideal textbook for junior and senior level students in multidisciplinary engineering fields such as chemical, civil, environmental, and petroleum engineering. It will appeal to practicing engineers seeking information about sustainable design principles and methodology.

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping Book
Author : Mathias Erik Vilhelm Lindstrom
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Keywords: pulping, polysulfide, black liquor, simulation, gasification, wingems, split sulfidity.

Pulp and Paper Industry

Pulp and Paper Industry Book
Author : Pratima Bajpai
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-08-26
ISBN : 0128111046
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Recovery examines the scientific and technical advances that have been made in chemical recovery, including the very latest developments. It looks at general aspects of the chemical recovery process and its significance, black liquor evaporation, black liquor combustion, white liquor preparation, and lime reburning. The book also describes the technologies for chemical recovery of nonwood black liquor, as well as direct alkali regeneration systems in small pulp mills. In addition, it includes a discussion of alternative chemical recovery processes, i.e. alternative causticization and gasification processes, and the progress being made in the recovery of filler, coating color, and pigments. Furthermore, it discusses the utilization of new value streams (fuels and chemicals) from residuals and spent pulping liquor, including related environmental challenges. Offers thorough and in-depth coverage of scientific and technical advances in chemical recovery in pulp making Discusses alternative chemical recovery processes, i.e., alternative causticization and gasification processes Covers the progress being made in the recovery of filler, coating color, and pigments Examines utilization of new value streams (fuels and chemicals) from residuals and spent pulping liquor Discusses environmental challenges (air emissions, mill closure) Presents ways in which the economics, energy efficiency, and environmental protection associated with the recovery process can be improved

Mill Integration Pulping Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

Mill Integration Pulping  Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R & D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H2S) and sodium (as Na2CO3) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na2CO3 which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na2S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na2S is partly or fully converted to Na2CO3. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO2 based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na2CO3 to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na2CO3 to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO2 (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ((less-than or equal to) 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ((less-than or equal to) 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Integration of the Mini Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone MSS AQ Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

Integration of the Mini Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone  MSS AQ  Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry's energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove> 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process. The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of the MSSAQ technology with ZnO absorbtion will become acceptable to the paper industry.

Gasification of Unconventional Feedstocks

Gasification of Unconventional Feedstocks Book
Author : James G. Speight
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2014-01-03
ISBN : 0128000899
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

World gasification capacity is expected to grow by more than 70% by 2015. While gasification is not a new process, the higher price in crude has lead operators and refineries to look at all possible coal-based technologies for energy conversion, and with the flow of heavy oil, tar sands and other unconventional feedstocks making their way to the refineries for processing, refinery managers and engineers alike must be made aware of how to process these uncommon energy sources. Gasification of Unconventional Feedstocks addresses these unfamiliar feeds and provides a quick and up-to-date reference on the background, process technology and downstream applications required to help refineries maximize profits turning low-value feedstock to beneficial syngas and other fuel products. Clear and comprehensive, Gasification of Unconventional Feedstocks provides engineers and refinery managers with the tools needed to quickly adapt to the more unconventional feedstocks and still maximize their refineries potential. Get up to speed on how to adjust your refinery's processing to unconventional feedstocks Understand the technology necessary to safely and effectively manage unfamiliar feeds Turn low-value product to profit quickly with must-have tips and rules of thumb

Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies

Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Book
Author : CAJ Paulson
Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING
Release : 2001-04-23
ISBN : 0643105727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The control of greenhouse gas emissions continues to be a major global problem. It is inter-disciplinary, both in substance and approach, and covers technical, political and economic issues involving governments, industry and the scientific community. These proceedings contain 220 papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-5) held in August 2000 at Cairns, Queensland, Australia. The papers cover the capture of carbon dioxide, geological storage of carbon dioxide, ocean storage of carbon dioxide, storage of carbon dioxide with enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, utilisation of carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, fuel cells, alternative energy carriers, energy efficiency, life cycle assessments and energy modelling, economics, international and national policy, trading and accounting policy, social and community issues, and reducing emission from industry and power generation.