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Black Liquor Gasification

Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Pratima Bajpai
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-03-06
ISBN : 0081000154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) is a first of its kind to guide chemical engineers, students, operators of paper plants, technocrats, and entrepreneurs on practical guidelines and a holistic techno-enviro-economic perspective applicable to their future or existing projects based on the treatment of black liquor for energy production. BLG describes the gasification process as a more efficient alternative to current processes for the conversion of black liquor biomass into energy. BLG operates largely in sync with other methods to improve pulp-making efficiency. This book explains how BLG offers a way to generate electricity and to reclaim pulping chemicals from black liquor, and why BLG would replace the Tomlinson recovery boiler for the recovery of spent chemicals and energy. Describes the utilization of black liquor as a source of energy Provides a detailed account of black liquor gasification processes for the production of energy and chemicals from black liquor Provides guidelines to chemical engineers for the treatment of black liquor

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in better distribution of liquor in the reactor.

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping Process Simulation Economics and Potential Benefits

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping    Process Simulation  Economics and Potential Benefits Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The continuous efforts made in the area of black liquor gasification (BLG) are bringing this technology closer to commercial realization and potential wide-spread implementation. Research exploring the integration of BLG into the kraft process and the potential of BLG enabled modified pulping technologies on modern pulping operations is important to support this effort. The following effort is focused on such research, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. The implementation of gasification, functioning as the core of wood pulping recovery operations in a biorefinery, would enable the application of modified pulping technologies while creating a synthetic product gas that could be utilized in the production of value added products in addition to wood pulp. The evaluated modified pulping technologies have indicated the potential of yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLG.

Pulsed Combustion Process for Black Liquor Gasification

Pulsed Combustion Process for Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H2S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Christopher Michael Young
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper industry. Gasification of black liquor offers the possibility of higher thermal efficiencies than combustion, reducing manufacturing costs and creating new revenue streams through a forest biorefinery. Pressurizing the gasification reactor further enhances the efficiency advantage of gasification over combustion. This study uses a pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR) to study black liquor gasification behavior under pressures, temperatures, and heating rates similar to those of next-generation high-temperature black liquor gasifiers. The effects of pressure on black liquor char morphology, gasification rates, pyrolysis carbon yields, and sulfur phase distribution were studied. These characteristics were investigated in three main groups of experiments at 900oC: pyrolysis (100% N2), gasification with constant partial pressure (0.25 bar H2O and 0.50 bar CO2), and gasification with constant mole fraction (10% CO2, 2% H2O, 1.7% CO, 0.3% H2), under five, ten, and fifteen bar total pressure. It was found that pressure had an impact on the char physical characteristics immediately after the char entered the reactor. Increasing pressure had the effect of decreasing the porosity of the chars. Pressure also affected particle destruction and reagglomeration mechanisms. Surface areas of gasification chars decreased with increasing pressures, but only at low carbon conversions. The rate of carbon conversion in gasification was shown to be a function of the gas composition near the particle, with higher levels of inhibiting gases slowing carbon conversion. The same phenomenon of product gas inhibition observed in gasification was used to explain carbon conversions in pyrolysis reactions. Sulfur distribution between condensed and gas phases was unaffected by increasing total pressure in the residence times investigated. Significant amounts of sulfur are lost during initial devolatilization. With water present this gas phase sulfur forms H2S and did not return to the condensed phase.

Conceptual Design of a Black Liquor Gasification Pilot Plant

Conceptual Design of a Black Liquor Gasification Pilot Plant Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kinetics of Autocausticization Using Borates in a Black Liquor Gasification Process

Kinetics of Autocausticization Using Borates in a Black Liquor Gasification Process Book
Author : Daniel Gershon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The path of research in the pulp and paper industry is heading towards the elimination of the lime cycle, which requires large amounts of energy, and changing the conventional recovery boiler system to a gasification process that will reduce the possibility of smelt water explosions while meeting future environmental regulations. Research has been carried out on both gasification processes and on causticizing processes that can replace or complement the lime cycle, however very little research has gone into the actual kinetics of causticization using black liquor in gasification processes. This research project fills in some of the missing knowledge in the area of kinetics of autocausticization reactions, which entails the use of borates as the autocausticizing agent. A temperature dependent kinetic model coupled with a mass transfer coefficient has been developed and compared to experimental data.

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Scott Alan Sinquefield
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Gasification

Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This project is evaluating advanced pulping technologies which fully utilize the white liquors produced by the tocombined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor.

Modeling of Sulfate Reduction in an Entrained flow Black Liquor Gasifier

Modeling of Sulfate Reduction in an Entrained flow Black Liquor Gasifier Book
Author : Narongsak Jivakanun
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Black liquor gasification is one of the promising alternatives to eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional recovery unit of the kraft process. A numerical model has been developed to simulate an industrial pilot scale entrained-flow gasifier currently operating at Tampere, Finland. The objective of the model is to investigate the effect of the key operating parameters on the efficiency of sulfate reduction during black liquor gasification. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicates that reduction is dependent of the ratio of the amount of carbon in black liquor to the amount of air being fed into the system, the reactor temperature and the initial particle size. Decreasing the air ratio can improve the efficiency of reduction. The rates of both reduction and carbon gasification increase with increasing in temperature. Higher reduction can be obtained by increasing the initial particle size. However, the values of those parameters need to be optimized based on the desired degree of sulfate reduction and the completion of carbon conversion. Economic considerations such as the length of the gasifier needed to achieve both high reduction efficiency and carbon conversion also need to be considered when selecting operating conditions.

Mill Integration Pulping Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

Mill Integration Pulping  Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R & D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H2S) and sodium (as Na2CO3) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na2CO3 which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na2S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na2S is partly or fully converted to Na2CO3. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO2 based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na2CO3 to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na2CO3 to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO2 (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ((less-than or equal to) 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ((less-than or equal to) 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Black Liquor Gasification Phase 2D Final Report

Black Liquor Gasification Phase 2D Final Report Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping

Integrating Black Liquor Gasification with Pulping Book
Author : Mathias Erik Vilhelm Lindstrom
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Keywords: pulping, polysulfide, black liquor, simulation, gasification, wingems, split sulfidity.

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers Quarterly Report Phase 1a

High solids Black Liquor Firing in Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Boilers  Quarterly Report  Phase 1a Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

Black Liquor Gasification

Black Liquor Gasification Book
Author : Gunnar Modig
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9789188360762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Black Liquor Gasification book written by Gunnar Modig, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pulp and Paper Industry

Pulp and Paper Industry Book
Author : Pratima Bajpai
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-08-26
ISBN : 0128111046
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Recovery examines the scientific and technical advances that have been made in chemical recovery, including the very latest developments. It looks at general aspects of the chemical recovery process and its significance, black liquor evaporation, black liquor combustion, white liquor preparation, and lime reburning. The book also describes the technologies for chemical recovery of nonwood black liquor, as well as direct alkali regeneration systems in small pulp mills. In addition, it includes a discussion of alternative chemical recovery processes, i.e. alternative causticization and gasification processes, and the progress being made in the recovery of filler, coating color, and pigments. Furthermore, it discusses the utilization of new value streams (fuels and chemicals) from residuals and spent pulping liquor, including related environmental challenges. Offers thorough and in-depth coverage of scientific and technical advances in chemical recovery in pulp making Discusses alternative chemical recovery processes, i.e., alternative causticization and gasification processes Covers the progress being made in the recovery of filler, coating color, and pigments Examines utilization of new value streams (fuels and chemicals) from residuals and spent pulping liquor Discusses environmental challenges (air emissions, mill closure) Presents ways in which the economics, energy efficiency, and environmental protection associated with the recovery process can be improved

Integration of the Mini Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone MSS AQ Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

Integration of the Mini Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone  MSS AQ  Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry's energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove> 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process. The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of the MSSAQ technology with ZnO absorbtion will become acceptable to the paper industry.

                                     Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1973
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.